Skip to main content

Full text of "Selma: her institutions, and her men"

See other formats


Book- ^AV\ V' 



/ 



SELMA; 



HER .INSTITUTIONS 



HER MEN 



B^' JOHN HARDY 



SELMA, ALA.: 

TIMES BOOK AND JOB OFFICE, 

1879. 



CiaXj7 c& 00.9 

■T77"iLolesa,le axid. 22,eta,iLl 

DRTJaaiSTS, 

^Dealers iaa. 

Pure Drugs, Paints, Oils, &c. 

./\. 1^-a.ll Stools of 

^^-Burn our 150 test KEROSENE OIL, the safest and most brilliant 
in the market. 




JLr JilLa "ell u i.^i 
^3 Broa-d. Street, - Selzxia, .^^la., 

—DEALER IN — 

Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, 

Fine Toilet Soaps, Hair and Tooth Brushes, Perfumery and Fancy Articles' 
Trusses, Braces, and Druggists' Sundries generally, I'aints, Oils, 
Glass, Putty and Dye Stuffs. Physicians' Prescrip- 
tions carefully compounded. 
Pure Wines and Liquors for Medicinal purposes. Cigars, Blank Books, Paper, 
Pens, Pencils, &c. 

H. DeLURY, 

DEALER IN 

LEMONS, ORANGES, S.moking and Chewing Tobacco, 

COCOANUTS, RAISINS, CIGARS AND PIPES, 

ONIONS, POTATOES, Also, 

CABBAGE, CORNED BEEF, Bkoom and Willow Ware. 

CHEESE, BUTTER, EGGS.&C. 

IPine -A-pple Oid.er a Specia,lt3r- 



is/T^i' 



Miuiufacturer of and Dealer in 



^jJi-i^ 



Saddles, . ^^W^^Tr^ 



Harness, ^ 
Bridles, 









■tml 



.£i.1^.£^1^-^~1>JL.£^ S'X"iaEE:T. 



Saddlery 

, Hardware, 

Saddle Bags^ &.C, 

SELMA, ALA. 



SELMA; 



HER INSTITUTIONS, 



AND 



HER MEN. 



BY JOHN HARDY. 



.-poK^^^c 




SELMA, ALA.; 
TIMES BOOK AND JOB OFFICE (T. J. APPLEYABD, MANAQEB), 

1879. 



Y^v;^ 



Entered according to Act of Congi-ess, in 1879, by 

JOHN HARDY, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 






PREFACE. 



In the compilation of this work the author has endeavored 
to put together all the important incidents in the rise and 
growth of our city worthy of preservation, so as to make it 
truly a full and complete History of " Selma — Her Institutions 
and Her Men." 

From one or two log houses in 1815 to that of a populous 
and wealthy city in 1879— a period of only fifty years— seemed 
to require a work of the kind, and under this impression, the 
author undertook the task, believing the people and the friends 
of the city would sustain the effort. 

We have been materially aided by a number of citizens, in 
our efforts to collect facts ; among whom we will specially 
mention Col. John W. Lapsley, Wm. J. Norris, Mrs. Caroline 
Ferguson, Gen. John F. Conoley, Dr. C. J, Clark, Col. B. M. 
Woolsey, Dr. John A. McKinnon, Major A. J. Goodwin, Dr. 
B. H. Riggs, S. C. Pierce and E. C. Bilsby. 

We place the work before the public, feeling confident it 
will be properly appreciated, and that future generations may 
find it useful in referring to the great work of their ancestors, 
in building up a beautiful and great city. 



HISTORY OF SELMA, 



I^-^^ISI? I- 



CHAPTER I. 

ALABAMA— DALLAS COUNTY— SELMA. 

In 1519 Hernando Cortez, with a large Spanish force, landed 
at Very Cruz, and fought his way to the City of Mexico ; in the 
meantime, Montezuma, the great King of Mexico, had assem- 
bled all his allies to meet the invaders. Among his allies were the 
Muscogees, a large, proud and powerful people, forming a sep- 
arate Republic, and located on tlie north-western portion of the 
territory of Mexico. Afler numerous conflicts, Montezuma 
was killed and his government overthrown, and thousands of 
his subjects put to the sword. The Muscogees having lost 
thousands of their own warriors, determined to leave a coun- 
try overrun by a people more savage and barbarous than them- 
selves ; the whole tribe took up the line of march to the east- 
ward, seeking some other land. On the tributaries of the Red 
River, they met with a tribe equally proud, haughty and war- 
like, with themselves, called the Alabamos. Between these 
tribes constant warfare continued for years, resulting, finally, 
in the vanquishing of the Alabamos, who left the country of 
the Red River, taking their course to the east, finally coming 
to the Yazoo country. They settled in the vicinity of Honey 
Island, and in the present county of Tallahatchie, Mississippi. 
Here this warlike tribe were constantly engaged in conflicts 
witli the Cbickasaws, until the 25ih day of July, 1541, on which 
day Desoto, the Spanish invader, of this part of the country, 
attacked a large force of them, and after a most sanguinary 
battle, lasting near the whole day, put them to flight with ter- 
rible slaughter. 

Thus reduced by constant wars with the Muscogees and 
Cbickasaws, and the Spaniards under Desoto, the remnant of 



6 HISTOKY OF SELMA. 

the Alabamos again took up their line of march to the east : 
and after many hardships and years of destitution, this rem- 
nant of a once powerful, proud and haughty tribe, reached a 
beautiful river and in a most delightful and plentiful country, 
which was the Alabama River, and at a point on that river, so 
we have it from Indian tradition, near the modern Coosada, 
in Autauga county. So delighted were these famished savages 
with the broad and magnificent river, and surrounded by so 
delightful and so plentiful a country , that their great Chief, in 
an ecstacy ofjoy. struck his weapon into the ground, exclaiming 
in his dialect, "Here we rest." Thus giving a name to a great 
river — finally to a great State — and the motlo adopted by that 
State, being the declaration of the Chief, after years of wander- 
ing, of a once proud and warlike tribe of savages. 

Dallas county, was established out of territory taken from 
Montgomery county by an act of the Territorial Legislature of 
Alabama, held at St. Stephens on the 9th day of February, 1818, 
and has been chang d but little in its boundaries. It was 
named in honor of the Hon. Alexander James Dallas, who was 
born on the island of Jamaica in 1759, and a son of a Scotch- 
man. He was educated in Edinburg, read law in London, 
and emigrated to Philadelphia, Penu., in 1783. He was ap- 
pointed U. S. District Attorney for the Philadelphia District, 
in 1803 He was appointed, in 1814, Secretary of the Treasury, 
and died in Philadelphia, January 14th, 1817. His son. George 
Mifflin Dallas, was elected Vice President of the United States 
with James K. Polk for President in 1844. The county lies in 
the central part of the State, south of Perry and Chilton, west 
of Lowndes and Autauga, north of Wilcox and Perry. Its 
area is 939 square miles. The assessed value of real estate in 
1870, was $7,011,860; personal property $2,767,611 ; total $6,779,- 
678; the U. S. census exhibits the following increase of popu- 
lation for the last 50 years : 

1820 1830 1840 1850 i860 1870 

Whites, 3,324 6,794 7,922 7,465 7,788 8,552 

Blacks, 2,679 7,223 17,177 22,266 25,840 32.162 

The profile of the county is either level or undulating. Prai- 
rie, clay and sandy soil abounds in the county, and much black, 
alluvial soil is found in the river and creek l)ottoms, as rich and 
productive as any soil to be found on the continent. The cen- 
sus of 1870 shows 168,156 acres of improved, and 261 606 acres 
of unimproved lands ; the improved is valued at $3,112,373; 
1,339 horses; 3,396 mules; 7,285 nett cattle ; 1.508 sheep; 7.791 
hogs, all valued at $740,737. The products of the year 1869: 
1,295 bushels of wheat, 436,701 bushels of corn, 18,101 bushels 
of oats. 6,000 pounds of rice, 41,535 bushels of sweet potatoes, 
9,402 bushels of Irish potatoes, 63,122 pounds of butter, 24,819 
bales of cotton, 1 926 pounds of wool ; and the value of slaught- 
ered animals is $60,343. It will be seen from the statistics that 
Dallas is a grand agricultural district, and, to-day, stands 
first iu the State, iu point of value of products actually within 
her own limits. 

Selma is located in the State of Alabama, county of Dallas, 
on a high bluff, north side of the Alabama River 100 feet above 
low water mark, with an extensive and beautiful platau or pe- 
ninsula to the north for miles, and to the east to Beech Creek, 
and west to Valley Creek ; including about three square miles. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 7 

in range 10, towuship 17, and range 11, township 17 ; a sandy 
deposit overlying the cretaceous formation of the Mesozoic pe- 
riod ; being in the centre of the cretaceous belt of the State; 
247 feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico at Pensacola, Flor- 
ida ; 25 minutes north of the 82nd parallel degree, and longi- 
tude 80. The streets are wide and regularly laid off— the first 
class 100 feet wide, the second class 80 feet, and alleys all 17 
and 20 feet wide ; dwellings generally wood; the stores and 
business houses mostly of brick ; the yards to the dwellings 
are generally large, and planted with shrubbery and shade trees; 
shade trees (the water or live oak) line both sides of almost all 
the streets, and sometimes a row is to be found in the centre of 
a wide and beautiful street. 

In the wanderings and maraudings of Desoto among the 
wilds of the now Florida, Georgia and Alabama, in 1540, he ar- 
rived at an Indian town called Tallassee, on the Tallapoosa 
River, at the precise point the present town of Tallassee is lo- 
cated, where he tarried with his troops twenty-five days. 
vVhile at this place, he was met by a delegation of fine looking 
Indians, coming from the great Chief of all the Choctaws— 
Tuscaloosa — inviting Desoto to visit him at Pi^chee, on the 
great River, some sixty miles to the west. Desoto, after a two 
days' march down the same river Tallassee was located upon, 
crossed the great river and met the great Chief, Tuscaloosa, face 
to face. From the distance, the time taken by Desoto, the great 
river, and the general description of the country through 
which Desoto passed, as given by Garcellasso de la Vega, his 
journalist, we have come to the conclusion that the present site 
of Selma was the location of the ancient town Piachee, where 
the greatest warriors of that day — Desoto, the Spaniard, and 
Tuscaloosa, the great Chief of all the Choctaws, met face to 
face — one inspired by the thirst for gold and plunder, the other 
by a thirst for the blood and scalp of the other. 

The few white men who were in this part of the country as 
early as 1809 and 1810, knew this place as "High Soap Stone 
Bluff," but later in 1815, a white man by the name of Thomas 
Moore, having made his way through the wilderness from Ten- 
nessee, located at this point, the place taking the name of 
"Moore's Bluff," from the few persons of that day who traded 
on the Alabama River, in pole boats, yawls and dug-outs, 
which name the place retained until December 4th, 1820. 

In 1817 the "Selma Town Tjand (Company" was organized, 
consisting of such men as Wm. R. King, Jesse Beene, Gilbert 
Shearer, Thomas Cowles, Caleb Tate, George Mathews, George 
Phillies, and others; the business of which corporation was 
to trade in lands. Having at the different sales of land by the 
government, bought up large tracts of land, among the lands 
so purchased, were those purchased specially for building a 
town where Selma is located. The Company laid out streets, 
»lrew plans of the town and did all things necessary to exhibit 
a plat of a very pretty little town with the following 
boundaries: "Com itencing at a point on the north bank 
of the Alabama River, where the line between ranges 
10 and 11 reaches the river, thence north along the 
range line to Sylvan street, thence on the east margin of Syl- 
van street to Dallas street, thence along the northern margin 
of Dallas street to Church street, thence along the western 
margin of Church street to the Alabama River, thence 



8 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

along the Alabama River, at low water mark, to the point of 
beginning, as is shown by the plat of the said town of Selma." 
Kedick Sims was the surveyor of the plan of the town for 
the Company. There were four lots designated for four church- 
es, one for a Public Square and one for a market house. The 
lot set apart for the Presbyterian Chui'ch was the one at the 
corner of Washington and Dallas streets, the present residence 
of Dr. C. J. Clarke ; the one now occupied by the Methodist 
Church, theone now occupied by the Baptist Church, and the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at the corner of Selma and 
Greene streets. The one designated for a Public Square was 
bounded by Broad, Lauderdale, Alabama and Selma streets; 
and the one for a market house, was bounded by Washington, 
Alabama, Franklin, and Selma streets. But in 1828, the Com- 
pany determined to sell the lots designated for a Public Square 
and a market house, and on Saturday, the 27th day of Septem- 
ber, 1828 (these lots having been previously sub-divided), were 
sold at public sale, in front of Gen. G. Shearer's store, which 
was located then at about where the present Post Office is lo- 
cated. 

On the 4th day of December, 1820, an act was passed by the 
State Legislature, incorporating the "Town of Selma," W. R. 
King, Gilbert Shearer, George Phillips and Eben Bowles were 
appointed Commissioners to hold an election for five Council- 
men and putting the municipal government in operation for the 
town. In accordance with the provisions of this act, the Com- 
missioners held an election on the first Monday in April, 1821 ; 
at which election. Carter B. Huddleston, Gilbert Shearer, Jus. 
Cravens, James Reynolds and Wm. Read, were elected Coun- 
cilmeu, who shortly after, met at the house of D. H. Burke, and 
proceeded to organize by electing James Reynolds, Intendant 
and D. H. Burke Clerk, and VVm. Huddleston Town Consta- 
ble, and Jno. Simpson Town Treasurer. 

Col W. R. King having located three miles south of the 
Town, and being largely interested in the Land Company, took 
an active part in making, not only the Land Company, but the 
town, a success. Being of quite a literary turn of mind, and 
being fond of the writings of ancient poets, it was he who gave 
the name to the Laud Company, and the name to the town — 
Selma -which name is to be found in ancient history as one of 
the residences of "Ossian," a blind poet of ancient Caladouia. 
Fingal, Prince of Caladouia, was the father of Ossian, and 
hunting was the chief occupation of this great ancient Prince 
and his tribe. His principal lesidence was at Sdvia, in the 
neighborhood of Glenco. Ossian, his son, flourished about 
200 A. D., and said by ancient writers to have been like some 
others of the ancient Poets, blind, and to soothe his anguish 
for the loss of his favorite son '"Oscar," in battle, by the coinjio- 
sition of songs, among which were the ''Songs of Selma." His 
name as a poet derived its celebrity from the publication 
of McPherson in 1760, but the best edition of 
Ossiau's poems was that of Campbell, in 1822, with 
illustrations. The subjects of Ossi^n's Poems were partly 
narrative and partly lyric, heroic deeds of war, vivid 
pictures of highland nature, the praise of better times past, of 
wounded feelings, &c.. &c. 

Ossian described his father as being one of the greatest 
warriors that ever lived, and his capital as a splendid walUd 



HISTOKY OF SKLMA. » 

city, situated among the mouutains of Scotland, which he fre- 
quently called "Rocky Morvau." The city is often called "Sel- 
ma of Harps." It was studded with high towers, Mud the walls 
were shaded by many tall trees. The "Feast of Shells" was 
continually celebrated in its spacious banquettiug halls. King 
Fingal once sailed over to Ireland to assist a friend against his 
enemies, and on his return was overtaken by a dreadful storm, 
and to save his ships from destruction took slielter in a large 
cave, which is at the present day known to all the school chil- 
dren as "Fiiigal's cave," on the western coast of Scotland. 
Ossian's wife was named Everallen,, As we have previously 
stated, Ossian is supposed to have lived in the year 200; but 
his poems were never written, until James McPherson collected 
them from the mouths of the Highland bards of Scotland about 
a hundred and fifty years since, as they had been handed from 
generation to generation in rhyme. McPherson translated 
them from the Celtic language into English. Finding that 
the capital of Fingal was the splendid city which we have de- 
scribed, he in Anglicizing the word called it "Selma," which 
is a Greek word, and means a seat, a throne, a row of seats. &c. 
There is no other place called Selma, either in the ancient or 
modern history of Scotland. And there is but one other in the 
United States, and that is a village in Jefferson county, 
Missouri. 

From this source did the pure man and statesman, Wm. 
R. King, derive the name he gaveour beautiful city, and chri-*- 
tened it on the 4tb day of December, 1820. 

Thumas Moore built his log cabin about the present cross- 
ing of Water and Green streets, opened up a few acres of land 
upon which to raise his corn, but supported himself and family 
mainly by fishing and hunting, and continued the only inhab- 
itant for about one year, when several families from ICast Ten- 
nessee located at, aiid in the vicinity of "Moore's Bluff." But 
e)miiig from a mountainous and healthy country, the climate 
here did not agree with them, and in about one year, but few 
of these iuhabitants were left from the ravages of chills, and 
other kinds of malarial diseases. Thomas Moore, himself, 
finally left the place to seek a more liealthy locality. 

Three Scotchmen— Peter Robinson, Robert Lowe and 
Mathew McLiughlin— who had been engaged in trading, with 
a barge or 2^ole-boaf, on the river, broke up their river trade, 
and each built them a log cabin, and opened business at 
"Moore's Bluff" in the spring of 1817, Peter Robinson located 
at, or near the present location of the grocery store of R. C. 
Keeble & Co; Lowe, near where the present Savings Bank 
building stands ; and McLaughlin at the present "Ikelheimer 
corner," where he remained for years and became a large and 
prosperous merchant. Robinson, a few years after, left Selma 
and located twelve miles east of Selma on the Montgomery and 
Cahaba trail, two miles west of where the town of Benton now 
stands, and continued to do a large liusiness until his death, re- 
ceiving his goods at Dundee Landing, half a mile from his 
store on the Alabama River. Lowe removed from Selma and 
located seven miles east of the present town of Benton, on the 
same trail, where he attempted to build up a village, calling it 
"Sand Town," where is to lie seen to-day, an old log house, in 
which Lowe lived. 

The next place of business opened, -was by John Simpson, 
in a log house, which he built, about where James J. Bryan's 






tVv 



10 HISTORY OP SELMA. 

store is now located, in 1817. The fifth business house was 
opened by Elias Parkman, just above that of John Simpson's, 
in 1817. In January, 1818, Mike Woodaii built a large log 
house at the now corner of Greene and Water streets, and 
opened an eating house, or hotel ; a part of this house is now 
standing, and was kept as a hotel for years. It was in this 
house that Gen. LaFayette. in 1825, was entertained. The first 
frame house built in the town yet stands, and is occupied by 
George Peacock as an office to his Foundry. This house 
was built by Steven Craven for Gen. G. Shearer ; The lumber 
was sawed by band, with what was known in 1818, as a "whip 
saw." 

By this time, the Indian wars throughout the country had 
ceased, peace restored, and the report of the productiveness of 
the country had become justly famous in Georgia, North Carolina 
and other States, and from about 1818, for several years suc- 
ceeding, perhaps the immigration to no county was more nu- 
merous, from all parts of the Southern States, than to this part 
of the Alabama territory. 

Numbers of persons, especially mechanics, professional 
men and traders, pitched their destiny at Selma; among 
whom we can now mention — limothy Duck, hatter; B. Egg- 
man, carpenter; George F. Plant, sr., tinner; Joiui Simpson, 
trader; E. Parkman, John Conoly, traders ; Abajiah Worley, 
bricklayer; Wm. Read, trader; John Owen, trader ; Steven 
Maples, trader; Noah Dykes, who v/ith M. G. McKeagg, 
opened the first drinking establishment about where Boyd's 
Book Store is now located ; Ben. L. Saunders, Eben Bowles — 
the first opened an eating and lodging house about the pres- 
est location of Brislin's furniture store; Dr. Edward Gantte, 
James Adams, Jas. H. Blackburn, Win Johnson and Dr. Miller. 
Though the settlements were somewhat scattered, in a very 
few years quite a village sprang up, sustain'>d by a good trade 
from the thrifty farmers, v/ho had by this time, pretty well 
dotted the surrounding country. Such men as P. J. Weaver, 
Wykoff, Pickens & Co., and James Douglass, had located at 
the place, and opened, for tiiose days, each, an extensive trading 
business. Beuj. L. Saunders opened a regular hotel in the 
place, at the now north-west corner of Greene and Water street, 
occupied at present by the extensive brick cotton warehouse of 
C. Lovelady. James Orman, about this time, established a cot- 
ton gin factory at about the present residence of Mrs. Hillyard, 
and made the first cotton gin, with steel savvs, ever made in the 
State. 

Abajiah Worley, as a bri('klayer, soon found work, and 
among his first work, and rearlly the first brick buioding in 
the place, was the one near the present Selma, Rome and Dal- 
ton Railroad Depot; the next was the tenement nowoccupied 
by M. Monteabaro as a drinking saloon, on Broad str^^et, suc- 
ceeded soon after by the erection of the present National Bank 
t)uilding. at the present corner of Broad street and Hintou alley. 

In the fall of 1827-28, the following business firms, bu-iness 
and professional men, were in the town : Parsons & Taylor, 
Simpson & Jones, Rodgers & Butler, Burke & Shackelford, 
Parkman & Douglass, Scott & Robeson, Wykoff, Pickeus & 
Co., Isam Rot)eson. Isaac T. Hodgson, Mathew McLaughlin, 
John B. Jones, James G. Cowan . Edwin Butler. Michael 
Woodall, H. Heiutz. Gilbert Shearer, Wm. Johnson, William J. 



} 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 11 

CoDoley, B. Holmes, R. H. Crosswell, Daniel Mclunis, Adam 
Walker, P. I. Weaver. John H. Cowles, Joseph Boone, John T. 
Taylor, Geo. W. Parsons, Thomas P. Harvey, 8hubell Foot, 
Paschell Traylor, Robert Lowe, B. Smith; M. G. McKeagg, 
Richard Morrow, James Oweus ; Pickens & Calhoun, H. G. & 
A. G Perry, George G. Brooks, lawyers ; Phillips & Cowles, 
Miller & Hogan, Uriah Grigsby, Edward Gantte, physicians; 
Peter McLean, tailor; Beiij, L. Saunders, Wm. Huddleston 
hotel keepers ; two warehouses — Mathew McLaughlin's and P. 
I. Weaver's— situated on the bank of the river, just below the 
present ferry landing. John Erwin was a prominent man in 
the town ; he kept a pack of hounds, with which to catch run- 
away negroes, charging from $10 to $50 for each capture. 
Irwin invariably trained his dogs on Sunday. Each Sunday 
morning he would send a negroaround the town, and soon after 
his pack was put on the trail, and the howling and yelping of 
the pack could be heard for hours every Sunday. This dog 
music did not set well with that portion of the popula- 
tion who occasianally had an opportunity to attend preaching. 
Remonstrances were made with Erwin ; finally, Rev. Jo. 
Walker was to preach, one Sunday, in a house about where 
Gill's carriage warehouse stands. That morning before preach- 
ing time, Erwiu had his negro, not only to run around the town, 
but around the place of preaching several times, not, however, 
to go in the same track twice, but a different one each time. 
Soon after preaching commenced, Erwin's dogs could be heard, 
and soon they took their chase aiound the church some half 
dozen times, the services inside giving way to the howling 
and yelping of the dogs. An attempt was made to arrest him 
which he resisted, but finally accomplished by strategy, and a 
fine of some $50 was put upon Erwin, which had a good effect. 

From about 1818 up to about 1826, the inhabitants of the 
village continued to increase gradually in number, but about 
1826, the place became very sickly, and many who had set- 
tled here left, seeking a more healthy location ; and from 1826 
to about 1830, the population rather diminished in number; 
but in 1830 the town authorities thoroughly organized, and 
established, and enforced, a good sanitai'y system ; the num- 
erous ponds of offensive water to be found in various parts of 
the town were drained, ditches were opened, and soon the 
results of this work were visible upon the health of the vil- 
lage, and again the population gradually increased ; and soon a 
most excellent and thriving popula*^ion occupied the village, 
representing about all occupations and profesions of life. 
Amohg the then inhabitants, we can mention Hugh Ferguson, 
Frederick Vogelin, Jesse Joiner, David Hamilton, Fielding 
Reynolds, James G. Cowan , Benj. Tarver, 

Among the new settlers of 1827, was a young man by the 
name of Frow, a printer, who, through the influence of Col. 
P. I. Weaver, was induced to come to Selma and estab- 
lish a newspaper. On the 2d day of November, 1827, the first 
number of this paper was issued, and the first newspaper 
issued at Selraa. It was entitled the Selma Courier. Its motto 
was "Our country, and country's friends;" dated November 2d, 
1827 ; printed and published by Thomas J. Frow, office opposite 
the office of Messrs. Pickens & Calhoun, at$5 per annum. This 
pajjer, on its outside, contained the Message of Governor John 
Murphy to the Legislature of Alabama. The first inside page 



12 HISTOKY OF SELMA. 

contained an introductory from the editor to the public, and sev- 
eral local notices, aniioug them, the receipts of cotton at the 
two warehouses — at McLaughlin's, 56 bales ; and at Weaver's, 
34 bales; making 90 bales received for the week — several com- 
plimentary articles of Gen. Jackson, a petition from the people 
of the Tennesj^ee Valley to Congress, a notice that 
the Rev. Joseph Walker would preach in Seltna on the fol- 
lowing Sunday, several extracts fron the Mobile Begister, the 
MilledgeviUe Recorder, the National Gazette, and an extract of 
a letter from Mexico, dated October 3d, 1827. The sec- 
ond inside page contained the cotton market of Mobile, Sa- 
vannah, and Boston; a prices-current of groceries in Selma; 
an extract of a letter from Havana, dated September 24th, 
1827; announcements of Adam Taylor and Wm. Bowers, as 
candidates for Sheriff' of Dallas county; a marriage notice, by 
Rev. Charles Crowe of Elijah Taber and Miss Sunnah Sims, 
daughter of Redick Sims; and one by James Craig, Esq., 
of Faschall Traylor to Miss Mary Ann Harrell ; a law 
card of H. G. & Albert G. Perry; the arrival and departure 
of seven steamboats, to and from Selma, during the past week ; 
a card from Dr. Marshall; an advertisement of Simpson & 
Jones, of dry goods and groceries; a similar advertisement 
from Wm Johnson ; one from P. I. Weaver ; a card of Drs. 
Miller & Hogan ; Weaver's warehouse ; one from George Goflf 
proposing to sell town lots at Statesville; an advertisement of 
the Maryland State Lottery, of whicii the editor was agent at 
Selma, to sell tickets; journeymen shoemakers wanted by 
James Owen ; one from John Johnson, as administrator of 
Robert Greer, deceased , a card from John W. Paul, as a law- 
yer at Cahaba ; and a prospectus of tlie Southern Review, pub- 
lished at Charleston, S. C. On the fourth and last page, under 
the head of "The Garland," a piece of original poetry "To 
Eliza Jane," the columns of the fourth page are tilled up 
with miscellaneous and general news matter; and an 
advertisement of runaway negroes, which, as a matter of re- 
ference for future generations, we copy as follows : 

A LIBERAL REWARD 

Will be paid by the subscriber, living 7 miles bdow Cahaba, for the 
apprehension of the following described Negroes, who ran away from him on 
the 3't instant, viz : — 

JOHN, a tall slim black fellow, aSout 27 or 28 years of age. 

CISILY, John's wife, about 21 years old ; her complexion not very 
black. 

ROBIN, a yellow fellow, tall and stout made ; has a large foot and 
remarkable long great toes. I think the one on the left is the longest. He has 
a scar on his left arm just above the wrist about the size of a quarter dollar, and 
is about 20 years of age. 

riiey will no doubt make for North Carolina, as I am told John persuaded 
the others that he could take them there without any trouble. 'They left home 
without any provocation whatever. All expenses will be paid if brout;ht home. 
Nov. 2d, 1827. JAMES M. LK.VOIR. 

Dr. Kimberly, Nathan Nolley, John C Watrous, the pres- 
ent United States District Judge of Texas, James Cante, John 
B. Jones, were among the liusiness men of the place. 

In consequence of tlie good health of the place and 
the increasing population, the increase of business com- 
menced in 1830, and soon after, we find such business houses 
and men in the village as Harvey & Craig, Phillips, Franklin 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 13 

&Co., Sturdivant & Hill, Troup & Louis, Simpson & Berry, 
P. McMulleu, Wykoff & Ferguson, W. H. Jordan, Fellows 
& Goodwin, Parsons & Ferguson, John Sturdivant, the gin 
maker, Douglass & Woods, Tredwell & Mills, L.? Andrews, 
Jere Duckworth, Dunlap & Walker, R. H. Crosswell & Co., 
P. I. & D. Weaver, Wm. Johnson &Co., Parkman & Philpot, 
W. J. & J. A. Norris, Dejarnette & Swift, Woods &Goodwin, 
Thomas H. (^owan; and among the professional men. Col. 
John W. Lapsley, Thomas W. Cash, George T. Brooks, R. E. B. 
Baylor, Burrell Boykin, Ezekiel Pickens, W. E. Bird, Colum- 
bus W. Lea, and quite a sprinkle of younger lawyers, whose 
names wedonotnow recollect. Such physicians as Dr. E. 
Gantte, Dr. George Phillips, Dr. E Embree, Dr, S, Deas, Dr. 
W. Randall, Dr. R J. Lawrence, Dr. Ben. R. Hogan, Dr, 
Josephus D. Echols, Dr. J. Echols, Dr. J. R. Dickinson, and 
a half dozen or more young men in preparation for the pro- 
fession. 

The commerce of the place was thriving ; a good class of 
steamers had succeeded the flat boats on the river. Shipment 
of cottou aud produce to Mobile was almost daily, and in return 
all kinds of freights, at that time, bouglit mostly in Boston. 
The country had well settled up; all the good bottom lands 
yielded well all around the country, people both in town and 
country, had really "flush times" upon them ; and the conse- 
quence was that schools, churches and prayers, were forgotten 
for the time, and their places taken by race tracks, fine horse 
stock, and gambling. The splendid race track was opened in 
a field, now East Selma; the present East Selma graveyard 
occupies part of the track. A Jockey Club, formed of such 
men as Gen. Gilbert Shearer, Wm. Blevins, John Blevina, 
Col. T. B. Goldsby, Gen. John Brautly, B. L. Saunders, and 
several others, of which Gen. Shearer was President, Great 
efforts were made every season to secure the finest stock over the 
course, to l)e found in America. Stoctc from Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia and South Carolina, the fleetest, them days, in the world, 
was found entering every season on this track ; the racing sea- 
son then was looked to with as much interest as the 4Lh of July 
or the 8th of January. 

The following is an advertisement we find in the Seln?a 
Courier, of Nov. 21st, 1828, which we give as a fair specimen 
of the sports of the times : 

JOCKEY CLUB B ACES. 

THE Annual Races, over the Selma Course, will commence on the last 
Wednesday (31st day of December next) — free for any horse, mare or gelding 
in the United States. The Subscription List has been considerably increased 
since the- last races, and good stabling will be provided. 

1ST Day — 3 Miles and Repeat. 

2D " 2 " 

3D " I " 

4TH " Handy Cap, i Mile — best in five. 
Selma, Aug. 21, 1828. G. SHEARER, Sec'ry. 

Games of chance were popular. With few excepiions, 
everybody would "buck against the tiger," and in that way, 
large sums of money would change hands, and in some instan- 
ces, entire fortunes. The general headquarters of "the tiger," 
them days, were up stairs, in a wooden building, occupying the 
ground now occupied by Heidt's drug store, Loughridge's 
clothing store and Watson's grocery store, on Broad street 



14 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

called the Alhambra, kept by R. D. Baxter, and Gen. McKeagg, 
usually assisted by Hatten, Ragland, and Pat. McMullen, who 
was killed in this place by Jas. Hamilton, and a few other sub- 
alterns. It is a remarkable face, that in this rendezvous, "'the 
tiger" always whipped the fight. 

It is said "there must be a change in all things." So it 
happened to be in regard to the moral condition of affairs in the 
town of Selma. The Bev. S. M. Nelson, a mosl talented young 
preacher, of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, opened his 
batteries of eloquence against gambiiug; in his pulpit, on the 
streets, around the family fireside, did this able man let no 
opportunity pass, without inflicting a wound against gam- 
bling ; and, flually, the public sentiment commenced changing. 
At first the "tiger" was not so public in his operations, then 
the door was locked to his room, and only a favorite friend was 
admitted, and finally, it was with the greatest difficulty to 
ascertain the arrival of "the tiger" in town. Rev. Mr. Nelson 
had an able assistant in his fight against gambling, in the per- 
son of Zeak Pickens, a young lawyer of peculiar ability. Mr, 
Pickens took the field against gambling and the Masons. As 
he proceeded with his labors, gambling gradually went down, 
but it proved to be different with the Masons. Lodges were 
opened in almost every little town in the county, and members 
rapidly increased. But little, however, was ever said against 
horse racing; it appeared that it was an innocent amusement, 
against which, but few had an objection. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church being the only thor- 
oughly organized church in the town, increased in its member- 
ship The Baptist, Presbyterian and Methodist, all commenced 
flourishing. Steps were taken to erect suitable buildings for 
each of these denominations. Several schools were proposed 
and were opened. Among them, a Male and Female Acad- 
emy, by James C. Phelan, and an A B C school, by Michael 
Kavannah, an Irishman, who came to this country with 
"Uncle Johnnie McGrath," and who, after teaching a few 
months in Selma, went to Old Town Creek church, and there 
built up a most flourishing school, aud maintained it for ^ ears. 
But it seemed the inhabitants of Selma were not to be exempt 
from troubles. Abolition emissaries were found in the country; 
Selma and its immediate vicinity having an immense and a 
preponderance of black population, and much talk about the 
"negroes rising" — a massacre already having taken place irr 
Virginia, and in several places in Mississippi, especially at 
Natchez, where botli whites and negroes had been hung, sus- 
pected of beiug engaged in insurrection— the most intense 
excitement prevailed. Every pistol, old musket, and every 
other species of fire-arms were rubbed up and put in order. A 
volunteer military company was organized in the town in a 
few hours, of which Gilbert Shearer was elected Captain, and 
David Hamilton, Orderly Sergeant; the town Council doubled 
its patrol force night and day, and really had the negro popula- 
tion terror stricken. Two white men, one named Dresser, and 
the other Graham, strangers in the town, without any appar- 
ent business, were arrested, brought before a committee, of 
which James Cante was Chairman, and H. Trauu. Secretary, 
searched, and a copy of the Emancipator found on Dresser. It 
was decided that Dresser be dressed and Graham given fifteen 
minutes to leave the town and never return. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 15 

The Militia all over the county was greatly excited. "Old 
Suort,"— as the boys called Maj. Beuj. Grumbles— as Major, 
commanding the battalion of militia of Old Town Beat, called 
his battalion together at Buck Day's, and after a long and patri- 
otic speech. proposed that the battalion, in mass, should march to 
the aid of Selma. against the negro insurrection ; which speech 
and proposition was responded to in the affirmative by every 
man in the battalion, some two hundred strong. Not taking 
time to return home, but from the muster ground and at once, 
was the march taken up, some armed with single barrel shot 
guns, with no flints, some with hickory sticks, and some with 
no arms more formidable than corn stalks. Thus did this 
brave battalion move, and about dark, reached the Kornegy 
Place, about three miles from town, on the other side of the river, 
where each of the primitive soldiers endeavored to make him- 
self comfortable for the night. The Major's animal having 
been the subject of numerous remarks during the day, caused 
l)y the fact, that in "nicking" the animal, which was of a pecu- 
liar color, the "nicker" had cut too close to the rump, in con- 
sequence of having too much of Peter Robinson's "Packingham 
Rum" on board. The boys used to tell it, that they got on 
fine y until about 2 o'clock in the night, when the camp was 
aroused by alarms from the sentinels knocking on a dead tree 
with sticks; ami a low, rumbling noise, with frequent flashes 
of light in the immediate direction of Selma, creating in the 
minds of the soldiers that a fight had commenced at Selma. 
The Major rallied his troops into line, and made them a flam- 
ing speech, winding up by saying: "Boys, niggers are now 
killing the white people of Selma, you must go and help kill 
the niggers. The most of you are young men ; I am an old 
man; I have a wife and ten children at holne ; I must pro- 
tect them ; I must go; good bye, boys." The Major, wheeling 
his mare, put spurs to her, and ofT he went at a rapid gallop ; 
the battalion exclaiming, "Good bye, Fingertail." 

Thus was the brave battalion left without a head. Bird 
Saffold being the Captain of Company A., assumed command. 
And as a tremendous rain had fallen immedaitely after the 
Major left, the battalion under Saffold, as soon as the rain 
was over, commenced their march for Selma ; but the road for 
two miles being knee deep in mud and water, and the night 
dark, arrived on the south side of the river about 12 o'clock 
next day, and much to their surprise, found everything going 
on in the town as usual. Gen. Shearer gave the battalion a 
good dinner, and thanked them for their promptness is respond- 
ing to the sound of danger. 

Capt. Saffold re-crossed the river, and attempted to return 
to Buck Day's in order, but the troops became so much demor- 
alized that only about one company stood faithful to their Cap- 
tain, whom he discharged at the muster ground in good order, 

"Fingertail" and the "Nigger Insurrection" were made 
the subject of many a rough joke for years after; but Maj. 
Grumbles being a good, jovial old fellow, always took them in 
good part. 

This excited state of the public mind about insubordination 
of the negro population soon subsided, and very justly, for we 
think we are safe in saying, at no period of the world was 
there a greater fidelity exhibited on the part of a servile popu- 
lation towards their owners, than was on the part of the negro 



16 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

population in Selma and Dallas county generally, during all 
this great excitement, caused by a few irresponsible and mis- 
chievous men in different localities of the South. 

The negro population rapidly increased in both town and 
country. Large droves, oome hundreds dailj', were broug^ht to 
the town by men like James Hall, Watsou, Willis and Jordan, 
whose business it was to trade in negroes. Several large build- 
ings were erected in the town especially for the accommoda- 
tion of negro traders and their property ; the largest of which 
was erected on the present site of the Central City Hotel build- 
ing. This was a large three story wooden building, sufficiently 
large to accommodate four or five hundred negroes. On the 
ground floor, a large sitting room was provided for the exhi- 
bition of negroes on the market ; and from among them could 
be selected blacksmiths, carpenters, bright mulatto girls and 
women for seamstresses, field hands, women and children of 
all ages, sizes and qualtities. To have seen the large droves of 
negroes arriving in the town every week, from about the fii'st 
of September to the first of April, every year, no one could be 
surprised at the fact that the negro population increased in 
Dallas county, from 1830 to 1840, between twelve and fifteen 
thousand. The immense wooden building thus used for twenty 
years, on Water street, was taken away in 1854, by Dent Lamar, 
and some five or six buildings made out of it, some of them 
now located on the south side of Dallas street and almost oppo- 
site the West Selma graveyard. 

The mail facilities had been terribly neglected, and a spirit 
of improvement having sprung up in every department, 
proper attention was given to opening mail routes. A route 
was opened to Elyton, to the north ; to Mobile, to the south ; 
to Demopolis, to the west; and to Montgomery, to the east; 
with Wm. Tredwell as postmaster. Soon hacks and stages 
were put on these lines, and an immense run of travel soon 
followed, especially on the route to Mobile. Mobile was the 
point of trade with all this part of the country. The time on 
stage from Selma to Mobile being about three days, while that 
by the river would be five or six days. The greatest travel, 
consequentlv, was by stage. So great did the travel increase 
on the Mobile line, and the line east, that three trips per week 
we're not sufficient for the demand. The Post Office Depart- 
ment offering large pay for daily mail service, Col. Fortune 
put on the line daily coaches, each coach capable of accomn)o- 
dating as many as twelve passengers, but frequently the accom- 
modating drivers would allow twenty and sometimes as many 
as twenty-four passengers on tlieir coaches at one time. 

Patent medicines were about this time put upon the mar- 
ket. The sick people having become tired of liaving their 
arms cut to pieces with lancets, and their teeth rotted out of 
their heads with calomel by the doctors, greedily sought 
the stoi-e of McKinney, Drake & Co., where they found 
Coster & Cox's "Fever and Ague Cure." 

A Debating Society was formed for the benefit of the 
young men, at which, important questions were discussed, 
once a week, before large assemblies of the inhabitants, par- 
ticularly the ladies, who evinced much interest. 

Most energetic efforts were made to complete the construc- 
tion of the Presl»yteriau and Methodist church buildings which 
had alrea<ly began. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 17 

The greatest events of all, was the "falliug of the Stars" 
in November, 1833; the overflow of the country in 1833; and 
the terrible sickly condition of the town and country. Sam. 
Bogle opened a large hotel on the lots, from the now Tele- 
graph building to Maas & Bloch's corner, on Water street, 
called the "Bell Tavern." It was the only boarding house 
in the town that had a large steamboat bell to ring to notify 
its customers of the readiness of meals. In this large build- 
ing, a splendid set of rooms were allotted for balls, parties 
and shows, termed "Bogle's Assembly Rooms." And scarcely 
a week passed but these rooms were used for some kind of 
amusement. 

Tlie town was gradually improving in population and bus- 
iness houses and professional men. 

We find such business houses and men as Parsons, Fer- 
guson & Boyd, J. Hinds & Co., D. G. Russell & Co., A. 
H. Lloyd, J. D. Monk & Co., Dickenson & Taylor, J. A. 
Jones, Dr. P. HL_EarJe, a most promising young physician; 
and Clement C. Bassett, and Robert Dunlap, as lawyers. 

The people of Texas having on the 2d day of March. 1836, 
at the town of Washington, declared their independence as a 
seperate Republic from Mexico, which act was at once fol- 
lowed up by the invasion of Gen. Coss, the commander of a 
large Mexican force, perpetrating all kinds of cruelties upon 
the American inhabitants of the country, aroused much feel- 
ing throughout the United States. Col. M. A. Lea, of Marion, 
raised a company, among whom, from Selma, were W. D. C. 
Hall, who afterwards became Adjutant and Inspector General, 
James Kelly, John Grumbles, Sam. Fletcher. Louis Day and 
Andrew Jones, who rallied to the standard of Austin, and dis- 
tinguished themselves in Texas' independence. 

Improvements of various kinds commenced : among them, 
a company to "Protect Property Against Fire" was formed; a 
Stock Company, with a capital of $15,000, to erect and equip a 
hotel, of which Wm. Waddilljr., Wm. Tredwell, T. P. Fer- 
guson, and R. N. Phlipot, were a Board of Directors. This 
company erected a large two-story wooden building, occupying 
the present Savings Bank corner fronting Alabama street, and 
was burned down in 1853, while occupied by John M. Stone. 

Amidst all the prosperity, the tocsin of war would be 
sounded. In January, 1836, the Seminole Indians in Florida, 
commenced outrages upon the white inhabitants, and some of 
the greatest cruelties and outrages were perpetrated upon the 
whites. Forces were called for by the President, and Gover- 
nor Clay called upon the various Major Generals of the militia 
of the State, for volunteers. Selma came forward, and a com- 
pany was or^^anized to go to Florida to fight the Indians, at the 
head of which, Capt. W. T. Minter was placed; and among 
the members of the company, we now remember: W. Platen- 
burg, A. Rankin, John Keenan, Abner Jones, W. T. Brooks, 
Wilson E. High, Dr. W. Randall, Robert Tate. James Ham- 
ilton, Wm. Donaldson, P. McMulIan, R. R Ring, Andrew 
Hunter, I'red Dore, Thomas K. Kornegy. 

On the departure of this acwnpany on the 22d day of Feb- 
ruary, 1836, they were presented, by the ladies, with a beauti- 
ful stand of colors, through Miss Mary Ann Paul, and received 



18 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

Oil behalf of the company, by Dr. John A. English, of Cahaba, 
who was a member, as follows : 

Miss Paul's Address. 

Sir : The ladies of Dallas county have requested me to present in their 
name to the Volunteers from this county the flag, which I now hold in my 
hand. To you as the proper organ of the company on this occasion, I offer it, 
regretting that I can but briefly express the feehngs of those whom I am 
desired to represent. • 

They have charged me to say to you, they have admired the spirit and 
alacrity with which the Volunteers have responded to the call of our country 
in the hour of danger ; that th?y feel safe under such protectors. They are 
proud of such friends, and they give you this standard. Sir, as a trifling testi- 
mony of their feelings. While it waves over you on the march — while it serves 
as a rallying point in the time of battle — let it also serve as a memento of the 
friends you leave. 

Tell our sisters in the country to which you are destined that we have 
heard their cries — we have mourned over their sufferings from savage barbar- 
ity. We have sent the bravest of our brave to defend them. Say to them that 
though each mother, sister and wife, parts in sorrow and anguish from husband, 
brother or son, yet we have forborne saying a word to prevent any one from 
going to defend our suffering fellow citizens. 

And now, Sir, in behalf of those who present you this standard, I bid 
you all farewell ! May the God of battles prosper your arms, and may a kind 
Providence grant you a safe return. 

Dr. English's Reply. 

Ladies : In behalf of the Volunteers who compose tliis company, I have 
been made the humble instrument to receive this proud emblem of American 
Liberty from the patriotic fair of the county of Dallas. 

On such an occasion I feel my incompetency to the task assigned me. 
Ladies, did you know the feelings that thrill through this bosom, and I am 
sure it is the same which vibrates in the bosoms of those whom I have the 
honor to represent, they wou'd plead more eloquently than any language to 
which I could give utterance. You could not have bestowed any thing upon 
this corps that they would have valued so highly as this proud standard. What 
V. ill it be in the hour of battle ? Will it not be the point to which the greatest 
force of the enemy will be directed, and will they not conceive they had 
achieved sufficient glory could they lay this towering eagle prostrate with the 
earth ? But to us will it not be the beacon that points out the path of honor 
and of glory ? Will it not remind us of the Stripes and Stars that have waved 
triumphantly over so many boody fields of victory ; a flag under wliich the 
American arms have attained a reputation unsurpassed in the annuls of mili- 
tary achievements? And more than all, will it not remind us of those from 
whom it came ? Could w" then suffer this proud emblem of our freedom to 
be tarnished, or to cause the fair of Dallas to blush for those to whom the'r 
patriotism had intrusted it. No, ladies I permit me to assure you that the life- 
less remains of every one who compose this band, will be enshrouded in its 
folds, before the lustre of one of its stars shall be dimmed, or one of its stripes 
be effaced. 

You allude to the sacrifices that we must necessarily make ill leaving our 
homes and our occupations at such a time. . We admit that there are many 
ties to bind us to our homes, and many endearments that bid us stay. But 
could the brave sons of Dallas suffer the requisitions that have been made up- 
on our country to be fulfilled in any other manner than we have adopted? We 
have made no sacrifice which duty and love of country did not demand; and 
thus receiving your encouraging approbation, sufficiently rewards, for all we 
love, (TT all we may suffer in the sacred cause of our country. 

The horrid barbarities of Indian warfare is well knowu to us ; the 
defenseless condition of our bn-thren in Florida we are apprised of; we know 
that a savage and ruthless foe are now rioting in their butcheries of defense- 
less women, and unoffending children. They have extended their arms to us 
for succor, and we sliould have been lost to the dictates of humanity — we 
should have been recreant to our country, if sligiit sacrifices could prevent us 



HISTORY OP SELMA. 19 

from giving such relief as was in our power. Duty proir.pted the course we 
have adopted — and we are happy that we are permitted to Step forward in 
defence of our suffering fellow citizens. 

But, ladies, I should but illy express the sentiments of those whom I rep- 
resent, were I not to impart their high sense of the public spirit and patriotism 
of the ladies of this country, characterized by a devotion of country worthy of 
the brightest days of Sparta and of Rome. Permit me, again, to tender you 
our unfeigned thanks for your unmerited kindness, and to assure you that what- 
ever sufferings we may endure, whatever diflficulties and dangers we may 
encounter, all will be cheerfully and fearlessly met, in the hope of again return- 
ing into the sphere of your influence, and of being rewarded by your smiles, 
and in the consciousness of having discharged our duty to our country. 

This company reported at Mobile au(] was immediately for- 
warded toTampa"Bay,aud in a few daysafter had an engagement 
with the Indians at Clinoto Lasso ; in which engagement, Han- 
som Raifcrd, John Morgan and \V. Randall were severely 
wounded. The company served out its three months and 
returned home, after beiughouorably discharged at Mobile. The 
Free Press, of May 28lh, 1836, contained the following notice 
of the return of this company at Selma: 

• Volunteers from Florida. — The volunteers in the Florida campaign 
from this county arrived at home on Sunday last, and were greeted at thisplace 
and at Cahaba with the highest pleasure and welcome by their relations and 
acquaintances. They arrived on the Steamer Roanoke. As soon as she came 
within hearing, discharges from a piece of artillery were kept up until they were 
landed. 

The company from this county was so peculiarly fortunate as not to lose 
a single member, either in any of their engagements with the enemy or by 
sickness. The corps left one sick at Tampa Bay, who it is hoped and believed 
would recover, and be restored to his anxious friends. 

The greatest praise is due this patriotic band, for the alacrity with which 
they responded to the call to engage in a service the most arduous and dan- 
gerous. Their example may be held up as a pattern to all who desire to 
defend and protect suffering humanity. 

Scarcely had the "Seminole War" got in full blast, before 
the Creek Indians commenced their depredations in East Ala- 
bama. Outrages of the most heuious eharadtei had been per- 
petrated upon the helpless whites in the Creek Nation. Gov. 
Clay at once called for volunteers to report to Gen. Jessup, at 
Tuskegee. Notwithstanding the flower of the young men of 
Seima atid vicinity had just returned from theswamps of Flor- 
ida, where they were appealed to to protect the helpless women 
and children from savage outrages, they quickly responded. A 
volunteer company was at once organized, called the Selma 
Bangers, the following being the company as organized : 

John F. Conoley, Captain ; Asa M. Lewis, Lieutenant ; 
Clement C. Bassett, Ensign ; David Douglas, Orderly Sergeant. 
Privates— Benj. A. Glass, Robert Elison, C. H. Gingles, 
Alfred McNair.Wm. K. Morrison, James G. Gilmer. James H. 
Smith, Moses C. Wiley, John A. Stone, Samuel B. Bijjgers, Jas. 

D. Bradshaw. James G. Fuller, W. J. Kirkpatrick, John Stur- 
divaut, James A. Lewis, Alex. A. King, «. W. Cook, Fleming 
S. Hale. Wilson F. Russu'n, James W. Craig, J. A. Morri.sou. 
Leroy Thompson. A. H. Wiley. Heniy C. Tvey, J. L. Claugh- 
ton, "Wm. K. Grimes, Albert G Jorc^an, Wm. H. Boyd, James 

E. Lee. John J. Craig, James M. Dunaway, George Brewer, 
James TiOeaii, William Kay, Hambliu Kirkland, Alfred Nance, 
William Calwell, N. D. Downs. .loseph Benning, Elijah E. 
Sellers, Isaac Taylor, Elisha W. Sims, George W. Taylor Wii- 



20 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

liana Hibbert. John C. Rogers, George C. Yost, John Logan, 
Michael Hill, Wm. P. Benning, James Campbell, P. S. Ken- 
nedy, John M. Bozeman, Thomas H. Lee. John W. Ethridge, 
Samuel F. Jones, Jackson M. Clay, Ashley W. Spaight, W. C. 
Donald, Wm. E. Hall, V. R. Shackelford. Geo. I. Goodwin, 
David Douglas, Thomas L. Reynolds, Joseph Erwin, John C. 
Paschall, Ira P. Taylor, Thomas J. Barton, M. J. A. Keith, 
William A. Hall, Wiley P. Swift, Richard J. McQuin, Alex. 
H. Couoly, Wm. Rodgers. 

This company left Selma on the 25th day of May, 1836, and 
we extract from the Selma Free Press, of the 28th day of May, 
1836 : 

Selma Rangers. — This proud appellation has been bestowed by the 
Ladies of our town, upon the noble and patriotic body of men, from this 
place and its vicinity, who have volunteered their sevices to protect their coun- 
try from the hostilities of the Creek Indians. On Tuesday last we had the 
pleasure of witnessing the array of this proud and valorous corps. Maj. Wm. 
Tredwell, having been invited by our Ladies to represent them on the occa- 
sion, and to present the company in their behalf, with a stand of colors, at 12 
o'clock, the Ladies and Citizens attended at Mr. Bogle's hotel to witness the 
ceremony. 

A more impressive scene has not been witnessed in our town lately. 
Maj. T. stepped forward, bearing in his hand the proud testimonial, and in 
behalf of the Ladies, addressed the corps in the words which we subjoin. 
Ensign C. N. Bassett received the banner and replied 10 Maj. T., which we 
also insert. The banner is a beautiful one, and as its stars and stripes floated 
on the breeze, no one who witnessed it could but feel the highest admiration 
for our Ladies' patriotism and valor. The corps left this morning on the 
Steamer Medora. They are a fine looking body, in fine spirits, and each an.\- 
lous for the scene of action. To the Ladies, high praise is due for their kind- 
ness — long will it be remembered and cherished — and we say happiness and 
comfort to the fair of Selma : 
Gentlcnten Volunteers: 

Having been honored with an invitation from the ladies of our town, to 
present to your body the stand of Colors which I bear in my hand permit me 
in their behalf to address you a tew moments. Having had but a short notice 
of my delegation, I hope that all error will receive the forbearance of those I 
address. 

When I contemplate the array before me, I behold men whose deter- 
mined purpose is the defence of their country's rights, whose every bosom 
thrills with the purest patriotism, as he contemplates his embassy. For what 
purpose, I would ask, are you here assembled ? Is it all pageantry — all to 
obtain honor? Is it for these ends that your body presents itself this day ? 
No! Soldiers it is your country that calls you to duty. You have been called 
upon by the Executive to rescue from the bloody knife of the ruthless savage, 
fathers, mothers, husbands and wives, and innocent babes — they are laying 
waste our land, and deluged it with blood. You have stepped forward, actu- 
vated by every feeling which could characterize the soldier — the lov of his 
country. You go. You leave your homes, every thing to which you are here 
bound — for what ? To protect the homes and firesides of those whom I repre- 
sent, and to ensure to them future quietude. Who are they? The breast of 
each I address, responds, they are the centre of all our happiness. Those 
whom I represent are not insensible to your valor, — each heart returns its sin- 
cere thanks for your noble services. You will be exposed to much danger, — 
but, soldiers, it is a high and holy emprise ! Perhaps, while the prayers which 
will ever follow you from the parent, the wife, the brother or sister, are wafted 
by the vesper breeze to a righteous God for your protection, you may be writh- 
ing beneath the scalping knife of the savage. Go on ! every heart goes with 
you; and may Him, who holds the fate of all, preserve you. 

I now, in behalf of the ladies of Selma, present to you this standard. 
Guard it well. With it I most, respectfully tender their grateful and heartfelt 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 21 

wisl.es, for a successful campaign, a speedy return, and a safe restoration to 
your homes and the bosoms of your friends. 

Ensiyyi BasseWs Reply. 
Maj. TredwcU : 

From you, as tlie representative of our amiable friends, I now receive 
this banner. Words are cheap, and no proof of bravery — something more 
than this must sustain us in the shock of war. To speak of female patriotism 
would be to tell a tale often told, and one known to the world. There was a 
time when the terror of British arms resounded through our land, and the 
proudest spirits turned pale. The plains of Lexington were stained with the 
infant blood of liberty, and the freedom of slavery of half a world seemed to 
hang on the few brave and God-like. It was then the lion-hearted Putnam, 
leaving his plough in the furrow, returned to his house and received from the 
hands of his wife the weapon of death that told full well on the bloody heights 
of Bunker's Hill. She was an example of an American lady ; from this learn 
all. "Selma Rangers" — turn your eyes to these stripes and stars, which have 
long waved "o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." Can you 
guard them? If not, return them to those who gave them. Sir, the time is 
short, the shrill sound of the rifle is heard on our borders, the red man's tom- 
ahawk is dyed in blood, and we must rush to the field of battle. This banner 
we promise to guard with an American hand. This is all we need say. May 
Heaven bless you, and return your brothers and friends to enjoy with you once 
more the rich fruition of peace. 

This compauy was in service about eight weeks, and was 
lionorably discharged from service at Montgomery. 

The 4tli day of July, 1836, was tlie day agreed upon to give 
a dinner and ball to the Selma Volunteers, and great were the 
preparations commenced at once. The surrounding country 
was in a flourishing condition, the greatest abundance of every 
thing necessary for a grand barbecue were readily given, and 
when the day arrived hundreds of slaughtered animals, bread, 
cake, wine, and everj other luxury, was to be seen on the 
ground, and on and around tlie long pits, which were located 
in a beautiful grove near the now residence of Mrs. Tredwell. 
Col. John W. Lapsley was the orator of the day, and Thomas 
W. Cash, Esq., the reader of the Declaration of Independence. 
The Cumberland Presbyterian church building bad been 
selected in which to read the Declaration and the delivery of 
the Oration. The building was so small that a comparative 
small portion of the immense assembly could gain admittance. 

At the dinner, good feeling prevailed ; thirteen regular 
toasts were given in honor of the thirteen original States, and 
numerous volunteer toasts; among those giving volunteer toasts 
were: Gen. John Brantly. Wni. VVaddill, jr., R. R. Minter, J. 
W, Lapsley, T. S. Fellows, Maj. Porter (a revolutionary sol- 
dier), Maj. G. A. Chandler, Dr. W. Randall, Dr. J. R. Dickin- 
son, W. W. Wall is, Zack Pinson, S. J. Elliott, A. M. Good- 
win, James Hendricks, Dr. J. A. Jackson, John W. Jones, Dr. 
T. Wilson, E. J. Hubbell, Charles P. Evans, Randall Duck- 
worth, Maj John Tipton, Dr. U. Grigsby, Col. E. W. Saun- 
ders, (^ol. V. H. Gardner, Maj. T. J. Frow, Thomas L. Craig, 
H. Traun, W. H. Fellows, A. J. King, W. D. Gorman, T. 
Leonard, H. Walker, Thomas L. Waddill, Sam. P. Pickens. 

At night, a grand ball was given, and the Assembly Rooms 
at Bogle's hotel were overflowing with the beauty of the town 
and surrounding country, and good feeling generally pre- 
vailed. This grand ball was under the direction of John Tip- 
ton, Geo. C. Phillips, P. A. Berry, James Ferguson, M. G. 
Woods, Thomas H. Cowan, T. J. Frow, as the managers. 



22 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

On the 2d of December, 1836, the town Council adopted 
the following ordinance, which will show the difference in the 
way trade was carried on at that date, and that of the 1st of 
December, 1868: 

£e it Ordained by the Town Council of Seltna, 

That from and alter Monday the nth inst., all Negroes found offering for 
sale in said Town, any article of Provision, Corn, Meal, Poultry, Eggs, &c., 
&c., without a written permit from his or her master, shall receive on his or her 
bare back, a number of lashes not exceeding thirty-nine, to be ordered by the 
Intendant of said Town or any member of the Council. 
And be it further Ordained, 

That any person who shall be found purchasing of any slave, any of the 
above enumerated articles shall, on conviction, it a free person, forfeit and pay 
the sum of ten dollars; if a slave, he or she shall receive on his or her bare 
back, not exceeding fifteen lashes, to be inflicted as in the first section. 
And be it further Ordained, 

That no negro belonging to any citizen of the town, be allowed to sell 
any of the above enumerated articles within the limits of said Town, unless in 
the presence of his or her owner. 

U. GRIGSBY, Int. 
D. C. RUSSELL, Sec'ry. 

On the 14th day of August, 1837, a most fatal affray occur- 
red in front of "Johnson's corner," between Dr. James R. 
Dickinson on one side, and John Blevins, Wm. Blevins and 
Byron (;, Rowan on the other, resulting in the death of Dick- 
inson, with a bowie knife, in the hands of Wm. Blevins. The 
high standing of the parties to tliis unfortunate affair, and the 
peculiar circumstances leading to its cause, created an intense 
excitement in the public miuci. On the 7th day of April, 1838, 
the case was called — the two Blevins and Rowan having been 
indicted for murder — before tlie Circuit Court at Cahaba, Judge 
E. Pickens presiding, with the following jury in the bos : 
Geo. P. Moseley, Alfred K. Smith, Alfred Roberts, Theoderick 
Oliver, Archibald M. Kiles, Peter Moseley, Laird .C. Graham, 
Thomas H, Wiley, Pleasant S. Martin, John Crawford, Henry 
Martin, P. W, Herbert. 

Hon. .John 8. Hunter and Maj. Graham, the Solicitor, 
prosecuting: Charles G. Edwards, Geo. W. Gayle, James B. 
Clark and Thomas Williams, defending. The trial occupied 
two days, when it was submitted to the jury, who, after a few 
hours deliberation, returned a verdict to the court of "not 
guilty," as to Wm. Blevins and Rowan, a nol pros having been 
entered as to John Blevins. It was said that Dickinson had 
been engaged to a daughter of Wm. Blevins, but becoming 
estranged the engagement was broken off, and the young ludy 
married Byron C. Rowan, who, after the marriage, required 
Dickinson to return to his wife letters that had passed while the 
parties were engaged. It was told to Dickinson that Rowan 
boasted on several occasions, in a public manner, of having 
made Dickinson return the letters, which led to the unfortu- 
nate affray, 

A Dr. Rossum, a reformer, about this date came to the town, 
proposing to cure all kinds of diseases, in a few minutes, by 
sweating and hot water — the Thompsonian system — and created 
quite a sensation by his wonderful cures of chills and fevers: 
but one day, having steattied one of Gen. Brantley's negroes 
a little too much, the negro died while under the blanket; we 
heard no more of the curing of chills and fevers in that way 
for some time after, Dr. Russum having changed his residence. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 23 

Among the prominent business firms then in the town we 
mention those of Wm. Seaman, as a druggist, and really the 
first regular drug store in the place, D. C. Russell, also as a 
druggist, Irvine & Cowles, Norwood & Goodwin, Walker & 
Kenon, John H. Crowley &Co., Mauley & Montey, Donaldson 
& Rankin, as tailors, W. H. & T. S. Fellows, "O'Connor & 
Philpot, T. W. & R. Walker, West & Bigelow, Thomas Linti- 
cum, a wagon maker and blacksmith. Jeremiah Pittman, who 
opened a market house of his own and supplied the people with 
beef. Douglas, King & Co., W. P. Swift, W. H. & J. Jordan, 
Thomas Hazard, Henry VanBibber, Dupree & Porelling ; the 
legal profession was represented by such men as E. W. Marks, 
Robert L. Downmau; Dr. R. O. Shaw, as a dentist; the medical 
profession by Dr. A. P. Manley, Dr. T. B. Geoghegan, Dr. Ed- 
ward McNair, Dr. N. Childers. 

Shows of various kinds visited the town in the fall of 1837, 
among them a Mr. Kenneworth, as a ventriloquist, and mes- 
meriser, and Hobby's big show and circus. 

1 he young men of the town formed a thespian company, 
and generally played such good old time pieces as the "Moun- 
taineer," and such forces as " John Jones." This effort on the 
part of the young men to afTord amusement and pleasure was 
kept up for several years, the only drawback was that no ladies 
could be induced to take part in any of the plays or farces. 

On the 1st of September 1836, a bale of new cotton was re- 
ceived by John F. Couoly & Co.. from the plantation of E S. 
Jones, shipped to Mobile by them to James Douglass' who sold 
it for the high price of 13 J cents. 

J. C. Caldwell established a line of tri-weekly stages be- 
tween Selma and Greenville, January 10, 1836, and it became in 
a short time a great line of travel. 

P. McMullen was appointed postmaster, and a short time 
after was killed by James Hamilton, a painter, in the notorious 
Alhambra, after quarrelling about a game of cards. 

Rev. A. G. McCraw preached in the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church on the 1st Sabbath of September 1836. 

Rev. W. H. Merideth, while attending the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Synod, had his horse to die at the stables of E. 
Parkmau. The citizens at once raised him a sum of money 
suflficient to buy another. Mr. Merideth returning his thanks 
in the following neat and chaste note: 

To the Citizens of Selma : 

It is a heathen maxim, that " a kindness always produces a kindness," or 
at least should do it. It is, I assure you, with no ordinary portion of frankness 
and gratitude that I acknowledge the reception of eighty-eight dollars, prompted 
by your liberal and hospitable feelings towards me, in commisseration of my 
misfortune in the loss of my beast, while in your community. Be assured that 
I am not a little obliged to you for this expression of your liberality. 

Yours respectfully, 

W. H. MERIDETH. 

In 1835 and 1836 business looked promising. During the 
fall of 1835 a State Convention was held in Tuscaloosa to take 
into consideration the most feasible plan of connecting the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee rivers. At this convention resolutions 
were adopted favoring a railroad connection from the Upper 
Peach Tree, on the Alabama, and Beard's Bluff on the Tennes- 
see river, and a sum of money raised to employ Col. A. A. Dex- 
ter to make the preliminary survey, which he did. This move- 



^ HISTORY OF SELMA. 

meat soon attracted the attention of the shrewd and business 
men of Selma. A few notices were written and nailed up on 
the trees about the town, signed by Geo. W. Parsons, W. H. 
Fellows and Jolui W. Lapsley, ealJiug for a meeting of the citi- 
zens at the law office of John W. Lapsley. This notice at- 
tracted but little attention, and but few persons attended, but 
the project of connecting the Alabama and Tennessee rivers 
continued to be agitated, and in June, 1836, the following meet- 
ing was held : 

At a meeting of a portion of the citizens of the town of Selma, convened 
on the 20th of June, 1836, to take into consideration again the project of con- 
necting the waters of the Tennessee at Brown's ferry or some other suitable 
point, with the waters of the Alabama at Selma — J. Hinds, Esq., acted as 
Chairman, and Thos. J. Frow was appointed Secretary. 

The following preamble and resolutions were submitted and adopted by 
the meeting : 

Whereas, a large portion of the citizens of Dallas county, and especially 
those of the town of Selma, have been deeply impressed with the importance 
of connecting, by railroad, the Tennessee river with that of the Alabama at 
Selma ; and whereas, the ground over which a railroad would run between 
Brown's Ferry and Selma, is acknowledged to present fewer obstacles than is 
to be found in any other route of equal length in the United States, and would 
not be of inferior utility or importance to any other. Therefore, 

Resolved, That our delegation in the next Legislature be instructed to use 
their best exertions to procure a charter for a railroad connecting the Tennes- 
see with the Alabama at Selma ; and that a committee of seven be appointed 
to draft a memorial setting forth the importance of the construction of said 
railroad. 

Hon. E. Pickens, Col. T. Kenan, Col. Robert Dunlap, Messrs. Wm. John- 
son, Geo. W. Parsons, M. G. Woods and J. W. Lapsley were appointed said 
committee. 

Resolved, That Maj. Jesse Beene is hereby delegated a member from this 
State to the Convention to assemble at Knoxville, Tennessee, on the 4th July 
next, for the purpose of adopting measures for the construction of a railroad 
between the cities of Cincinnati and Charleston ; that he be instructed to ac- 
quire such information as he may deem useful for the advancement of the pro- 
ject contemplated in the first resolution. 

Resolved, That Messrs. H. Traun, P. A. Berry, T. H Cowan and T. J. 
Frow be a committee to notify Maj. Beene of his appointment. 

Resolved, That these proceedings be published in the Selma Free Press. 

J. HINDS. Chairman. 

Thos. J. Frow, Secretary. 

On the 10th of October, 1836. the following meeting of the 
citizens was held at the store of Geo. W. Parsons : 

Railroad Meeting. — Agreeably to previous notice given, a number o' 
citizens of Dallas county convened at Selma, on the^ lotli instant, lor the ptir- 
pose of adopting measures to promote the contemplated railroad between the 
waters of the Tennessee with those of the Alabama at Selma — Joseph Pickens, 
Esq., was called to the Chair, and R. N. Philpot appointed Secretary. 

The following preamble and resolutions were offered, which, after some 
discussion, were adopted by the meeting. 

Whereas a number of the. citizens of this section of the State have it in 
contemplation to apply to the next Legislature for a charter for the construc- 
tion of a railroad from the lown of Selma on the Alabama river, to some suita- 
ble ]joint on the Tennessee river, it is deemed highly important that immediate 
measures should be adopted by those desirous of the accom[)lishment of this 
great object, to obtain ful' and accurate information on the subject to be laid 
before the Legislature, and the people generally. 

It is assumed beyond a question, that the work in contemplation is alto- 
gether practicable, and is be'.ievcd by those who have the best means of judg- 
ing, that the route proposed for tlie construction of the road, is for tiie greater 
part of the distance, highly favorable, greatly more so than any other route 



/ 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 25 

which has been projected, taking into consideration the cost, the distance and 
the surface of the country, with every other circumstance of importance. But 
it is deemed important that these facts (if they exist) should be proved and 
made apparent to the whole public. It is therefore 

ist. Resolved, That the best and most speedy means ought to be adopted, 
to obtain the information desired. 

2d. Resolved, That to obtain this information, it is necessary that a com- 
plete and accurate survey should be made of the country through which it is 
proposed to construct the said road ; and it is the opinion of this meeting that 
this survey ought forthwith to be made. 

3d. Resolved That a committee of sixteen be now appointed by the 
Chairman, to carry forward the purposes above expressed, and that said com- 
mittee be empowered and requested to adopt measures for raising by subscrip- 
tion or donation, a sum of money which may be sufficient to defray the ex- 
penses of the proposed survey; and should a sufficient sum be obtained, the 
committee are hereby authorised and requested to employ an engineer whom 
they may think well qualified, whose duty it shall be to make, as soon as prac- 
ticable, said survey; and to furnish, before the sitting of the next Legislature, a 
full report of his proceedings, with accurate maps of the country along the 
route or routes, with an estimate of the cost of constructing the road. 

4th. Resolved, That said committee be, and they are hereby further em- 
powered to employ an agent or agents (should it be deemed proper) to solicit 
contributions to aid in defraying the expense of said survey, from other coun- 
ties and distant places. 

5th. Resolved, That the citizens of this State, and those of the State of 
Tennessee, or other States, who may feel an interest in the work under contem- 
plation, be, and they are hereby earnestly requested to co-operate with the citi- 
zens of this section, and to lend their aid to carry forward to completion, this 
great and important work. 

6th. Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to correspond 
with persons at a distance, who may feel interested in this subject, and may 
feel irispo^d to aid in the proposed undertaking. 

7th. Resolved, That the committee of sixteen hereby appointed, be re- 
quested to make a report of their proceedings at a meeting hereby recommended 
to be held on the second Monday in August next. 

8th. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the 
Chairman and Secretary, and published in the Selmj Free Press. 

The following gentlemen were appointed the committee under the third 
resolution, by the Chair :— Messrs. Wm. Johnson, Geo. W. Parsons, Gilbert 
Shearer, Caleb Tate, Thos. Kenan, sen., Middleton G. Woods, James M. 
Calhoun, Henry Traun, John Tipton, John Brantley, Uriah Grigsby, Wm. H. 
Fellows, Thornton B. Goldsby, Robt. N. Philpot, Thos. W. Walker and Josiah 
Hinds. 

John W. Lapsley, Hugh Ferguson and Thos. J. Frow were appointed a 
comrriittee of correspondence, under the sixth resolution. 

JOS. PICKENS, Chairman. 
R. N. Philpot, Secretary. 

At the folUowing session of the Legislature, in December, 
1836, a charter was obtained, books opened for subscription of 
stock, $300,000 sub.scribed, and a Board of Directors elected at a 
meeting of the stockholders, and Gen. Gilbert Shearer, Presi- 
dent of the road. In March, 1837, Col. A. A. Dexter, of Mont- 
gomery, was employed to make a survey to Moutevallo, wliich 
he did and reported to the stockholders, and the first section of 
»the road— 10 miles— was put under contract on the 1st of No- 
vember, 1837, David Cooper & Bros, becoming the contractors, 
who at once advertised for one hundred negroes to work, for 
the necessary timbers, &c., to carry out their contract. On the 
1st day of March, 1838, the following Board of Directors were 
elected for the Selma and Tennessee Railroad Company : 

Gilbert Shear.r, President ; Thornton B Goldsby, Middle- 
ton G. Woods, James C. >Sharp, Daniel H. Norwood, John 



26 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Brantley Uriah Grigsby. John Tipton, and James M. Callioun; 
and at which meeting the stockholders selected the present lo- 
cation of the S. R. & D. as the place for the depot of the road. 

The Messrs. Cooper were energetic m"en. and shoved the 
worli rapidly forward, until they had very nearly completed the 
earth work of their contract, when the great financial troubles 
came upon the country, and for the want of promptness on the 
part of the Company they were compelled to abandon the work. 
The Messrs. Cooper purchased the Bell Tavern from James 
Adams and changed its name to that of the Railroad Hotel. 

Brantley's Hotel, the present St. James, was completed by 
a Stock Company, and opened to the public about this time. 

J. Hinds was appointed postmaster in place of Pat. Mc- 
Mullen, who retained the ofltice but a short time, when he had 
to give way to 8. W. Morley, on the 1st of March, 1838. 

A public meetiug was held on the 2d day of April, 1838, 
and many subscribed to purchase a Fire Engine, whicii was 
afterwards purchased, brought to the town and finally, in 1873, 
sold to the town of Talladega, and is a good hand-engine to- 
day. 

A Library was opened in 1838, Thomas Walker, Librarian, 
but did not do well, and it soon ceased to exist only in name. 

A volunteer military company was organized in April, 
1838, called the /Sfe^ma i^an^fers, of which John F. Conoly was 
Captain, and J. B. Harrison Orderly Sergeant. 

On the 3d day of April, 1838, a meetiug was held at Brant- 
ley's Hotel to devise some plan ujion which a Bank, based upon 
Real Estate, could be organized, at which Dr U. Grigsby was 
Cha raian, and T. J. Frow Secietary. A Committeeof Gen. John 
Brantly, A. A. Dexter, D. H. Norwood. W. H. Fellows and M. 
G. Woods, was appointed to report at a future meetiug. 

A public meeting was held at Brantley's Hotel on the 24th 
day March, 1838, to consider the propriety of building an Acad- 
emy. The following are the proceedings of their meeting : 

The Chairman, in a brief manner, explained the object of the meeting, 
when the following resolutions were presented and adopted : 

Resolved, That it is expedient and proper at this time to erect and estab- 
lish an Academy in the town of Selma, for the education of females. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to carry the above resolution 
into effect, and that the said committee be instructed to enquire into the ex- 
pediency of raising a fund by subscription for the purpose of erecting a Female 
Academy in connexion with an Episcopal Church, and to furnish a plan of a 
building for the purpose to be submitted to a subsequent meeting. The fol- 
lowing persons were appointed said committee, viz : Dr. Childers, Wm. Wad- 
dill, jr., M. Patterson, Wm. Johnson, P. J. Weaver and Rev. S. M. Nelson. 

On motion, the Chairman was added to the committee. 

On motion, the following ladies were added to the committee, viz : Mrs. 
Grigsby, Mrs. Downing, Mrs. Weaver, Mrs. Waddill, Mrs. Patterson and Mrs. 
Hunter. 

Resolved, That the committee give one week's notice in the Free Press, of 
the time and place of meeting, authorized by the second resolution. 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to select a site and 
procure a lot suitable for said building, whereupon E. Parkman, J. W. Jones 
and D. A. Boyd were appointed said committee. 

Resolved, That the editor of the Free Press be requested to publish the 
proceedings of this meeting. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

URIAH GRIGSBY, Chairman. 
D. A. BoYD, Secretary. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 27 

Physicians had become rather numerous in the town, and 
with a view of harmonizing and promoting the profession, the 
following meeting was held : 

MEDICAL MEETING. 

At a meeting of the physicians of Selma, pursuant to pubHc notice, for the 
purpose of forming a Medical Society — on motion, Dr. Gantt was called to the 
Chair, and Dr. Gehegan was requested to act as Secretary. 

On motion of Dr. Randall, it was 

Resolved, That the Chairman appoint a committee of five to form a Con- 
stitution and draft resolutions, to be submitted to the next meeting. 

The following gentlemen were accordingly appointed said committee by 
the Chair . Dr. Deas, Dr. Randall, Dr. Gehegan, Dr. Lawrence and Dr. 
Grigsby. 

On motion of Dr, Deas, the Chairman was added to the committee. 

On motion of Dr. Deas, it was 

Resolved, That when this meeting adjourn it be adjourned to Saturday, 
the 17th inst., to receive the report of the committee. 

On motion of the same, it was 

Resolved, That the physicians friendly to the objects of this meeting be 
requested to meet with us at this place, on the day above appointed. 

On motion of Dr. Gantt, it was 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the "Selma 
Free Press," ' Southern Democrat," of Cahawba, and "Southern Herald," of 
Marion. 

On motion of Dr. Randall, the meeting then adjourned. 

EDWARD GANTT, Chairman. 

F. B. Gehegan, Secretary. 

Selma, Feb. 5, 1838. 

At a meeting held on the 2d of April, 1838, a Medical 
Society was organized as follows: Dr. Edward Gantt, Presi- 
dent ; Dr. P. W. Herbert, Vice Presivlent ; Dr. ¥. B. Gehe- 
ghan, Secretary; Dr. Uriah Grigsby, Treasurer; Dr. J. A. 
Lawrence, Librarian ; with a membership of twenty-four. 

R. H. W. Bigger opened a livery stable — the first that had 
ever been opened in the town — on the 2d of March, 1838. 

R. L. Downman, Geo. H. Geib, James Gantt and James 
D. Monk, were candidates for Justice of the Peace, for Selma 
Beat, at the March election in 1838. 

During the fall of 1837 and 1838, cotton sold at from five to 
seven cents. 

There was quite an excitement during the winter of 1838, 
in consequence of Gen. C. W. Lea, of Perry, introducing a bill 
in the Legislature requiring Commission Merchants to give 
bond to pay over assets within thirty days after receiving 
them, and a failure to do so should be a felony. 

Among the business houses and professional men in Selma, 
in 1838, we can mention E. A. & D. Sanford, Hugh Ferguson, 
Ferguson & Boyd, Edward Weyman, Gowan & Chapman, 
Boyd & Adams, D. Bulkey & Co., P. J. Miller, blacksmith, 
Boyd & Street. Norwood & Goodwin, Walker & Brewer ; and 
the medical profession, Dr. E. McNair, Dr. Giles M. Ormond, 
Dr. D. Fair, Dr. James A. Jackson, who was a Botanic prac- 
titiouer, and somewhat more successful than Dr. Russum of 
the same line of business, and who had been in Selma ^ome 
years previous. 

We clip the following notice from the Selma Free Preds, of 
May 5th, 1838, to let this generation know the way our forefath- 
ers did things : 

J^&'AX the ringing of the Railroad Hotel Bell, after tea this evening, 
the citizens of Selma are requested to assemble there, for the purpose of mak- 



28 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

ing suitable arrangemnnts for celebrating the approaching Anniversary of onr 
Independence. General attendance is requested. 

In old times, or rather in the better times, when our beau- 
tiful city was nothing but a town, thegood people never forgot 
the 4th of July. In 1838, the 4th was celebrated in a manner 
becoming every American citizen, and in the evening, a splen- 
did ball was given in the Railroad Hotel Assembly Rooms, at 
which Maj. Gen. G. Shearer, Lieut. W. Lawrence, Brig. Gen. 
J, Brantly, Lieut. J. B. Harrison, Col. Com. V. H. Gardner, 
Ensign E. W. Marks, Col. Com VV. T. Minter, Maj. W. Tred- 
well, Maj. T. J. Frow, Capt. J. F. Conoly, R. L. Downman, T. 
K. Kornegay, P. H. Earleand John W, Lapsley, were mana- 
gers; thus exhibiting to this generation how the "old folks" 
did things in those days. 

The winding up of the United States Bank and the 
suspension of the State Banks, caused, for a time, a terrible 
stagnation in business and trade generally ; but the business 
men of Selma soon proved themselves equal to the emergency. 
About every business house issued "shin jjlasters," which, by 
general consent, was good and answered all the purposes of the 
trade. The town Council also issued its notes of credit, and 
soon flush times were upon the town. Improvements again 
commenced. E. Park man erected a splendid residence in a 
beautiful grove, on Cliurch street, and is now known as tlie 
Tarver or Hayden Place ; numerous residences were erected, 
as well as quite a number of business houses. 

The Committee which had been appointed to consider the 
mode and manner of establishing a bank based upon real estate, 
reported to a large meeting, the report adopted and the follow- 
ing Articles of Association agreed upon : 

ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION. 

Articles of Association and Agreement made and entered into, by and 
between the Stockholders of the Real Estate Banking Company, of South 
Alabama, ior the purpose hereinarter mentioned. 

The undersigned, citizens of the State of Alabama, do by these presents 
covenant and agree to and with each other, to form themselves into an Asso- 
ciation or Company, for the purpose of Banking; and for the better securing 
each other in the ultimate debts of the Association or Company, they do hereby 
bind themselves by the following articles of Association : 

Article ist. The Company shall be known and designated by the name 
and style of THE REAL ESTATE BANKING COMPANY OF SOUTH 
ALABAMA ; and all acts done and performed under that name and in accor- 
dance with these articles of association, shall be binding upon all and each 
member of the Company — the Bank to be located at Selma, in Dallas County, 
State of Alabama. 

2nd. The stock of the Company shall consist of a sum not to exceed One 
Million of Dollars ; and shall be divided into shares of One Hundred Dollars 
each ; and every member of said Company shall be entitled to a vote for each 
and ev(^ry share owned and possessed by him in his own right at the time of 
said voting. 

3d. The Company, by a majority shall select three disinterested and res- 
ponsible persons to act as Trustees ; and each and every member subscribing 
for stock in the said Company, shall, before he or she leceives a certificate for 
the same, make and execute a promissary note for the amount of stock sub- 
scribed for by him or her, payable to said trustees or either of them in trust 
for said Company ; and for the purpose of payment of said note in case it 
shall become necessary, to secure the balance of the Company against losses 
which may be sustained in their said business of Banking, each and every mem- 
ber of said Company shall make and execute a Deed of Trust to said Trustees, 
conveying to them in trust for said Company, Real Estate of a cash value 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 29 

double the amount of stock subscribed by said member ; the value of said 
Real Estate to be ascertained as follows, viz : The cer'ificate of three respon- 
sible, disinterested freeholders residing in the County where the land is situated 
shall be endorsed upon or annexed to the Deed of Trust, certilying that they 
have examined the property, and that the price fixed is a fair and equitable cash 
valuation ; Subject, however, to a revision at the first General Meeting of the 
Stockholders, when two-thirds of the votes present may reduce or confirm the 
valuation, and at such General Meeting, a certificate shall be had from the 
Clerk of the County Court, stating that the property is free from all encum- 
brances : — Prodded, that \n lieu of, or in addition to, said certificate, the per- 
son or persons executing a Deed of Trust, shall make oath that the Real Estate 
conveyed to the Company is free from any legal lein or encumbrance of any 
kind whatsoever, and that he, she or they will, in good faith, abide by and 
adhere to its provisions, according to the intent and meaning thereof, any legal 
imperfection or quibble of law to the contrary notwithstandmg. Saiil Deed ot 
Trust shall have a condition thereunto annexed and attached, to the following 
effect, viz : That if said Company shall sustain no loss in their said Banking 
operations ; or if each member of the Company in case of loss, shall well and 
truly pay and advance his or her proportionable part of the loss, then and in 
that case said Deed of Trust to be void, otherwise said Deed shall remain in 
full force, virtue and effect for the purpose therein mentioned and expressed. 

4th. Each and every member of said Company, shall share the profits 
and the losses of said Company in proportion to the amount of stock actually 
held by him, her or them at the time such profits and losses are ascertained or 
declared. 

Sth. Any member wishing or desiring to change his or her securities to said 
Company to enable him or her to transfer the Real Estate for which he or she 
may have given his or her Deed of Trust as aforesaid ; may do so, provided 
he or she substitutes in lieu of the first Deed another Deed of Trust upon unin- 
cumbered Real Estate ata cash valuation of double the amount of his orher 
stock subscriccd ; all of which shall be approved by the Company. 

6th. Any member or Stockholder wishing to withdraw from the Company 
may do so, on giving bond with approved security, payable to R. R. Nance or 
his successor in office, to make good his proportion of all losses (if anyj which 
may be sustained on any debts which may have been contracted by the Com- 
pany up to the time of his wishing to withdraw ; and any new member or mem- 
bers may be admitted, at the discretion of the Company, who shall pledge Real 
Estate in the same manner as the withdrawing member. 

7th. Whenever a demand or demands shall be made to the Company for 
payment of their notes or bills; and should there not be sufficient funds of the 
Company to meet them, a call shall be made on the Stockholders, and each 
member of the Association shall contribute in a ratio of the stock he or she 
holds, an amount sufficent to liquidate and discharge the claim or demand; 
and on failure of any Stockholder to pay the sum so required, his or her Real 
Estate may be sold at the discretion of the Company under the provisions 
of the Deed of Trust. 

Sth. The Officers shall consist of a President and Cashier, who shall 
be elected annually, and a Committee of Finance and Business, to be com- 
posed of seven members of the Association, who shall be elected semi-an- 
nually, and hold their office until others are appointed; three of said com- 
mittee together with the Presidei-t and Cashier shall constitute a quorum 
to do business. 

9th. The notes and bills of the Company shall be signed by the President 
and countersigned by the Cashier. 

loth. The President and Cashier of the Company shall have no power to 
bind the Company in any way whatsoever, except so far as it is necessary to 
sign notes, checks and bills of exchange of the Company, and in such amounts 
and denominations as the Company may direct, or such as may hereafter be 
granted by the General Board of Directors. They shall hold their offices until 
their successors are appomted, and shall give bond and security in a sum to be 
approved by the General Board of Directors. And no member of the Com- 
pany shall bind the Company in any manner whatsoever, unless they have spe- 
cial power conferred on them by the Company. 

nth. Each Stockholder shall be a Director, and a meeting of the Direc- 



30 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

tors shall be held once every three months or oftener if deemed necessary, at 
such time and place as may be agreed upon by the Company, at which meet- 
ing the Prsident and Cashier shall present a full statement of the operations 
and situation of the Bank to the Stockholders ; who shall be considered a Gen- 
eral Board of Directors. 

1 2th. The duties of the Committee of Finance and Business shall be to 
meet weekly or oftener if deemed necessary, to discount notes offered, exam- 
ine and report to the General Board of Directors, upon propositions offered by 
persons wishing to become Stockholders, and do all other business which may 
be required of them in the by-laws of the Company. 

13th. It shall require not less than one-half of the whole number of Stock- 
holders, representing more than one-half the amount subscribed, to form a 
quorum of the General Board ot Directors to transact business, a majority of 
the votes of whom shall govern in all ordinary cases, except in the admission of 
a nev. member, and valuation of property offered by persons wishing to become 
Stockholders, in which case it shall require two-thirds of the votes present. 

14th, The General Board of Directors shall have power to make by-laws 
and regulations for its own government, provided said by-laws and regulations 
shall not be inconsistent with these Articles of Association. 

15th. Each and every Stockholder may have the privelege of borrowing 
money on note or notes from the Company, to an amount not to exceed one- 
half of his or her stock subscribed with security, provided his or her note shall 
be approved by the Committee of Finance and Business. 

i6th. The salaries of the Officers of the Bank, shall be fixed by the Gen- 
eral Board of Directors, and altered at their discretion. 

17th. The Committee of Finance and Business, or any five members of 
the Company owning to gather two hundred shares, shall at any time have the 
power of calling a meeting of the General Board of Directors, if the business 
of the Bank shall require it. 

i8th The Company shall not issue or circulate at any time notes or bills, 
or create or make any liabilities or responsibilities upon the Company for an 
amount exceeding the valuation of the Real Estate upon which they may have 
or hold Deeds of Trust in the manner before mentioned. 

19th. In case the Real Estate of each member upon which the Company 
have or hold Deeds of Trust in the manner before stated, shall not be sufficient 
to meet his or her proportion of the losses of the Company, in case said Com- 
pany shall meet with losses, then said members and each of ihem shall con- 
tribute out of their private funds and estate in proportion to the amount of 
stock subscribed by each a sufficient amount to equalize the losses amongst the 
different members, in proportion to their different amounts of stock. 

20th. The Real Estate made over to said Company by Deed of Trust, as 
aforesaid, shall be valued in such manner as shall be agreed upon and directed 
by said Company every five years or oftener at the discretion of the Company ; 
and if the Real Estate of each or either member of said Company shall have 
declined in value since the previous valuation, then the stock of said member 
shall be reduced in proportion as said Real Estate has declined, or if the value 
of said Real Estate shall have increased, then the stock of said member shall 
be increased in the same proportion, if said member desires it ; provided said 
increase of stock shall not exceed the limit of the capital stock of the Com- 
pany. The original valuation of property shall be considered as temporary, 
for the purpose of organizing the Company ; and the Stockhold rs at their first 
Genenil Meeting in the year 1839, shall appoint three Commissioners, one of- 
whom shall reside in each of the counties in which the largest quantity of stock 
may be ; and the said Commissioners shall proceed in a reasonable time there- 
after to examine and value all the lands which may have been deeded to the 
Company, at a fair and equitable valuation, taking into view the quality of the 
said land and all its local advantages and disadvantages ; and on the first of 
July, thereafter, the stock of each Stockholder shall be increased or diminished 
as the case may recjuire, to correspond with such valuation ; and no dividend 
shall be declared on the stock until the revised valuation of the lands above 
named shall have been made. 

2ist. The Company may receive deposits of money and pay out the same 

in such manner as the General Board of Directors may direct in their by-laws. 

22d, No member signing these Articles of Association shall be entitled to 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 31 

any of the privileges of said Company under this agreement, until he or she 
has made and executed his or her Deed of Trust in accordance with the Arti- 
cles of Association within ninety days after the signmg thereof. 

23d, All Deeds of Trust shall be made to the Trustees for the time being 
and their successors in office. In case a vacancy happens in the Board of 
Trustees by death, resignation, or otherwise, of one or more of the members 
the remaining member or members sliall continue to perform the duties of the 
Boarii, until others are appointed— and an e.xtra meeting of the Stoclcholders 
may be called forthwith to fill such vacancy. And the Trustees shall be elected 
at a meeting of the Stockholders, where not less than two-thirds of the stock 
shall be represented, and a certificate or Commission signed by the President 
and Cashier of the Company, stating the name and residence of the newly 
elected Trustee or Trustees, with his or their endorsements thereon, signifying 
their acceptance of the appointment, shall be recorded in the office of the 
Clerk of the County of Dallas. 

And for the purpose of perfecting each and every of the obligations, in the 
foregoing articles specified, each member doth hereunto subscribe his or her 
hand and affix his or her seal. 

Whereupon the following persons became StockholderB : 

Dallas County. — Stephen 1 edrick, Thos. 8. Chadwick, 
James A. Tliompson, Wm. Russell, John K, Campbell, Benj. 
Grumbles, Benj. Day, Ambrose Gibson, Marshall Day, Obe- 
diah liamar. Thomas J. Seay, Thomas Gibson, Wm. Waddill, 
jr., G. Shearer, Wm. K. Downs, John Merideth, Alex. Porter, 
M. Patterson. M. G. Woods, Robert English, Harris Brantley, 
John Campbell, Noel Pitts, F. M. Bradley, A. Andrews, Wm. 
R. Morris, Washington Orr, R. N. Philpot. John B. Jones, 
xjohn Tipton, R. R. Nance, John Brantley, Samuel Waugh, 
^ Samuel Kendall, Robert Morrison, Christopher Orsborn, T. B. 
Goldsby, B. A. Glass, Wm. B. Hall, Wm. F. Dubose, Hugh 
Ferguson, Samuel New, S. W, Murley. 

Autauga County.— J. S. Taylor, Joseph D. Lee, Gilbert 
Cleveland, David MeCandless, Farmer Adair, Miles Garret, 
James Hester, Benj. J. Dubose, Jesse Hunt, Edward Speed, 
James Caver, Wm. H. 'Bryant, Joseph Shannon, Lewis Watson, 
Jeremiah Lasiter, Racheal Ricks, George N. Langford, Thos. 
Hogg, Gideon Hollins, Elias Dubose, John G. Speigner, Elijah 
Smith, Thos. D. Armstrong, Isaac Dubose, Alexander Wal- 
don. 

Perry County. — Mathias Dennis, John Elam. Wm. 
Henry, John L. Tippet, Samuel D. Jackson, Reuben Pounds, 
Wm. B. Johnson, Lloyd Johnson, Reinard Vanderslice, 
Richard Farrar, John Holmes. 

Bibb County. — Thomas Crawford, Robert Goodwin, Aaron 
Hinson, Ransom Davis, John Clabough, Obediah Metheny. 

The company at once organized with the following officers, 
on the 28th of May, 1838: 

For President, Gilbert Shearer; Cashier, Robert R. Nance; 
Committee of Finance, T. B. Goldsby, John Brantley, Hugh 
Ferguson, John Tipton, M. G. Woods, P. J. Weaver, Joseph 
D. Lee ; Trustees of the Bank, Thomas Kenan, Wm. Ruther- 
ford, Geo. C. King. 

The officers made arrangements at once to have the neces- 
sary notes prepared for circulation, varying from one to one 
hundred dollars in denominations, and very soon these notes 
made their appearance in the community and were readily 
taken. 



32 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

The Cashier issued the following notices: 

Office of the Real Estate Bank of So. Alabama, July 6th. 1838. 
The Committee of the Real Estate Banking Company of South Alabama, 
at Selma, have resolved that Wednesday of each week shall be discount day 
at said Bank. 

All the notes offered for discount must be offered at least one day pre- 
ceding the discount day, and must be accompanied by a lettei of recommen- 
dation (the writer of which must be known to at least one of the Committee, 
and who shall not be interested in the result of the application) setting forth, 
in his opinion, the solvency or ability of the parties to the notes to pay, or 
whether they are involved in debt, and are believed to be in embarrassed cir- 
cumstances. Unless this requisition is complied with, and the parties should 
not happen to be known to a member of the Committee who may be present, 
the note will in no case be discounted. 

Form of the Note to be Offered. 

" COUNTY. 18—. 

"DOLLS. 

" after date, I, A. B., as principal, and C. D., as securities, promise 

jointly and severally to pay R. R. Nance or bearer, dollars, for value 

received, negotiable and payable at the Real Estate Bank of South Alabama 
at Selma. A. B. 

C. D. 
E. F." 
To guard against mistakes and inconveniences, persons signing notes to 
be offered for discount, are required to wiite their first name in full, as the 
same letter frequently begins the name of more than one person of the san.e 
surname. 

Money will be received at the Bank on deposit for safe keeping, subject 
to the order of the depositor. When bills of the .,anks of the State are de- 
posited, it will be noted, and bills of the same Banks paid if required. 

R. R. NANCE, Cashier. 
Office of the Real Estate Bank of So. Alabama, Selma, July 14, 1838. 
At a meeting of the Committee of Finance, on the nth inst., it was 
" Resolved, That such of the Stockholders as have not perfected their 
deeds to said Company, by having relinquishments of Dower, &c., attached 
thereto, be required to call on the Cashier for the same, (for which they will 
have to receipt) and have them perfected as required by the Articles of Asso- 
ciation, and return them without delay." 

R. R. NANCE, Cashier. 
Real Estate Bai-k of So. Alabama, at Selma, July 28, 1838. 
At a meeting of the committee of Finance on the 25th inst., it was 
" Resolved, That the Bank will redeem, in the issues of the chartered 
Banks of this State on, or after the first day of December next, all its bills or 
notes, (without reference to the time which they have to run) which may have 
been taken by any of the sheriffs in the collection of taxes, by said Sheriff Or 
Sheriffs making affidavit that the bills or notes so offered for redemption was 
received by himself or his agent in the collection of taxes in the county in 
which he resides." 

R. R. NANCE. Cashier. 

This Bank continued in operation several years and hecame 
a great aid to the business of the town, as well as aid to the 
.surrounding countr^^. 

Geo. \V. Dent established the " people's line" of daily 
coaches from Selma to Augusta, Georgia, and Fortune & With- 
ers a daily line of stage coaches from Selma to '1 us(;al()osa, with 
tiie U. S. mail, the first daily mail line in the State. 

-Maj. Thomas J. Frow was appointed a Notary Public ou 
the first of September, 1838. 

F. H. Porter opened a select female school in October, 1838. 

A public examination of the pupils of JMiss Bartlett's on the 
2Gth of September, 1838, took place. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 33 

Peter Mclutyre offered for sale the flrst lot of his east iron 
spiDuiQg machines, October 27. 1838. 

John Dunn became proprietor of Brantley's Hotel on the 
first of November, 1838. 

L. W. Pettibone offered for sale a large lot of superfine 
brass eight-day clocks, June 28, 1838. 

Among the business firms and professions in the town, we 
mention Wykoff & Stacey, VV. H. Smith, Wm. Travis, Norris 
& Phllpot and Walker & Stone; the medical profession was 
represented by Dr. Wm. S. Jeffries, Dr. A. R. Rembert, Dr. E. 
Sphon, Dr. I. Morgan; that of the legal profession by James 
A.Pope; E. Ailing, saddler, Samuel Dickinson, cabinetma- 
ker, Stoughton & Watson, carpenters and builders, Thomas 
Tolbert, boot and shoe maker, L. J. Schooler, tailor, Isaac 
Dobson, tinner, S. R. Crocheron, ornamental painter, Lloyd & 
Holley, tailors, G. B. C. Lewis, fancy hair dresser and barber, 
Wm. A. Murphy, pump maker. 

Mrs. Edmonds opened a public boarding house. 

John M. Strong and S. W. Murley opened the first regular 
auction and commission house in November, 1838, and about 
the same time Pressley A. Berry opened a house in the same 
line of business. 

About the first of November, 1838, a general union meeting 
commenced in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

The ladies of the town had formed "The Ladies Society," 
for the purpose of aiding in all benevolent enterprises, and 
among others that of enclosing and otherwise taking care of 
the graveyard. 

The racing season was approaching, as will appear by the 
following notice : 

SELMA JOCKEY CLUB RACES 
Will commence over the Alabama Central Course on Tuesday, the 13th No- 
vember, and continue five days. First day — Two mile heats, $3S° '• Second 
day — Three mile heats, ^550; Third day — Four mile heats, $800 ; Fourth 
day— Mile heat, best 3 in 5, $300 ; Fifth day — A sweepstakes for 2 year olds — 
Mile heats, ^100, (four subscribers and closed.) Free forallhorses complying 
with the rules of the Club. W. PLATTENRURG, \ p,.^,,,.:^.^^ 

Selma, Sept. 8, 1838. H. J. BRANTLEY, J ropnetors. 

'* The May Beauties," was the name of a society organized 
to celebrate the 1st day of May, 1839 ; S. W. JMurley, Wm. 
Tredwell, W. H. Smith and T. W. Walker were the officers of 
the society. The eggs of the silk worm were offered for sale 
by W. H. Fellows, on the 15th day of June, 1839. Dr. Uriah 
Grigsby, a leading citizen of the town, died at Mrs. Herbert's 
boarding house, in Tuscaloosa, on the 13th of January, 1839, 
while in attendance upon the Legislature, as a member 
from Dallas county. Thomas Gantt, the only son of Dr. Ed- 
ward Gantt, died 22d February. 1839. Sam. Williams opened 
a dancing school in the assembly rooms of the Railroad Hotel, 
December, 1839. M. G. Woods, a prominent merchant and 
business man of the town, died at his residence in the place. 
Tlie splendid building which had been erected on Dallas stieet, 
by a stock compjuiy, wasoffered for sale ; the building was sold 
at private sale for $3,000. The subject of religion was not over- 
looked in the flush and fast times of the town. 

Early in the fall of 1839, the scourge of yellow fever made 
its appearance in Mobile, and was of a most fatal character. 
The citizens of Selma responded to the call for help for those 



34 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

left alive ia the death stricken city. A public meeting was 
held and everybody attended. In the midst of this pestilence 
one of the most destructive fires occurred that ever did or ever 
has since in Mobile. 

On the 20tb of March, 1839, the corner stone of the Episco- 
pal church building, at the corner of Lauderdale and Alabama 
streets, was laid by the Rev. Lucien Wright, Rector, in the 
presence of the Vestry of the Church and citizens generally, 
assisted by the Worshipful Master, Wardens and members of 
Selma Fraternal Lodge No. 27, and many visiting Brethren 
from other Lodges. A procession was formed at 12 m., at the 
Presbyterian Church, under the direction of Dr. Edward Gantt, 
acting as Marshal of the day, which moved in the following 
order to the site selected for the edifice: Masonic Fraternity, 
attended with appropriate music; Mr. Amos White, Chief Ar- 
chitect, and Jesse P. Cravens, Undertaker ; Clergy of different 
denominations; Members of the Town Council; Students of 
the Female School ; Students of the Male School ; Ladies ; 
Citizens generally. After the appropriate service, the master 
builder placed the stone in its proper place when the Rector 
deposited in the receptacle a copy of the Holy Scriptures and 
Book of Common Prayer, The Worshipful Master then made 
the following deposites : Sword's Pocket Almanac for 1839, con- 
taining ali-t of the standing committees, meetings of Conven- 
tions, names of secretaries of conventions, constitution and 
cannon's of the church, clergy of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States ; a copy of the New York Church- 
man and the Episcopal Recorder ; a copy of Bishop Onder- 
donk's Tract, entitled Episcopacy tested by Scripture, Doctrine 
of the Trinity, stated and defended ; a Candid Examination of 
the Episcopal Church ; the Rule of Faith ; the Threefold Min- 
istry, and a Treatise of the Nature and Constitution of the 
Christian Church ; a copy of the National Intelligencer, 9th 
March, 1839 ; a copy of the Selma Free Press. 16th March, 1839; 
soveral pieces of coin of the present day, and a list of the oflfi- 
cers of the General and State Governments. After which, sev- 
eral mementoes, which were presented by ladies and gentlemen 
present, were also deposited. A short and appropriate address 
was then delivered by Rev. A. Mathews, and the ceremonies 
closed by singing 102d psalm, and the benediction by the 
Rector. 

On January , 30th, 1839, the Legislature incorporated Nicholas 
Childers, Roland N. Philpot, John W. Lapsley, Elias Parkman, 
John W. Jones, Jeremiah Pitman and Harris Brantley, Trus- 
tees for the " Ladies Educational Society of Selma, " a so- 
ciety formed by the ladies of the town, which had, and after- 
wards did much in the erection of church buildings and estab- 
lishing schools. 

Notwithstanding the gradual approach of hard times Hugh 
Ferguson, Esq , never ceased in his efforts to shove on the 
work on the Selma and Tennessee Railroad. As certain as the 
day arrived, every year, Mr. Ferguson would have a meeting of 
the stockholders. On the first Monday in March, 1839, a meet- 
ing of the stockholders of the company was held and the fol- 
lowing Board of Directors elected : Hon. E. Pickens, Gen. 
John Brantley, J. M. Calhoun, Esq., Capt. W. W. Fry, Rev. 
J. 'C. Sharp, T. B. Goldsby, Esq., A. A. Dexter, Maj. Geo. 
Bowie, Col. Wm. Waddill, jr. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 35 

Judge Pickens, at a subsequent meeting of the Board on 
Tuesday, was unauitnously elected President. 

The trade of the fall of 1839, was considered good, and the 
business men generally done well, notwithstanding an almost 
entire shinplaster currency was used. The steamboats. 
"Avalanche," commanded by Capt. D. T. Dupree, and the 
"Jewess," commanded by Capt. Pollock, belonging to Selma, 
made their appearance during this season. 

Col. R. R. Nance, Cashier of the Real Estate Bank, made 
the following exhibit of ihe condition of the Bank : 

Real Estate Banking Company of So. Alabama, \ 

Selma, April 18, 1839, ( 

At a meeting of the Board of Stockholders and Directors on the 6th inst., 
a resolution was adopted requiring an Exhibit of the condit?on of this Institu- 
tion to be published — in compliance therewith the following is respectfully sub- 
mitted : 

Condition of the Real Estate Banking Company of South Alabama at Selma, 
up to i8th April 1839. 

ASSETS. I LIABILITIES. 

Notes discounted . . . .$ 61,587 44 ^""P^^f Stock paid in . . $ 28,635 25 
Bills of Exchange. . . 31 320 00 p';'^"lf>o'i ^Account . . 112,88000 
Expense Account . . . 5,983 79 i"^'^"?^'! Depositors . . 3,564 46 
Protest Account .... 128 00 Special Deposits .... 5,885 00 

I Partial Payments . . . 13,237 99 

CASH. Discounts rc'd . 2,929 50 

I Exchange . . . 1,403 81 

Circulat'n Notes I Commissions . . 35 61 

on hand . . 65,325 00 | Interest .... 9 43 

Other Filnds . 4,150 82 1 Protests .... 14 00 

69,475 82 I 4,392 36 

$168,495 05 I ;^i68.49S OS 

Amount of Notes in circulation ' . ^52,855 00 

For the redemption of which we have — 

Notes discounted, matured and running to maturity, 48,449 45 

Bills of Exchange past due 31,320 00 

Part of an instalment of 10 per cent, on stock 

called in and yet unpaid 8,085 00 

87,854 45 

In addition to the above, there are 3135 shares of stock, $100 per 
share, secured by deeds of trust on real estate, duly executed, 
at a fair cash valuation, to double the amount of stock sub- 
scribed 313,500 00 

R. R. NANCE, Cashier. 

Jeflries, Lawley & C^o., were among the new mercantile 
firms this fall ; W. 8. Ritchie, of Delaware, opened an office as 
a civil engineer and surveyor, and died August 16th, 1840, of 
billious fever ; 1840 was a remarkable year in the annals of 
Selma. It was the most sickly and fatal of any ever experi- 
enced, and the excitement in regard to the Presidential and 
other elections, was never surpassed. 

On July 14th, 1840, a little scfti of Dr. Thomas Smith, aged 
ten years, fell in a public well, and was drowned before aid 
could reach him. 

It was generally understood Gen. Andrew Jackson would 
reach Selma on the 17th of January, 1840, on his way home on 
his annual visit to New Orleans on the 8th of January. All 
parties of the citizens joined in tendering the old hero a grand 
reception, but was disappointed when it was ascertained that 



36 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

he had changed hia route, and would return home by the Mis- 
sissippi. 

The population of Selma in 1840, as shown by the U. S. 
census, taken by A. H. Couoly, were 431 whites, i79 of which 
were females, 6 free negroes, and 616 slaves, both male and 
female, making a total population of 1053. 

Fifteen bales of new cotton were received at Adam's ware- 
house on the 13th day of December, and offered for ten cents, 
but no purchaser could be fouud. 

The 22d of February was not overlooked or forgotten in 
1840. A procession was formed in front of the Planter's Hotel, 
on Water street precisely at 10 o'clock, in the following order : 
1, Military; 2, Orator and Reader; 3, Clergy; 4, Judiciary; 
5, Town Council ; 6, Ladies ; 7, Citizens. 

The procession moved up Broad street, thence to the 
Presbyterian Church, under the direction of Col. D. A. Boyd 
as Marshal of the day, where a prayer was offered to the 
Throne of Grace by the Rev. W. F. McRee ; the Declaration 
of Independence read by Capt. Juo F, Couoley, followed by an 
Oration from Dr. J. W. L. Childers. 

An interesting feature in the exercise of the day, was pre- 
sented in the delivery of a splendid Plume, to the Rangers 
by Col. David A. Boyd, a gift from Capt Philip DeLane, a 
retired member of the Rangers. It was but another evidence 
of the kindly feelings and patriotic regard of Capt. D., for the 
Company with which he had been so agreeably associated, and 
of which he was a highly esteemed and worthy me nber. 

The Plume was delivered to the gallant Captain, in the 
presence of many of the peerless beauties of iSelma and its 
neighborhood; bright and laughing eyes beemed approbation 
on the exhilerating scene, and bespoke the interest which the 
countrywomen of Washington ever feel in the perpetuity of 
his fame and the honor of their country. 

Col. Boyd prefaced the delivery of the b autiful present of 
Capt. DeLane with the following chaste and appropriate 
remarks, 

Selma Rangers : I have the honor, as the representative of an old mem- 
ber of this Company, (Mr. Phihp DeLane) to present to you the Plume which 
I hold in my hand. I am iustructed to assure you that it is offered as a small 
and very inadequate token of the high regard which he must ever entertain for 
the Company, to which he had once the honor to belong. 

Allow me, Gentlemen, further to assure you for him, that, although cir- 
cumstances have separated him from you, and he is no longer allowed the high 
gratification to participate in your duties, and share your honors, yet the mem- 
ory of other days, has endeared you to him indi\ idually and collectively ; and 
though disunited in person, yet in spirit and in feeling he is ever present with 
you. 

Upon the reception of the Plume, Capt. ©onoly, in a feel- 
ing and affective manner, responded to ('ol. B., on the part of 
himself and Company, in the following v/ords: 

Sir : I accept, in the name of Uie Company which I have the honor to 
command, the truly beautiful token ol his high legard and remembrance, 
which you have offered in the name of our friend and former fellow soldier. 
Capt Philip DeLane. Believe me when I assure you, sir, that a tribute from 
one so much esteemed in all the relations of social life, and so much valued as 
a worthy and excellent member of the Rangers, inspires us with feelings of emo- 
tion and gratitude, which can be much more readily conceived than expressed. 

Allow me, sir, in the name of the Company, and for myself, to beg you to 
transmit to Capt, DeLane, our unfeigned gratitude for the token which assures 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 37 

US of his continued remembrance, and further to assure him that, though his 
urbanity and worth were amply sufficient to have secured him a place in our 
memories, yet we value none the less the beautiful token, which you have so 
kindly delivered from him ; and whenever it is awarded as the reward of supe- 
rior markmanship, the recollection that it was a gift of a highly respected fel- 
low soldier and friend, will materially enhance the value of the prize, and the 
pleasing emotions which such distinction is calculated to inspire. 

According to a rule of the Company, this Plutt>e was pre- 
sented, year after year, to the best marksman of the Company, 
on the 22d day of every February. The following February 
Mr. M. C. Wiley was the successful marksman, and wore 
the Plume until the next 22d day of February, when it was 
contended for by the members of the Company, 

The exercises of the day were conducted with the utmost 
propriety, and concluded to the satisfaction of every one who 
participated in, or witnessed them. 

On the evening of the 22d, a brilliant Ball was given at 
the Railroad Hotel, at which were assembled the beauty and 
fashion of Selma and the surrounding country. The Ball 
Room was elegantly and appropriately decorated, and the lov- 
ers of the dance, "tripped it on the light fantastic tee," in defi- 
ance of the hardness of the times. 

The business men, and everybody else, were somewhat 
"set back" by the action of the Directors of the Bank at Tus- 
caloosa, refusing to discount their notes for borrowed money, 
claiming that Selma was in the Montgomery Bank's district; 
when Montgomery was applied to, it was decided that Selma 
belonged to the Mobile Bank's district, and so Selma was kept 
like a jbase-ball, moving between the three corners, and no 
money from either. 

On November the 20th, 1840, Batt Smith was elected Presi- 
dent of the Selma Jocky Club; T, B. Goldsby and B. C. Rowan, 
Vice Presidents; John A. Hunter, Secretary ; W. Plattenburg, 
Treasurer; W. English, P. A. Berry, R. S. Hatcher and W. 
Lawrence, Stewards ; G. T. Gardner, T. K. Kornegay, Dr. D. 
Fair and D. R. Bell, to wait upon the Ladies. 

About the 10th of June, 1840, the political cauldron com- 
menced simmering, and soon got to boiling heat. On one side 
was the State's Rights party, supporting Martin Van Buren for 
President, and Richard M. Johnson, for Vice President; and 
on the other was the Whig Party, supporting W. H. Harrison, 
for President, and John Tyler for Vice President It was really 
a contest between that of killing coons and selling their skins 
on the one side, and that of raising and selling cabbages on the 
other; and just about as much principle actually involved. 
But whatever the importance of the issue, the population, both 
male and female, of Selma, took a deep interest. A State's 
Right's Club was formed, on the 18th of July, 1840, 
composed of the following persons : James Kenan, J. White, 
George W. Gayle, E. S. Bint, James A. Pope, J, L. Jeffrey, J. 
F. Couoley, L. M. Chapman, R. A. Chappell, David Cooper, 
W. H. Smith, P. J. Miller, R. O. Shaw, Jeremiah Johnson, 
David R. Bell, James (\innte, N. W. Kennard, G. Tooks,Thos. 
Kenan, jr., John M, Strong, William Donaldson, P. H. Delane, 
John H. Miller, H. H. Webb, A. Rankin, James S. Dunn, 
Thomas K. Kornegay, A. H. Conoley, A. J. SafTold, G. R. 
Evans, Jesse Beene, Samuel M. Hill, D. Fair, Paul H. Earle, 
A. C. Johnson, W. E. Bird, R. House, J. P. vSaffold, Bruce H. 
Mitchell, S. B. Crocherou. 



38 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

The Whig party beiug largely in the majority, could not 
rest easy, and chafed under this bold action of the Democrats, 
and cousequently, at once formed a "Tippecanoe and Tyler 
too" Club, as follows: R. Rufus King, Francis M. Phillips, J. 
S. White, W. Waddill, jr., H. Lee, Adam Taylor, J. W. 
Lapsley, John Swift, J. Morgan, George Seaman, Frederick 
Dressel, Thomas King, Thomas J. Frow, E. W, Marks. W. 
Plattenburg, J. W. Jones, D. H. Norwood, Phillip Fulford, P. 
H. Fulford, P. A Berry, Joseph Fulford, A. Jones, Alex. 
George, M. C. Wiley, J. F. Lee, Thomas J. Rice, Henry H. 
Davis, Thomas W, Street, William Barlow, A. R. McNair, 
Samuel R. Browning, R. L. Downman, Joseph Hillyard, J. 
D. Echols, E, A. Mixon, H. Traun, J. C. Bell, J. Bradshaw, 
Nelson Myers, N. Childers, John K. Campbell, James H, Cur- 
tis, Allen Townsend, William W. Rea, Moses Jones, John. H. 
Valentine, B. Burges, David Weaver, John M. Shearer, D. A. 
Boyd, William Choat, R. N. Philpot, Robert Willis, A. S. Jef- 
fries, William Flanagan, Joseph Lawley, A.lex. Porter, John 
G. Owen, Lorenzo Griffin, Jeremiah Pitman, Hamblin Kirk- 
land, Wm. Henry Austin, Robert;Walker, Alfred Gautt, W. 
P. Givhan, George Brewer, J. Russell, Thomas S. Fellows, 
William Russell, George Blunt, John Taggart, C. G. Edwards, 
L. S. Thompson, W. Tutou Waddill, W. Kirkpatrick, H. Gard- 
ner, Benjamin A. Glass, William Palmer, R. C. Morrison, P. 
Carmichael, Hugh Mcllwaine, Caleb Tait, John Logan, Alex- 
ander Porter, John A. Morrison, Thomas H. Swift, Alex. Por- 
ter, jr., T. P. Ferguson, S. Newton Morrison, James Drenon, 
Henry Gilmer, William Campbell, James E. Morrison, T. L. 
Craig. W. A. Stone, Wra. R. Morrison, John J. Estfes. E. 
Woodnut, Wm. Rogers, E. Swain, Robert English, jr., G. C. 
Phillips, Wm. J. Goodwin, J. W. L. Childers, B. C. Brown, 
W. L. Dodge and Geo. Pedrick; Josephus D. Echols, M. D., 
President; R. L. Downman, N. Childers, J. W. Lapsley, T. 
H. Lee and G M. Ormand, Vice Presidents ; Henry Traun, 
Secretary; John G. Owen, Treasurer. 

This action on the part of the Whigs was not looked for 
by the Democrats; the consequence was, a challenge sent to 
the Tippecanoe Club, to debate publicly, the issues of the day 
before the people of the country ; the Whigs having some of 
theablest men of the State in their ranks, accepted this challenge 
with delight, and the following names were selected for the 
discussion : 

For Harrison.— Col. W. S. Phillips, Dr. P. W. Herbert, 
Dr. J. W. L. Childers, Robert L. Downman. 

For Van Buren. — Joseph P. Saflbld, Esq., George R. 
Evans, Esq., Hon. E, Pickens, Col. George W. Gayle. . 

These champions of their respective parties done well the 
task imposed upon them, and we have no hesitancy in saying 
it was the most able and closely contested election ever wit- 
nessed in chis or any other of the States. The Whigs had 
largely the advantage in point of numbers. Delegates were 
sent from Sel ma to almost every Convention and meeting iu 
the State. They had a large canoe hewed out of a large poplar 
tree, about sixty feet long and as wide as the tree would permit. 
This canoe was mounted on a large four-wheel vehicle, decor- 
ated with flags, coon skins, cider barrels, a log cabin, and every 
other emblem of the party, and in this way traveled through 
the country to their destination. A delegation composed of the 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 39 

following "Young Tippecauoes" went to the Convention at 
Montgomery. . 

VV. Plattenburg, James B. Harrison, David Douglas, E. C. 
Russell, W. Waddill. jr., Moses C. Wiley, W. C. Woods, W. 
B. Hall, P. A. Berry, Samuel F. Jones, R. L. Downman, Robt. 
8. Hatcher, T. S. Fellows, P. H. DeLaue, T. W. Street, G.C. 
Phillips, Wra. Blevins, Caleb Tate, M. G. McKeagg, J, F. 
Lee, George Brewer, James Adams, B. C. Brown, Jacob Giv- 
han and Thomas J. Rice. 

Another delegation soon after was sent from the "Tippe- 
canoe Club" of Selma, to attend a convention at Tuscaloosa, 
and on the 30th of June, 1840, the delegation composed of the 
following men, assembled at the Railroad Hotel, on Water 
street: Thos. B. Carson, A. S. Jeffries, George C. Phillips, R. 
L. Downman, J. F. Lee, George W. Seaman, Wm. Blevins, Geo. 
Brewer, J. W. L. Childers, M. C. Wiiey, W. Plattenburg, J. G. 
Owen, Wm. Douglas, D. Dussel, where stood the magnificent 
canoe, with six white horses hitched to the wagon, the canoe 
being decorated with almost every device. Soon this grand 
pageant moved down Water street to Broad, then turned up 
Broad, followed by about five hundred persons on horse and 
mule back, some with saddles, some without saddles, and the 
delegates in the canoe, as they went along Broad street, singing— 

AIR— "The Old Oaken Bucket." 
The people are coming from plain and from mountain, 
To join the Brave band of the honest and Free ; 
Which grows as the stream from the leaf-sheltered fountain, 

Spreads broad and more broad till it reaches the sea ; 
No strength can restrain it, no force can retain it, 

Whate'er may resist, it breaks gallantly through, 
And borne by its motion, as a ship on the ocean, 
Speed on in its glory — 
Old Tippecanoe ! 
The iron-armed soldier, the true-hearted soldier, 
The gallant old soldier — 
of Tippecanoe ! ! " 

Hundreds along the streets joining in the chorus, many of 
whom were ladies. These demonstrations would have been 
overwhelming to any other class of men than those who sup- 
ported Van Buren in 1840, in Selma. 

The terrible sickness and the many deaths in the town 
during the months of September, October, November and some 
in December, had the tendency to diminish the population of 
the place. We had but few new places of business ; among 
them, however, we can mention Houston & Brewer, J. M. 
Miller, J. G. Owen, Walker & Jones, Mrs. E. Eirington, a 
mantau maker, N. Quiun, boot and shoe maker, and Dr T. 
Wordraper. 

Samuel J. Rice took charge of the Planters' Hotel. 

Rev. L. B. Wright opened a Male and Female School in 
the basement of St. Paul's Church. 

Wm. Moore was the stationed Methodist preacher at Selma 
during 1840. 

James Lyon, of London, opened an evening schoolin Nov. 
1840, for young men. 

During the sickly season a large number of families left the 
town and went to Shelby Springs, which was the great resort 
for the people of South Alabama. 



40 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

The 4th of July was not neglected amidst the turmoil of 
politics. J. W. L. Childers delivered an oration, and John M. 
Strong, W. Plattenburg, A. H. Couoly and vV. H. Fellows, 
were appointed a committee to publish the oration. 

Thomas H. Lee opened the first regular lumber yard in the 
place in the spring of 1840. 

The first lot of flour in barrels, from the West, was received 
by James Adams on the 15tli of June, 1840, 

On the 28th day of November, 1840, the wonderful iron 
steamboat, W. W. Fry, landed at Selraaloaded with ail kinds of 
freight, and perhaps, attracted more attention than did tlie ar- 
rival of the first steamboat. People from the surrounding 
country visited this craft, not comprehending exactly how a 
boat made of iron could be made to float upon water. 

The first of the year 1841 found the people of Selma some- 
what discouraged, but they soon cheered up and endeavored to 
forget the misfortunes of the past year. 

The "Ladles' Educational Society" had fully organized, and 
had done much good work. The society had used every lauda- 
ble means to raise a fund in counection with the Masonic Order 
of the town, to erect a female academy. Several lots having 
been tendered the society for the purpose, W. J, Norris, Dr. 
McNair and Dr. Jeff'ries were the committee appointed 
to choose between the lots. On March the 20th, 1841, 
they selected the lot at the foot of Alabama street, where now 
stands the court house, and on the 24th day of April, St. John's 
Day, Selma Fraternal Lodge celebrated the day by laying the 
corner stone of the building. The ceremony commenced about 
10 o'clock, at the ringing of the town bell. The Masous assem- 
bled at the Episcopal Church, where the Rev. Mr. Thomas read 
from 1st Samuel, 20th chapter ; and after addressing the Throne 
of Grace, a procession was formed and marched to the place 
of building. The cornerstone was then laid in Masonic order, 
followed by an appropriate and eloquent address by the Rev, 
W. W. Thomas, upon the subject of female education. 

A splendid dinner, prepared by the ladies for the occasion, 
was spread, and at 1 o'clock the Masonic Fraternity and a large 
number of ladies and gentlemen of the town and vicinity were 
seated, and partook of it with the most perfect harmony. 

At night they reassembled at the same place and partook of 
an elegant supper prepared by the same hands. 

Dr, Lyon, of London, delivered a public lecture, in the 
Methodist Church, on the 27th of March, 1841, upon the "Res- 
piratory Organs of Man." 

The State Convention of Teachers met in Selma on the 1st 
day of July, 1841. 

On the evening of the 30th of Apiil, 1841, a splendid ball 
was given in the Assembly Rooms of the Railroad liotel. P. H. 
Earle, G, T, Gardner, H. W, Wall is, A. H. Conoley, T, R, 
Minter. D. Fair, C, Houston, D. A. Boyd, W, W. English, J. 
Johnson, J. W. Lapsley, T. K. Koruegay, T, P. Harvey, W. 
Shearer, G. W, Seaman, G, L. Brewer, were the managers. 

There was one feature about the history of Selma, and that 
feature was, that the 4th day of July was always celebrated in 
some way, and in accordance with this custom, the 4th of July, 
1841, though it came on Sunday, was not overlooked. The 
"Selma Rangers," a volunteer company, held a meeting and 
determined to celebrate the 4th. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 41 

Rev. W. W. Thomas was the stationed Methodist Preacher 
at Selma, for 1841, 

W. T. Waddill, W. H. Fellows and R. L. Downman, were 
candidates for Magistrates at the March election, 1841, for Sel- 
ma Beat, and Pressley A. Berry was a candidate for constable. 

John M. Strong was appointed postmaster at Selma, on the 
20th day of January, 1841. 

Among the business firms in Selma, in the fall of 1841, we 
mention J. H. Norris, A. S. Jeffries & Bros., Ferguson, Boyd 
& Co., Thomas S. Fellows, jeweler, James Kenan & T. Kenan, 
T. E. King, Lea & Barlow, drinking saloon, "The Shake- 
speare," opened by Samuel R. Browning, Douglass & Hale, 
Conoly & Boyd, Lawley & Downman, grocery keepers, Alex, 
G. Brown, saddle maker, Dr. W. F. Pratt, Dr. Lyon, of Lon- 
don, Dr. E. W. Hamilton, Dr. R. Hathaway and Dr. B. R. 
Thomas, and the legal profession by W. H. Fellows, J. W. L. 
Childers, and Giles Pettibone. 

The terrible sickly seasons of 1840 and 1841, especially that 
of 1840, had a most deleterious influence upon the place. The 
sickness of the place, together with the great monetary crash 
upon the country, both combined to put a complete stop to the 
work on the Selma and Tennessee Railroad. The commerce 
of the place languished; instead of a population coming to the 
town, many of its substantial men left the place to seek another 
location. This state of affairs continued from about 1841 to 
about 1847, when the place commenced gradually assuming a 
cheerful aspect. 

In 1848 Col. John W. Lapsley, Col P. J. Weaver, Col. 
Thornton B. Goldsby, Gen. Brantly, Wm. Johnson, Hugh 
Ferguson, and others, procured a charter from the Legislature 
for the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad. This acted upon the 
place like a charm. New life was infused into all clashes of the 
people, especially as the stock to build the road was soon sub- 
scribed. The company was organized and the work of con- 
struction commenced. The older class of citizens became en- 
couraged and felt permanent in their business and homes. A 
new people commenced coming into the town, many of whom 
were men of means. Such men as Maj. John Mitchell, who 
invested his means in building up and improving the town. 
Among the buildings he erected was the three-story brick, at 
the corner of Water and Washington streets, the building 
known as the Mobile House. He had extensive additions made 
to what is now known as the St. James Hotel building. Col. 
Goldsby erected quite a number of handsome and substantial 
brick buildings on the corner of Broad and Alabama streets, 
now occupied by Oberndorf & Ullman, Wm. Rothrock, Caw- 
thon & Coleman. The dilapidated wooden shanties all along 
Broad and Water Streets gave way to the good substantial brick 
edifices now along those streets. F. S. Jackson, a man of 
much wealth and great energy, located near the town and in- 
vested largely in real estate wliich he improved. From 1847 to 
1852, perhaps the rapid improvement of Selma was unexampled 
in the Southern States. In 1847 the war with Mexico cameon. 
Men were called for, and some sixty of the gallant young men 
of Selma, rallied to the call of Capt. Andrew Bogle, who joined 
a part of a company Capt. Thos. E. Irby, of Wilcox, had charge 
of, and formed a full company; Ihos. E. Irby, Captain, An- 
drew Bogle, Lieutenant. Among the Selma boys were James 



42 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

H. Bogle, E. W. High, George C. Reives aud Jordau Reives. 
During this period Col. Philip J. Weaver visited Germany and 
brought with him to Sehiia about three hundred German im- 
migrants, who added mujh to the industries of the town; mauy 
of these immigrants were artizans aud mechanics, aud mauy 
of the descendants of whom are now to be found in the city aud 
tlie surrounding country. The small suit of a town was put off, 
and by au act of tlie State Legislature, the uame of the "City of 
Selma" was assumed, and in reality the place was justly enti- 
tled to the appellation. One newspaper was not sutiicient for 
the wants of the new city — two must be had, and in accordance 
with this demand, Messrs. Etheridge, Gantt & Sheltou estab- 
lished the Southern Enteri^rise, the Beporter already being 
published. 

In 1852 we find the city crowded with all classes aud pro- 
fessions of people, aud all doing a thriving aud prosperous bus- 
iness. Amoug them we mention Strong & Bogle, auctioneers, 
McCraw & Prestridge, warehousemen, G, L. & J. R. Poor, 
jewelers, Lyle & Terrel, saddlers, Jones & Co., hardware deal- 
ers, James Marlow & Co., druggists, Munroe & Morrow, jewel- 
ers, E. Brown, B. M. Baker & Co., carriage dealers, Dallas 
House, by W. H. Gee, Selma Hotel, by John M. Stone, City 
Hotel, by J. D. Jeuks, Krout & Uhleu, confectioneries, L.. H. 
Dickerson, furniture dealer, A. H. Lloyd, merchant tailor, P. 
J. Weaver, merchant, F. S. Becton, merchant, Joe May, fan- 
cy boot and shoe maker, the large dry goods house of Huggins 
& Goldsby, Alhambra oyster saloon and restaurant, by Taylor, 
NoUey & O'Gilvie, Robert J. Davidson, painter, C. Suter, gun 
maker. Wm. Barnes, daguerreau artist, A. J. Smith, carriage 
repairer, A. M. Hogy, carriage maker, Thornton & Sweet, 
saddle maktrs, V. Hart & Son, tinners, George 1'. Plant, J. G. 
McAuley, H. Haverstick, H. G. Noble and A. F.^Wise, tin, 
copper and sheet iron manufacturers, John H. Mattison, builder 
and contractor, John G. Suediker, builder and contractor, Mrs. 
L. Marshall, private boarding bouse. Miss J. W. Cook, private 
school, W. H. Owen, butcher, Jere Pittman, butcher, L. B. 
Vasser & E. L. Lee, butchers, J. H. Daniel, dealer in ready 
made clothing, N.Smith, harness maker, Maj. E. M. Hollo- 
way, school teacher, R. Bradshaw, school teacher. Masonic In- 
trtitute, by John Wilmerand Richard Furmau, the Dallas Male 
and Female Academy, by L. B. Johnson and H. B. Johnson, 
as Principals, B. G. Connor & Co., druggists, P. Stowe, marble 
dealer and cutter, J. M. Keep, auctioneer, H. West & Bro., 
confectioners, E. Parkman, with new goods, A. Collenberger 
& Co., dry goods dealers, Thos. Pepper, dealer in fancy goods, 
Dr. D. Fair, Ryder & McAuley, surgeon dentists. Dr. W. P. 
Reese, Dr. J. Hendre, Drs. Backus & Marks, Dr. F. M. Law, 
Blake & Hewitt, attorneys, Dunklin & Haralson, attorneys. 
Murphy & Blevins, attorneys, Lapsley, Hunter & Troy, attor- 
neys, Benj. Y. Beene, attorney, C. H. & M. S. Cleveland, at- 
torneys, King & Goldsby, attorneys, George Plattenberg, at- 
torney, Parham & Napier, lumber dealers, A.Kroetel, iiootand 
shoe maker, Dr. Joseph Jones, dentist, J. M. & M. L. Dedman, 
blacksn)iths, Morrill & Co., daguerreau artists, Ickes & Co., 
hardware dealers, M. J. A. Keith, insurance agent, B. B. 
Hotchkiss &('o., carriage and wagon dealers, Geo. Sayre & Co., 
exchange bi'okers, A. Rogers & O'o., stove dealers, Whitson 
Weaver, barber, J._M. Lapsley, dealer in merchandise, Allen & 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 43 

Reynolds, livevy stables, and quite a number of others not now 
recollected, representing really almost every profession and 
occupation of life, and ail doing a good business in each and 
every profesrsiou and occupation. The Alabama and Tennessee 
railroad was rapidly constructed, which brought a new and 
valuable trade to the place, 

The business prospects of the place induced a material addi- 
tion to the newspapers of the city. In January, 1853, John 
Hardy commenced the publication ot the Daily Alabama State 
Sentinel, which done its part in advancing the growth and in- 
dustries of the place. The construction of the Alabama and 
Tennessee railroad was urged forward with energy, and as it 
progressed into the up country new and profitable trade was 
brought to the city. Prosperity and an increase of population 
to the city continued until about August, 1853. The yellow 
fever had made its appearance early in the summer at New 
Orleans, Mobile and Pensacola, of a most violent, malignant 
and fatal type, but no apprehension at first, existed at Selma 
from its ravages. But in this our people were most woefully 
disappointed. On the evening of the 13th day of August, a 
steamboat from New Orleans put on shore at the landing, a sick 
German, who was taken charge of by some of the hands about 
the landing and sent to the house of Mr. Earhart, and in a day 
or two died, a plain case of yellow fever having been developed. 
In a few days after Mr. Earhart sickened and died with the 
same symptoms. Several cases of a similar kind were d vel- 
oped, mostly on Broad and Water streets, among them several 
deaths occurred. Our people became uneasy — a division of 
opinion existing among the physicians as to whether or not 
the disease was yellow fever. The disease continued to spread, 
and a number of deaths occurring, among them Dr. A. Bar- 
num, until on the morning of the 13th day of October, 1853, 
the death of a young lawyer by the name of Mitchell, who had 
but recently located in the city, at his efflce, up stairs in the 
building now used by Maj. Jos. Hardie, asa warehouse, and on 
the same morning, of the death of W. A. Bleviu, in a room 
over what is now Cawthon & Coleman's drug store, were such 
plainly developed cases of yellow fever that there could be no 
mistake. The physicians all pronounced yellow fever in the 
city. A most terrible panic at once ensued, and in one day the 
place was almost deserted. In a day or ♦^wo a few young men, 
the ministers, house servants, and oecasioually a female in 
charge of a house, were the only persons found in the city. 

The following were the deaths in the city from yellow fever, 
from the 13th of October, to the 3d dav of Novenber, 1853: 
October 13— E. J. Mitchell, Wm. A. Blevins. 

" 14— J. W. Eiland. 

" 15 — A. Fourcade, Eliza Fourcade, 

" 16— D. M. Smith, Robert Adkins, E. Parkman. 
Mrs. Lines, infant child of the late Mr. Earhart. 

" 17 — Albert, mulatto man of Maj. W. H. Gee, 

" 18 — W. H. Gee, Amos White, negro woman of Col. 
Blake. 

" 19 — No deaths from yellow fever. 

" 20— Mrs. Erwin, a German, name unknown, Mr. 
Mason, Boston, negro man of the late E. Park- 
man. 

*' 21 — No deaths from yellow fever. 



44 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

October 22 — Joseph A. Jones. 

•' 23 — Mrs. Melton, negro nnan, Bob, belonging to 
Mr. Williamson. 

" 24— John Smith. 

" 25 — No deaths from yellow fever. 

" 26— M. T. Goodwin, Mrs. Chapman, Miss Noble. 

" 27 — David Carter, Judy, mulatto woman of the late 
Maj. W. H. Gee. 

" 28 — Franklin Hambrick, Jim, negro man belong- 
ing to Dr. Hamilton, Erasmus, negro man be- 
longing to Dr. Campbell. 

" 29— Child of Mr. Pool. 

" 30— Jesse Gibson, Asa, negro belonging to Mr. 
Norris. 

" 31— Thomas A. Baber. 
November 1 — Mrs. Hagy. Dr. Coster, a refugee from Mobile. 

" 2 — No deaths from yellow fever, 

" 3— Daughter of J. D. Monk. 
Thus in twenty-two daj's there were thirty-seven deaths 
from the epidemic, six of whom were blacks. There were some 
eight or ten deaths, no doubt, from the disease, before it was 
pronounced yellow fever, on the .13th of October. About the 
25th of September, a brisk cold east wind sprung up, prevail- 
ing mostly in the forenoon, and quite warm and dry in the 
middle of the day. Cool nights were also experienced from 
about the 25th of September until the 24th of October, oa 
which night there was a cold copious rain, and on the morning 
of the 25th of October, a heavy frost. The weather for several 
days thereafter was fair and pleasant, cool, however, of nights. 
The river had been quite low during the summer, but from the 
rains of the night of the 24th, quite a rise in the river followed. 
During the summer numbers of cellars had been dug for new 
buildings, along Broad and Water streets, '>nd miich earth had 
been moved along ihese streets, and it was a marked fact, the 
disease prevailed mostly in the vicinity of those streets, which 
in all probability, had conduced largely to the generation of the 
disease. There were, as near as could be ascertained 175 cases 
of the disease in the city during the prevalence of the epidemic. 
After regular cold weather all our people returned to the city, 
but the season's business had been materially interfered with, 
but energy and perseverance on the part of our business men 
soou caused the business of the city to assume a bright aspect, 
and the epidemic was soon forgotten. 

In 1854, a rigid system of quarantine was established early 
in September, against all places infected with yellow fever, 
and was strictly enforced. We have had no yellow fever in 
Selma since 1853. All apprehensions of the prevalence of yel- 
low fever had subsided by the winter of 1854 ; the Alabama 
and Tennessee Railroad completed to Montevallo ; Col. W. S. 
Burr, of Selma, and Col. Marshal, of Vicksburg, Miss., hav- 
ing, through the newspapers of both States, urged the com- 
pletion of tlie Alabama and Mississippi Railroad from Selma 
to Meridian. The feasibility of the scheme was comprehended 
at once hy the wealthy planters along the proposed line, 
especially between Woodville and Selma. A charier was 
obtained for the road, and in a few months after, the books 
of subscription were opened, ample stock taken to build the 
road and equip it from Selma to that place—thirty miles. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 45 

work was commenced and shoved forward with great energy, 
thus opening the immense products of the rich canebrake 
country to Selma. This road not only brought new business, 
but new men also, to Selma. With the Alabama and Tennes- 
see Railroad reaching out its.J^rms to the north and east, 
and the Alabama and Mississippi Railroad to the west, had a 
most salutoi-y influence upon Selma, and its advance in busi- 
ness and population was unexampled by any city in the South. 

The limits of the city were extended by the Worley sur- 
vey, the Goldsby addition, and the Shearer additioq,, and 
by 1865 we had a population of, at least, 10,000, and as thriving 
and go-a-head population as could be found in any little city. 
The receipts of cotton, the great staple that moved everything, 
rapidly increased. 

Instead of Selma sending to Cincinnati and Louisville 
for corn to supply her market, it was amply supplied from the 
rich canebrake over the Alabama and Mississippi Railroad. On 
the other hand immense saw mills were erected along th6 
line of the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad. Not only lum- 
ber in immense quantities, but lime manufactories were put 
up and coal and iron mines opened, all being emptied into the 
lap of Selma, adding to her busine-s and commerce, evincing 
clearly, to even the dullest mind, the greatness of the country 
surrounding our beautiful and growing city. 

As we move along in our narative we must not neglect 
the fact, that an organization of fifty men in Alabama, Missis- 
sippi and Louisiana, was formed in 1855, with headquarters 
at New Orleans, and whose object was the conquering, and 
finally annexing to the United States, ofNicarauga, one of the 
Spanish American States, thereby putting another arm to the 
power of negro slavery. Thirty million dollars of twenty 
year bonds were issued, and a large amount of them sold, men 
raised and a military organization formed, and Gen. Wm. 
"Walker, of New Orleans, placed in command. Selma took 
her part in this movement; two of her citizens were enrolled 
among the fifty. A company of one hundred and eight men 
was raised and organized and taken command of by Capt. 
hite Brautly, a brave and gallant young man. This compa- 
ny went to Nicarauga and participated in a number of battles 
with the natives, and at the end of the twelve months, for 
which they entered, were honorably discharged and returned 
to Selma, with the loss of only six of their number. This 
organization was so quietly done, that but few of the people of 
Selma ever knew of tne movement. 

The prosperous state of affairs, alluded to, continued 
until 1860, when the deep and determined murmuring 
ings of our people commenced to be heard, at the unfair and 
hostile demonstrations of the Northern section of the Union, 
against ihe property of the South, The troubles at Charles- 
ton, in the National Democratic Convention, which lead to 
an eruption and a division of that National Party, are well 
remembered. The North had enrolled itself almost to a unit 
into the Republican party, at the head of which, stood Abra- 
ham Lincoln, with plainly avowed hostility to the negro prop- 
erty of the Southern States. The Democratic party of the 
nation was divided between Douglass and Breckinridge, and 
the Whigs of the Soutli centered on John Bell. It did not 



46 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

take a prophet to tell that Mr. Lincoln would be elected in 
November, 1860. 

No sooner had lineoln been elected, than the Southern 
Htates, almost as a unit, decided to form a seperate government. 
Mr. Lincoln had not gotten fairly seated, before a call for a force 
to suppress the rebellion was made upon the Northern people, 
who rallied to the call with alacrity. The rumbling of war 
was heard from one end of the country to the other, like deep 
sounding thunder. 

The Confederate States were formed, and the men of the 
South called upon to sustain the new nation. Selma did not 
standstill; her manhood was aroused, and in a few short 
months, five companies of the gallant young men of the city 
was organized, ready to rally to the defense of the Southern 
movement. Capt. N. H. E,. Dawson, with the "Magnolia 
Cadets," composed of the first young men of the place, took the 
lead; followed by the "Governcr's Guards," lead by Capt. 
Thos. J. Goldsby, one of the most gallant young men of the 
State ; then came the more sober, settled men of the city, com- 
posing the "Selma Blues," lead by Capt. Thomas C. Daniel, 
a most worthy citizen, and who gave up his Cashiership in the 
Commercial Bank to lead the Company, and who fell, leading 
his men, at the Second Battle of Manassas ; the fourth was the 
brave and hardy men of the "Phcenix Reds," composed almost 
entirely of the working men of the city, lead by Capt. James 
M. Dedman, who was severely wounded at Vicksburg, and 
who afterwards was promoted for his bravery and gallantry; 
the fifth was Dr. James Kent, with a company formed at Selma. 
Thus did our little city, in less than twelve mouths, furnish to 
the Confederate forces in the field, over six hundred men, 
rank and file. 

The war began with its terrors, and with its distruction of 
life and property. In the surging of the billows, the advan- 
tages given by Nature to the location of Selma, soon became 
pparent. The Confederate government had to have cartridges, 
saltpetre, powder, shot and shell, rifles, cannon and steam 
rams, as well as men. Fort he production of all these articles, 
were the faculties greater at Selma than any other place 
in the Confederacy. Col. Hunt, who had charge of the Nitre 
and Mining Bureau, was sent to Selma, who at once took steps 
to supplant the Megler Alabama Manufacturing Company, with 
the grand and powerful Naval Iron Foundry, which, in a few 
months, turned out the largest and best cannon, and from 
Alabama iron, that had ever been manufactured in America, 
and before the end of the war, there was scarcely an army 
corps of the Confederate Army but cannon manufactured at 
the Selma Naval Foundry was in their service.. 

The inexhaustible coal fields, the immense iron beds, the 
great abundance of lime I'ock, as well as the lead indications 
along the line of the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad, pointed 
to Selma as the place to manufacture the substantial and dura- 
ble materials of war; and by 1868, about every war materij^l 
was manufactured within the limits of Selma. We had first 
in magnitude and importance, the powerful Naval Foundry, 
under command of Capt. Jones, employing at least three thou- 
sand men in all its branches. An arsenal, within the walls of 
which, hundreds of people were employed in the manufacture 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 47 

of cartridges, knap-sacks and clothing, commanded by Col. J. 
L. White. 

The Central City Iron Works, under the command of Capt. 
Henry H. Ware, making every conceivable material for war 
purposes, from a horseshoe nail to cannon carriages. 

The Central City Irf)n Foundry, an immense establishment 
for the making of crude iron pigs into any conceivable shape 
to destrov life and property, managed by M. Meyer, W. S. 
Knox, W. R. Bill and S. C. Pierce. 

Dallas Iron Works, managed by John Bobbins and Jacob 
McElroy. 

The Alabama Factory, directed by Thomas B. Pierce, at 
which, every thing in the way of steam machinery v/as manu- 
factured. 

Brooks & Gainner directed a large manufactory of har- 
ness, trace chains, canteens and wagon gear. 

A large Iron Works, over which, Phelan & McBride pre- 
sided, where shell and shot of all conceivable form and size 
were wrought. 

Campbell's foundry was taken possession of and put to 
work in making steam boilers and engines. 

Works for the manufactory of saltpetre were in full blast, 
under the control and direction of Jonathan Haralson. 

A building covering over five acres of land, was erected in 
the eastern portion of the city, at which, tons upon tons of 
powder of all variety was made, managed and directed by W. 
R. Rogers, 

There were numerous other manufactories in every direc- 
tion of the city, of various capacities, all directed to the wants 
of the new government. 

Thus, by 1863 did our little city present one busy scene of 
skill and labor, employing, at least, ten thousand men and 
women within our limits. The city was a perfect jam of 
people. 

Not only did Selma present the most advantegeous point in 
the Confederacy for manufactories, but she was accessible to 
and surrounded by one of the most productive sections of the 
South. Armies had to be fed ; corn, fodder, hay, bacon and 
beef, could be easier centered at Selma than at any other point, 
and then supplies could be thrown to an army in the west, an 
army in the north, an army in the east or south, with more 
facility, than from any other point. And soon was Maj. C. E. 
Thames and Capt. John C. Graham placed in charge of the 
Subsisting Depaitment, and millions of dollars worth of army 
supplies accumulated at, and was distributed from Selma, from 
about 1863 to 1865, employing hundreds of men. 

The idea was suggested that the blockade could be bro- 
ken up at Mobile, and to do this, rams of iaimense power and 
strength had to be constructed. The construction of these ves- 
sels was placed in charge of Capt. DeHaven, an experienced 
ship builder, who, after visiting and examining various places 
selected Selma as the most favorable point anywhere to 
be found. He went to work, and in less than nine mouths, 
had built the rams Tennessee, Selma, Morgan and Gains — all 
equiped in point of completeness, not equaled by any in the 
Federal army, and all out of material obtained and maufac- 
tured at Selma ; thus proving the fact that as powerful and 
perfect ships could be built at Selma as any where in the 



48 HISTORY OF SBLMA. 

world, and out of Alabama iron, out of Alabama wood, out of 
nails, rods and bolts manufactured at Selma ; mounted with 
powerful guns manufactured at Selma, and charged with pow- 
der and ball made at Selma; showing that there is nothing 
needed, especially in war, but what could be produced at 
Selma. . 

It is not inappropriate here for us to give an account of the 
conspicuous part these four war vessels, built and launched at 
Selma, and entirely out of Alabama material, took in the 
action in Mobile Bay, on the 5th of August, 1864, as given in 
the official account of Com. Farragut, of the Federal Navy, 
commanding: 

"At 6 o'clock in the morning, the fleet of fourteen splen- 
did vessels, with slow and stately pace, steered toward Fort 
Morgan. The Hartford, the flag ship, but the Tecumseh in 
the lead, fired the first shot; both Forts Morgan and Gains, 
opened on the fleet, the Tecumseh struck a torpedo, and the 
gallant Cravens and his crew — about one lumdred and twenty 
soldiers — found a watery grave. Every gun that could be 
brought to bear from the fleet, was constantly served. In the 
beginning, Fort Morgan itself seemed a wall of fire, but in a 
few minutes was obscured by smoke. As the Tecumseh sank, 
the Hartford rushed forward and took the lead. One hour of 
intense excitement— one nour of straining toil at the guns— 
and the fleet passed the fort and entered the bay. Then the 
Confederate Navy, the ram Tennessee, the Morgan, the Gains 
and Selma, opened fire. The Metecomit gave chase to the 
Selma, and captured her and her crew of ninety officers and 
men. The Morgan escaped up the bay. The Gains took shel- 
ter under the guns of Fort Morgan. The iron ram Tennessee, 
like a monstrous thing of life, stood up with threatening aspect 
fer the Hartford. Seeing this, the Commodore (Farragut) 
signaled the monitors and wooden vessel best adapted tt> 
attack her, not only with their guns, but bows on at full 
speed. For two hours the struggle waa desperate and fearful. 
I'he iron-clads grappled fiercely with their huge antagonist, 
and the wooden vessels, with no romantic valor, bore down 
on her invulnerable sides. Finally, the Manhattan, with fif- 
teen inch shot, penetrated her armor, and a shot from a mon- 
itor, in her stearing apparatus, rendered her helpless. The 
white flag appeared, and twenty officers and one hundred and 
seventy men surrendered. Her loss was only eight men killed 
and wounded. Commodore Buchanan, her Commander, being 
seriously wounded. The loss in the Federal Navy was fifty- 
two killed and one hundred and seventy wounded." 

Thus did a Selma built vessel — one, single-handed — fight 
for two hours, at close quarters, the combined struggles of thir- 
teen of the finest constructed vessels of the Federal Navy — a 
contest unexampled in the history of Naval warfare — and 
at a loss of only eight killed and wounded, of a crew of one 
hundred and ninety officers and men. 

As a matter of precaution, it was thought best to fortify 
Selma ; the work was put in charge of Col. Ledbetter, aided 
by Capt. Leruier, an experienced engineer, who, with the labor 
of a large number of slaves collectea from the planters of the 
surrounding country, succeeded in the construction of a bas- 
tioned Upe^^-round the city, from the mouth of , Beech Creek, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 49 

on the river, to the mouth of Valley Creek, where the same 
empties into tRe river, about four miles in length. 

The capacities and importance of Selma, in its relation to 
the Confederate movement, had been notorious in the North, 
and too great to be overlooked by the Federal authorities, as 
early as 1862. But to reach it with a Federal force baffled the 
ingenuity of the Federal Generals. As the place grew in 
importance, the greater the necessity to reach it with a Fed- 
eral force. Gen. Slierman first made an efibrt to reach it, but 
after advancing as far as Meritliun, within one hundred and 
seven miles, retreated to the Mississippi River; Gen. Grier- 
son, with a cavalry force from Memphis, was intercepted 
aud returned ; Gen. Rousseau made a dash in the direction of 
Selma, l)ut was mislead by his guides and struck the railroad 
forty miles east of Montgomery. 

Finally, in the winter of 1865, through the advice of Gen. 
Thomas, who commanded the department of Tennessee, Gen. 
Grant selected Maj. Gen. J. H. Wilson, a prudent and saga- 
cious officer, tor the task of capturing Selma, with an inde- 
pendent command. After a careful canvass of the question, 
Gen. Wilson selected from the Federal army of the west, a 
force of about thirteen thousand men, aud encamped them 
at Gravel Springs on the Tennessee River. After a thorough 
drilling and an equipment unsurpassed by any cavalry force 
of the world, on the evening of the 17th of March, 1865, this 
splendidly mounted and equipped force was ordered to march 
on the next morning. The Tennessee River was crossed, and 
on the morning of the 17th of March, 1865, this force, composed 
of the first, second and third divisions, commanded resi^ectively 
by Gens. McCook, Long and Ui/pton, were in motion to strike 
a blow that would be felt by the Confederacy. Thus did 
this force move on through the mountainous country of 
Alabama, and with scarcely any opposition, until tbe 1st 
day of April, at Ebenezer church, near Dixie Station, on the 
Alabama and Tennessee Railroad, twenty-seven miles from 
Selma, Gen. Forrest made a stand ; where it is said that 
Gen. Forrest and the brave Capt. Taylor, of the 17th Indiana 
regiment, had a running fight of over tliree hundred yards, 
resultmg in the death of Taylor— Forrest falling back upon 
Selma, pressed hard. On the night of the 10th of April this 
force camped at Plantersville, twenty-two miles from Selma. 
Here Gen. Wilson was informed by spies from Selma, tliafe it 
w&s tlie intention of Dick Taylor to evacuate the place and 
make no defense — that Forrest himself advised it, and for a 
time lead Gen. Wilson to believe he would meet with no resist- 
ance at Selma. 

On Sunday morning, the 2d of April, 1865, this force was 
again in motion, the advance arriving in view of the city 
about 12 o'clock, and Gen. Wilson himself arriving about 1 
o'clock. The guns mounted, the movement of soldiers, and 
various other demonstrations inside the breastworks, were too 
plain to leave resistance in doubt, and by 4 o'clock, the whole 
force was in position to make the attack. Gen. C. C.Andrews, 
who was in the force gives the following account of the assault 
of the city by Gen. \\ ilson: 

''He directed Gen. Long to assault the works by moving 
diagonally across the road upon which his troops was posted, 
while Gen. Upton, at his request, with a picked force of 



50 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

three huudred men, was directed to penetrate the swamps 
upon his left, breali through the hue covered by'it, and turn 
the garrison's right, tiie balance of hia division to conform to 
the movement. The signal for the advance was to be the dis- 
charge of a single gun from Rodney's battery, to be given as 
soon as Upton's turning movement had developed itself. 

Before that plan could be executed, and while waiting for 
the signal to advance, Gen. Long was informed that a strong 
force of Confederate cavalry had began skirmishing with his 
rear, and threatened a general attack upon his pack train 
and led horses. He had left a force of , six companies well 
posted at Valley Creek, in anticipaliou of that movement. 
Fearing this affair would compromise the assault upon the main 
portion, Long determined to make the assault at once ; and 
without waiting for the signal, gave the order to advance. His 
command was formed in line of battle, dismounted, the 17th 
Indiana mounted infantry on the right, and next, from riglit 
to loft, the 123d Illinois, the 98th Illinois Mounted Infantry, 
the 4th Ohio cavalry, and the 4th Michigan cavalry, compris- 
ing 1,500 officers and men. They had to charge across open 
ground six hundred yards to the works, exposed to the fire of 
artillery and musketry, and that part of the line they were to 
attack was manned by Armstrong's brigade, regarded as the 
best of Forrest's corps, and numbering 1,500 strong. Long's 
division sprang forward in an unfaltering manner. Its flanks 
had some difficulty in crossing a ravine and marshy soil; but 
in less than fifteen minutes it had swept over the works and 
driven the Confederates in confusion toward the city. But the 
loss was considerable, and among the wounded was Gen. Long 
himself, who was temporarily succeeded in command by Col. 
IVdinty. Gen. Wilson arrived on that part of the field, and 
after the works were carried. He at once notified Upton of the 
success, directed Col, Minty to form Logan's division for a new 
advance, ordered Col, Vail, commanding the 17th Illinois, to 
place his own regiment and the 4th United States cavalry, 
Lieut. O'Connel, and the Board of Trade Battery, Capt, Rob- 
inson commanding, and renew the attack. The garrison had 
occupied a new line, but partially finished, on the edge of the 
city. A bold charge by the 4th United States Cavalry was 
repulsed, but it rapidly reformed on the left. It was now quite 
dark. Upton's division advancing at the same time, a new 
charge was made by the 4th Ohio, 17th Indiana, and 4th cav- 
alry, dismounted. The troops, inspired by the wildest enthu- 
siasm, swept everything before them, and penetrated the city 
in every direction, Upton's division met with little resistance. 
During the flr«t piirt of the action, the Chicago Board of Trade 
battery occupied a commanding position and steadily replied 
to the garrison guns. 

The loss in Long's division was forty killed and two hun- 
dred and sixty wounded. Among the latter were Gen, Long 
himself. Col. Miller, McCormick and Briggs, Gen. Wilson's 
force engaged and in supporting distance, was nine thousand 
men and eight guns. 

The garrison fought with great coolness and skill, Forrest 
was reported to have been engaged personally in two or three 
romantic combats ; and he, with Gens. Armstrong, Roddy and 
Adams, and a number of men, escaped by the Burnsville road, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 51 

who were followed by a party of Upton's division until long 
after midnight, capturing four guns and thirty prisoners. 

The fruits of Wilson's victory were thirty-one field guns and 
one thirty-pounder Parrott, two thousand seven hundred pris- 
oners, including fifty otticers, and an immense amount of stores 
of all kinds. 

As soon as the troops could be assembled and got into camp, 
Brevet Erig. Gen. Winslow was assigned to the command of 
the city, with orders from Gen. Wilson "to destroy everything 
that could benefit the (.'oufederate cause." 

Thus have we the Federal account of the capture of Selma, 
and it scarcely does the sul)ject justice. 

While matters were going on thus on the outside, it would 
be well for us to look on and see what was taking place on the 
inside. Gen. Wilson's visit was expected for ten days, but the 
confederate forces were so scattered over the country, and espe- 
cially the cavalry part of it, that to centre a force at Selma was 
utterly impossible Gen. Forrest's forces had been reduced to 
a mere hiindful, and really, the only reliable force in reach was 
Gen. Armstrong's, numbering only about fifteen hundred. 
There were a large number of boom-proof officers and stragglers 
in the city, upon whom little reliance could be placed. But on 
Saturday it was determined that the place should be defended. 
Everybody who could walk was called upon to go to the breast- 
works, with whatever arms could be procured. Squads of 
armed men were traversing the streets, and examining various 
buildings for soldiers to go to the breast-works, sparing 
notliing that wore pantaloons, and by Sunday, 12 o'clock, there 
were collected in the ditches, around the city, about four 
thousand persons, not. more than two thousand of them relia- 
ble, to meet a force of nine thousand of the flower of the Fed- 
eral army, and equipped in a manner unexampled in the his- 
tory of ancient or modern armies. Gen. Dick Taylor left the 
city as fast as a steam engine could carry him, about 12 o'clock 
Sunday, leaving the command of the city divided between 
Gens. Forrest, Adams and Armstrong, and as the latter had the 
control of really the only force in the fight, was gallant enough 
to meet the invaders at the point of the first attack, on the Sum- 
merfield road, and Long's division felt the result. A large number 
of the women and children had been sent out of the city A 
number of the quartermasters, too, had gone with their supplies, 
mostly to Meridian. The assault was made, and no one who 
comprehended affairs could doubt the result The Federal 
forces, with the flush of victory, entered the city in the hour 
of night, and terrible scenes of plunder and outrages were 
witnessed in every direction. 

At the breast-works, the Confederates fought with all the 
vigor their arms and experience allowed. 

About 10 o'clock Sunday night, the first house house set on 
fire was the three story brick buildingon the corner of Water and 
Broad streets, the third story of which had been used by the 
Confederates for a year or so, as a guard house for Union men and 
skulkers from the Con federate service. It was said this house was 
set on fire by a man by the name Gibson, who had been im- 
prisoned in it. From this house others along Broad street took 
fire, and were consumed. Next day the Arsenal, the Naval 
Foundry, and all the places of manufacture were set on fire by 
an order from General Wiuslow, Commander of the post, in 



52 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

charge. The fire continued to rage until about Tuesday night, 
by which time the city was nearly destroyed. During this 
tir&e there was scarcely a house in the city, either private or 
public, but what had been sacked by the Federal soldiers. The 
small contents of private stores were most wantonly destroyed, 
and by Friday morning there was but little of any kind of 
property left in the place. The 2,700 prisoners, comprising 
almost every man in the city, were huddled together in a large 
stockade just north of the Selma and Meridian railroad track, 
on the east of the Range Line road, near where the Matthews 
cotton factory now stands. This stockade was built and had 
been used by the Confederates. In this pen, in which a dry 
place scarcely large enough for a man to lay down could not be 
found, were the prisoners kef»t until Saturday morning, when 
they were all paroled and allowed to go wherever they pleased 
or could. On (he 6th of April Gen. Wilson met Gen. Forrest 
at Cahaba, for the purpose of arranging for an exchange of 
prisoners, but no definite arrangment was effected. On the 9th, 
Wilson's forces commenced evacuating the place by crossing the 
river on pontoons, and by the 10th his entire force had succeeded 
in crossing the river. Thousands of negroes had flocked to the 
Federal camps, of all ages and sex, and after crossing the river 
four regiments were organized out of the able bodied black men 
in and around the Federal camps. To these regiments proper 
officers were assigned, and those unable to bear arms were 
driven from the camps. Gen, "Wilson, in speaking of these 
regiments said, "that in addition to subsisting themselves upon 
the country, they would march thirty-five miles in a day, and 
frequently forty. About four hundred wounded Federal soldiers 
were left behind in Selma, all huddled together in the different 
stories of the present hardware store of John K. Goodwin. 

One scene of utter ruin was presented. The commons around 
the city were almost covered with dead and crippled animals, 
and the people without means to move them. A meeting of 
the few citizens of the place was held, and all went to work, 
and in a few days all the dead animals had been hauled and 
thrown into the river, and subsistence was collected up from 
the spoils and wastes of provisions, thus enabling the people to 
get a scanty living. 

Many scenes of outrage were perpetrated upon private per- 
sons. Col, P, J, Weaver, who It was said had a large amount 
of gold and silver in his house, was called upon on Sunday 
night by a gang of about twenty-five soldiers, and his money 
or his life demanded. The old man refused to give up his 
money. As they were preparing a rope around the old man's 
neck, his faithful body servant. Jack, whispered to one of the 
crowd that he knew where the money was, and if they would 
not bang " Mass Phill," and go with him, he would show them 
the money. They did not take time to take the rope from Col, 
Weaver's neck, but all hastened to follow Jack, who led them 
to the West Selma graveyard, and pointed out the spot where 
he said the money was buried, ten feet under the ground. 
While spades and "shovels made the dirt fly. Jack made good 
his escape, through tiie darkness of the night. It is unneces- 
sary to say no money was found, but a very large hole was 
found next morning in the graveyard. 

It is due to both Gen. Wilson and Gen. Winslow, to say, 
that in no instance, after Sunday night, when they were ap- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 53 

plied to for protection to person and private property, but that 
protection was readily given, and by Tuesday evening almost 
every private family in the city had a soldier or soldiers sta- 
tioned on their premises. » 

Taking into consideration the severity of the battle, and 
the overwhelming numbers of the Federal forces, the small loss 
of the Confederates was remarkable. Of the 4,000 persons in 
the battle, there were not more than twenty Confederates killed, 
and scarcely as many wounded. Those of our immediate citi- 
zens killed, were R. N. Philpot, Col. Wm. T. Minter, Rev. Mr. 
Small, pastor of the Presbyterian church,. Tom Riggs, andCapt. '"' 
Robert McCrary. Capt. Patton, a son of Gov. Patton, who had 
charge of a squad of cavalry, in making a stand at the crossing 
of Alabama and Washington streets, was shot and killed. 

The dead were all gathered up and buried. 

The Federal wounded remained in the city for about two 
weeks, wten Gen. Steele came up the river with gunboats and 
transports and removed them to Mobile. 

With the fall of Selma and the evacuation of Richmond, 
Va,, on the same day, Sunday, 2d of April, 1865, did the Con- 
federacy fall. 

Thus did our beautiful little city pass through one of the 
most trying scenes. Soon however, order was restored, and all 
went to work to repair the ruins that war had visited upon v^^ 

them, and in less than three months the hammer, the saw and 
the trowel were again heard. New and large stocks of goods 
were opened almost every day. The artizan was again ready 
for business ; the doctor ready to cure the sick, and the lawyer 
ready for his fee. The blacks soon realized the fact that free- 
dom would^ not give them and their children bread and meat, 
and they two were ready to take in the situation. By the fall 
season of 1865, Selma presented really a thriving appearance. 
The only thing to mar the prospects and business of the place 
was the appearance of the small-pox, in a most violent form. 
This loathsome disease was not confined to the poor, but 
attacked all classes ; but it was finally checked and soon for- 
gotten in the rush and push of business. The most remarkable 
of the whole change in affairs was, that in Jess than a month 
after, a thousand dollar bill of Confederate money would not 
buy a breakfast. Greenbacks were as abundant as Confederate 
money ever had been, and really the change in currency was 
scarcely felt. 

The bloody scenes of war had ceased, and no longer did the 
bitter feeling of hostility exist. The "Yanks" and the 
"Johnnies" were equally ready to join in a cotton speculation. 
They were found in the same places of business, each owning 
as joint stock his share, and really in less than a year, had it not ^^ 

been for meeting a " blue coated" officer or soldier occasionally, 
one would have scarcely known there had been a terrible war, 
and such an one as had never been witnessed on this Continent. 

In May, 1866, the people of the county moved the court 
house from Cahaba to Selma; Cahaba became almost uninhab- 
ited, all following the court house to Selma. This, of course, 
brought quite an additional population to Selma, some of 
whom, however, did not, nor never have, engaged much in 
building houses in Selma. 

Capital and energy characterized the class of men who lo- 
cated in Selma in 1865 and 1866. The most of them had money, 



54 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

and with it an energy deserving all praise. They invested their 
money, and the consequence was new buildings went up like 
magic. A national bank had been organized among the other 
numerous places of business — John M. Parkman, President, 
and C. B. Woods, Cashier, with a capital of $100,000. This in- 
stitution, however, did not last long, becoming swamped in 
schemes of speculation. So rapid did our people and business 
increase that by 1870 we had a city in full blast. Among the 
business houses and firms, and professional men we mention 
M. Meyer & Co., E. Johnson & Co., Obendorf & Ullman, Airey 
Brothers & Co., T. H. Rosser, C. W. Hooper & Co., E. Ikel- 
heimer & Co., Sterne's 50 cent and one dollar emporium, W, 
D, Dunlap, dentist, W. A. Williams, dentist, WooJsey & Sou, 
cotton factors, Merritt Burns, insurance and land agent, Morey, 
Watson & Dunlap, Hardie & Robinson, Brown & Mitchie, S. 
F. Hobbs, J. R. Robertson, druggist, W. B. Gill, Kay, Force 
& Lapsley, Hardy & Son, J. N. Montgomery, I. b. Howard, T. 
Keeler, L. H. Montgomery & Co., Mrs. F. Duncan, the Ike 
Saloon, with its free lunch everyday; Clay & Hern wood, Wil- 
liams & Atkins, T. A. Hall, Henry Cassiu, Cawthon, Bradfleld 
& Co., B. Jacob, S. C. Pierce, agent, McConnico & Co., Smith 
& Jones, Carlisle, Jones &Co., Thomas R. Wetmore, H. A. 
Haralson, H. R. Smith, M. R. Boggs «fcCo., W. C. Ward, Mabry & 
Sterritt, Brooks, Haralson & Roy, Reid & May, Pettus & Daw- 
son, Morgan, Lapsley & Nelson, John White, Lea & Boykin, 
J. Barron Phillips, H. S. D. Mallory, Byrd & Byrd, John P. 
Tillman, the Selma Savings Bank, H, A. Stollenwerck, Presi- 
dent, the Central City Insurance Company, H. A. Stollewerck, 
President, with a cash capital of $200,000, the City National 
Bank, W. P. Armstrong, President, with a capital of $100,000, 
the Keipp House, Monteabaro's Restaurant, Miss KateDeegan, 
Tittsworth, Scott & Co., Johnson & Nelson, Baker Brothers, R. 
C. Keeble & Co., Rothrock's book store. Hurt, Corbin & Adkins, 
J. H. Robbins & Co., N. Smith, James D. Craig, Waller, 
Wailes & Co., Dr. J. B Cowan, Dr. W. P. Reese, Hudson, Ken- 
nedy & Co., Thomas K. Fergusson & Co., Geo. L. Watson, Dr. 
John A. McKennon, Frolichstein, Hahn & Co., Joseph Groves, 
Daniel Sullivan, with his ice house, P. L. Sink, M. J. Farrell, 
James J. Bryant, Charles Goldstein, Moses Adler, M, Watson 
& Co., Rose & Kennedy, J. A. Vogel, Jasper N. Haney, R. J. 
Boykin, Fellows & Johns, I. A. McMillan, R. D. Berry, Hoff- 
man, Fried & Seligman, H. T. McCormick, John Loughridge, 
Meiss&Kohn,R. P. Lockhart, John B. Stone, Horace N. Hei«lt, 
Brisliu & Son, Central Agricultural Depot, Mr. James W. 
Young, Thomas J. Portis, Lyles & White, Milton, with his 
omnibus, Sevier & Walker, G. Worburg, Bowen & Walthall, 
and many other business men and firms we do not now recol- 
lect ; but every profession and occupation was represented in 
the city. 

Buildings for business and residences continued to go up 
in various parts of the city, and everything continued to pros- 
per, and the population of the city has been gradually increas- 
ing until the 1st of January, 1879, we can safely say we have a 
Kopulation of 12,000 people with the following business houses, 
usiness and professional men and women : 

Gkocery Dealers.— R. C. Keeble, C. W. Hooper, Maas & 
Bloch, Gary, Raymond & Co., Steele & Mott, L. H. Montgom- 
ery & Co., Bowen & Lyman, R. J. Davidson, P. H. Norris, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 65 

Baker Bros., S. P. Towue, W. Lightle, John Moran, John 
Donovan, S. J. Shields, G. F. Beach. G. W. Cater, M. Watson, 
John Erhart, H. DeLury, Brown & Perviance, James Preston, 
Morrow & Harris, E. T. Walters & Co., Lamar & Co., R. W. 
McMain, Philip Keipp, W. Kelly, A. J. Henshaw, V. Sykes, 
M. Williams, A, J. Blevins, E. N. Medley, Mrs. Hackney, C. 
Heinz, Mrs. Sitler, Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Foley, T. J. Fowler, 
Mrs. Wooleott, Dr. O'Gwynn, W. G. Butler, Dr. John C. 
Norton, Mrs. Bourdin, M. H. Smith, V. A. Morgan, P. Cos- 
tigau, John MePherson, Mrs. Bogle, Mrs. Hall. 

Dry Goods.— M. Meyer & Co., Oberudorf & Ullman, W. 
E. Wailes. H. Long, Greil & Kohn, Sol. Lehman, Ed. Ikel- 
heimer, Herzfeld, Hagedoru & Co, M. Adier, A. Rice, Julius 
Liepold, Bloch, Long & Co., C. Goldstein, A. Sulzbacher, M. 
Marx, George Sulzbacher, A. J. Golding, J. Barker. 

Miiii^iNERY.— A. Meyer, E. Sterne &Co. Miss TuUey, Mrs. 
Crocheran, Mrs. Groves, Mrs. Drawhorn, Mrs. Jackson, Miss 
Haskell. 

Clothiers AND Tailors. — John Loughridge, E. A. Scott 
& Co., A. Rankin, E, G. Byrne, James Sample, R. W. 
Barrett. 

Boots and Shoes. — T. B. Howard, T. A. Hall. 

Druggists. — Cawthon & Coleman, Brooks & Wilkins, O. 

B. Heidt&Bro., J. N. Gradick. E. P. Gait, L. Bayne, J. Rob- 
ertson, R. P. Lockhart. 

Jewelers.— S. F. Hobbs, J. L. Schweizer, J. A. Clancy, 
John Morrow, A. Stoelker. 

Confectioneries.— E. Gillman, A. J. Skinner, Ous. 
Schultz, W. G. Jaens, Frank Bagley. 

Tobaccos and Cigars.— A. Kayser, Jona Bower, J. A. 
Keife, Wise Brothers, J. M. Dedman, A. Krauss, C. P. Gros- 
kopff. 

Wholesale Liquors.— \dler, Leva & Co., Henry 
Cassin. 

Saloons.— A. Aicardi, G. E. Keipp. J. M. Dedman, T. C. 
Iwersen, E. D. Lawson, M. Monteabaro, Stevens «fc Co., W. E. 
Darby. 

Restaurants and Saloons.- Geo. E. Keipp, E. D. Law- 
son, M. Monteabaro, W. E. Darby, John Thomas. 

Livery Stables. — Baird & Hunt, R. Moore & Co., W. 
Clark, Geo. StoUenwerck. 

Carriage Makers.— W. B. Gill, M. Canning. 

Blacksmiths.— De M. R. Viekers, W. B. Gill, M. Canning, 
Charles Goldsby, O. Wise, B. T. Maxey. 

Boot AND Shoe Makers. — Joe May & Co., John Walsh, 
M. Buhlar, A. Foman, A. J. Henshaw. 

Tinners.— W. W. McCollum, J. Rembert, A. Haverstick, 

C. A. Tlnch, A. F. Wise. 

Contractors and Bttilders.— C. A. Patterson, M. J. 
Miller, I. A. McMillan, R. Stevens. 

Pump Repairers and Plumbers.— G. W. Campbell, E. 
A. Jackson & Co., F. Laporte. 

Lock and Gunsmiths. — B. Jacob, P. Tissier, A. Bourdin, 
I. Fettback. 

Barbers.— J. Brown Roth, Jesse Reid, R. Johnson, Wm. 
Lemley. 

Auctioneers.— H. Boylau & Bro., J. B. Schuster, 



56 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Hardware Dealers.— A. T, Jones, J. K, Goodwin, R. 
Lapsley, J. H. Robbins. 

Stationery DEAiiERS.— W. Rothrock, W. G. Boyd. 

Saddlery and Harness.— Rosenberg & Co., J. M, Schiel, 
P. Ryser. 

Furniture De A LERS.—D. Brislin & Son, W. B. Gill, George 
Read, Geo. Kuhne. 

Butchers.— S. D. Rodifer, Vickers & Allen, Lundie & 
Butler, C. Heinz & Co.. Latham & Brother. 

Sewing Machine Agents.— R. W. B. Merritt & Co., C. 
T. Ligon, F. C. Wright. 

Dentists.— M. D. Dunlap, H, 8. Paisley, J. 8. Dean, T. D. 
Jones, successor to J. G. Mc A.uley. 

Insurance Agents.— N. D. Cross, McConnico&Gerstman, 
M. Burns, Woolsey & Son, Thomas Peters & Co. 

Banks. — City National, Commercial. 

Wagon Makers.— O. Warner, E, Melson, Ed. Stone. 

Commission Merchants.— Woolsey «fe Son, Woodruflf & 
North, Clark & Co., W. L, Thompson & Co., A. C. Wooley & 
Co., J. Spence & Co., Baker, Lawler & Co., Geo. O. Baker & 
Co., Young & Pratt, Joe Hardie & Co., J, H. Burns & Co., M. 
R. Boggs & Co., J. H. Franklin, W. H. Couch, Block Brothers 
& Co., Carlisle, Jones & Co., Abner Williams, J. R. Bates, N. 
Waller & Co. 

Cotton Brokers.-J. C. Graham & Co., Welch & Keith, 
Partridge <fe Co., A. G. Stollenwerck, Lotspeieh, Golson & Co. 

Attorneys.— Brooks & Roy, Satterfield & Young, Reid& 
May, Pettus, Dawson & Tillman, Sumter Lea, I. N. Buttle, 
John F. Conoley, B. F. Saflfbld. W. 1 . Crenshaw, J. C. Comp- 
ton, A. H. Gardner, W. R. Nelson, Richard M. Morrow, Ster- 
ritt & Mabry, John, Fellows & John, White & White, W. E. 
Boyd, R. D. Berry, W. C. Ward, H. S. D. Mallory, J. 8. Diggs, 
F. L. Pettus. 

Physicians.— Richard Clarke, C. J. Clark, C. D. Parke, 
W. H. Johnson, T. F. Gage, J. P. Furnias, B- H. Riggs, J. A. 
MeKinnon, J. H. Henry, J. T. West, H. S. Hudson, J. H. 
Williamson, H. F. Mullen, 

Justices and Notaries. — S. M. Grayson, A. Jones, Rich- 
ard M. Morrow, J. W. Mabry, John F. Conoley. 

Machinists — S. C. Pierce, G. L. ^tuck^ P. L. Campbell, 

A. H. Haywood, T. C. Pierce, Henry Pierce. 

Photographers. — Turner & Dinsmore, G. L. Rosenberger. 
Lumber and Shingle Dealers.— W. H. Welch & Co., J. 

B. Howison & Co., Gayle & Varnon, M. H. Smith, F. F. Wise. 

Miscellaneous. — Merritt Burns, real estate dealer ; Geo. 
L. Stuck, engineer; John Hayes, fisherman; Jack Hinton, 
clerk; P, Cohen, hide dealer ; M. Bemish, tanner; B. Elias- 
burg, agent; Wm. Barley, A. Benjamin, A. H. Owen, me- 
chanics ; Geo. Ferguson, clerk ; C. H. Lavender, R. R. ; G. M. 
McConnico, F. A. Woodson, coal dealers; J. E. McMulleu, 
clerk; Henry Pierce, John Riggs, mechanic; James Allen, 
Engineer; A. W. Archer, mechanic; A. Riehey, carpenter; 
Miss M. E. Doyle, fancy hair worker ; R. J. Fowler, public 
wharfinger; C. Kuhne, upholsterer; John R. Kenan, com- 
press; T. T. Tallraau, compress; A. J. Mullen, brick ma'Jwei ; 
E. A. Rainey, coal dealer. i 

Col. W. B. Davis, Superintendent of the express office}. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 57 

Capt. Wm. M. Nettles, Superiuteiident of the telegraph 
office. 

P. D. Wardsworth, general telegraph liue repairer. 

Capt. Normau Webb, General Superintendent of theSelma, 
Home and Dalton railroad, one among tlie best business men in 
the South, and a most clever gentleman. 

Capt. F. G. Ellis, Superintendent of the New Orleans and 
Bel ma railroad. 

Capt J. M. Bridges. Superintendent of the Alabama Cen- 
tral Railroad. 

Mr. Gay, Master Machinist of the same railroad shops, 

Mr. Sitton, Master Machinist of the Stlma, Rome and 
Dalton Shops ; and many other business men whom we cannot 
now recollect. 

Gillman's Hall, a most complete and capacious hall for pub- 
lic entertainments, capable of accommodating l,oOO people. 

Edwards' Opera House, neatly arranged and capable of seat- 
ing 1,000 people. 

Armory Hall, capable of seating 800 people, with several 
other smaller public hails and club rooms. 

Two fii'st-class hotels — the St. James, Col. J. M. Dedman, 
proprietor, and the Southern Hotel, John M. Tillman, proprie- 
tor, besides the Central City Hotel, Mrs. RafFerty, proprietress, 
with quite a number of first-class private boarding houses, 
among them we will specially mention those of Mrs. Winne- 
more, Mrs. Eraser, Mrs. Tredwell, Mrs. Woodson, Mrs. Medley, 
Mrs. Tinch, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Deseker, and Mrs. Hooker, all 
affording ample accommodation to the i^ublic. 

Some six large warehouses, for the storage of cotton and all 
other kinds of freights, among them is the large and splendid 
fire-proof warehouse of C. Lovelady. 

The railroad compress, through which at least 60,000 bales 
of cotton pass every season, before shipment to the manufac- 
turers. 

One daily newspaper and three weekly papers, and two 
first-class job printing offices. 

When all these men and their occupations and professions 
are looked at, all doing a prosperous business, is it not reasona- 
ble for us to anticipate a magnificent and prosperous future for 
Belma? 



lE^j^T^rr XX. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

Carter B. Huddleston, James Reynolds, James Cravens, 
Gilbert Shearer and Wm. Read, having been elected at the 
first election, held on the first Monday in April, 1821, as the 
five Councilmen for the town, organized by the election of 
James Reynolds, Intendent, D, H. Burke, Clerk, Wm. Hud- 
dleston, Town Constable, and John Simpson, Treasurer, thus 
putting a municipal government in oparation for the town of 
Selma. 

But little, however, was done in the way of enacting ordi- 
nances, or putting in force the few that were enacted. 

On the first Monday in April, 1822, another election was 
held for five Councilmen, at which Wm. Johnson, Dr. E. 
Gantt, Gilbert Shearer, B. L. Saunders and John Simpson were 
elected, who, soon after the election, organized by electing D. 
H. J^urke, Clerk, James McCarthy, Town Constable, John 
Simpson, Treasurer, and Gilbert Sbearer, Intendent. 

We hear nothing further of the action of the town Council, 
until 1826. If any election was ever held, or any town (Council 
existed we have not been able to obtain the records. But we 
have it Ihat for four years there were no town authorities iu 
existence. 

lUit by 1826 so many retail shops had been opened, and 
fighting and all kinds of misdemeanors had become so common, 
the necessity of a town government was apparent. On the first 
Monday in April, 1826, an election was held, at which Gilbert 
Shearer, 1 ielding Reynohls, Dr. E. Gantt, P. J. Weaver, and 
Stephen A. Maples were elected Counciltnen, and organized by 
the election of Dr. Gantt as Intendent, James Tidwell, Clerk, 
8. F. Jones, town Contsable, and P. J. Weaver, Treasurer. 
Quite a number of good ordinances were adopted, going to put 
down aftVays and disturbances, and Dr. Gantt possessed bold- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 59 

uess and moral courage to enforce them, and was sustained by 
the more moral part of the commuuity. 

This Council was re-elected in 1827, and was organized by 
the re-election of the same officers. Dr. Gautt, however, resign- 
ing, there was but little interest taken in town affairs, and it 
seemed by general consent there was no necessity for a town 
government, and thus matters continued until 1830. 

Disorders of all kinds had again become the order of the 
day. The better part of the community again determined to 
put the machinery of a town government in operation. 

On the first Monday in April, 1830, an election was held at 
the dwelling house of David H, Burke, by the legal voters of 
the town, when Gilbert Shearer, John B. Jones, James Douglas, 
James Cante and John C. Watrous were elected Councilmen. 
Gilbert Shearer was elected Intendent by the Council, D. H. 
Burke, Clerk, Wm, Huddleston, Constable and John Simpson, 
Treasurer. Quite a number of good ordinances were adopted 
by this Council, and a new life and the full vigor of a town 
government had become fully established. Good order among 
the people had become apparent, and all conceded that it could 
be secured only through a good and substantial town govern- 
ment, and the consequence was, the town organization became 
popular with the people and its existence a public necessity. 
Benj. L. Saunders was appointed overseer of the streets and 
roads, at a salary of twenty-five dollors per year, a contract 
made with the Sehna Courier to publish all the proceedings, 
ordinances and advertisements of the town Council for one 
year for the sum of twelve dollars. Elias Dejarnette, Thomas 
P. Ferguson, Wm. Huddleston, Matthew McLauglin, Samuel 
F. Jones, James W. Burke and Thomas L. Craig were ap- 
pointed Commissioners to review the streets and roads and re- 
port their condition and the best plan to open them for public 
use. A rigid system of patroling was established and kept up, 
and the energy and industry of the Council for the year 1830, 
established a permanency to the town government. 

On the first Monday in April, 1831, Elias Dejarnette, Jas. 
Cante, R. H. Cross well, Wm. Johnson and Thomas P. Fergu- 
son were elected Councilmen, who elected James Cante, Inten- 
dent, D. H. Burke, Clerk, Wm. Huddleston, Contable, and 
James Douglas, Treasurer. James Cante and T. P. Ferguson 
were appointed to contract for digging and fixing up two pub- 
lic wells ; one at the crossing of Greene and Water streets, and 
one at the crossing of Franklin and Water streets, not to cost 
over forty dollars. Mr. Simpson, the Treasurer of the town 
for 1830, made his report, showing that he had received 
$151 51, from fines, street and road tax, and all other sources. 
He was allowed five per cent, commissions upon this amount as 
his salary. An ordinance establishing a rate of taxation was 
passed, and James Douglas and T. P. Ferguson were appointed 
to assess the property. D. H. Burke was allowed twelve dol- 
lars for his services as Clerk for the year 1830, John W. Laps- 
ley was appointed overseer of the roads and streets witliin the 
town for the year 1831. An ordinance requiring carts, drays or 
wagons to pay a license, and one requiring a license for retail- 
lug spirituous liquors were adopted. Thos. j/Frow agreed to 
do all the printing for the town for the yeat 1831, for fifteen 
dollars. An ordinance was adopted pro'h^iting slaves from 
living apart from their owners, and free negroes from living 



60 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

apart from their guardians. Col. Lapsley, the overseer of the 
streets aud roads, called out all the force of the town to work 
on the Range Line road, A rate of fees for the constable was 
established, and an ordinance providing a revenue to build a 
market house, was adopted, as well as an ordinance requiring 
the clerk, constable and treasurer to give bonds. Gilbert 
Shearer agreed with the town to keep up the Range Line road 
aud the Swamp road six months for eighty dollars. The price 
for showing a circus was fixed at twenty dollars, and a fee of 
two dollars to the Clerk. David Hamilton was the first one 
to pay for a license to run a dray or wagon, the price of which 
was four dollars for twelve mouths; the second was to Jack, a 
free black man, and the third to Thomas and James Adams. 
On th ■ 7th of November, 1831, L. S. McCrary, Wm. Harris, 
James Cante aud Henry Kouutz paid five dollars each for a 
license to sell liquors by the drink for one year. Gilbert Shearer 
contracted to clear out and put in repair Broad street from Water 
to Dallas street for forty-five dollars. An ordinance was passed 
prohibiting all kinds of boats from landing goods on the Sab- 
bath. This ordinance caused two parties in the town, and we 
may judge which was the largest from the fact that the ordi- 
nance was repealed in about six weeks. Gilbert Shearer, T. P. 
Ferguson and R. H. Crosswell were appointed a committee to 
contract for building a market house. The Clerk was made 
tax collector. M. G. McKeagg was tried by the Council, and 
fined twenty dollars, for selling liquor by the drink without a 
town license. The town Council of 1831, was the first Council 
the town ever had that seemed to take proper viaws of public 
matters, and their record is a good one, and really the only 
Council that had ever done anything towards improving the 
town. 

At the election on the first Monday in April, 1832, R. H. 
Crosswell, S. F. Jones, Gilbert Shearer, Hugh Ferguson and R. 
N. Philpot were elected Councilmen, Gilbert Shearer was 
elected Intendent by the Pouncil James Douglas elected Clerk, 
Tax Collector and Treasurer, Wm. Huddleston Constable, and 
T. P. Fei'gU!?ou, overseer of roads aud streets. A contract was 
made with the Souihern Argus, Cante & Bunnell, proprietors, 
to do the printing of the Council for the year for fifteen dollars. 
An ordinance to prevent bathing in the river within three 
hundred yards of the ferry, under a penalty of one dollar, was 
adopted. The road overseer was ordered to clean out Selma 
street, from Broad to Church street. Another public well was 
dug at the crossing of Alabama and Broad streets. An ordi- 
nance was passed on the 8th of May, 1832, to suppress vice and 
immorality, providing, among other things, that the doors of 
all places of business should be kept closed on Sunday, aud that 
any one who was caught drinking liquor on Sunday, should 
be arrested and fined, A.t that time, it is said, there were only 
about two men in Selma who did not visit "McKeagg's" every 
Sunday. The Council itself was divided upon the question and 
it was with only one vote majority the ordinance was adopted. 
The conse(|uence was there was no election for town officers on 
the first Monday in April, 1833, as the law provided, nor was 
there an election in 1834, during which ti;ne the town "run 
itself," and upon a pretty fast schedule at that. 

The Legislature, however, having amended the act incor- 
porating the town in some respects, among other things chang- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 61 

ing the day of election ; on the 3d day of January. lS3o, an 
election was Held at the house of GillJert Hhearer, under the 
direction of Hugh Ferguson, Gilbert Shearer and John Simp- 
sou, which resulted in the election of T. P. Ferguson, Robert 
H. Crosswell, VVm. Tredweli, John Simpson aiid Gilbert 
Shearer as Councilmen, who organized by the election of Gil- 
bert Shearer, luteudent, Henry Traun, Clerk and Treasurer, 
and Stephen J. Elliott, town constable. A committee, com- 
posed of John Simpson and T. P. Ferguson, to collect up ail the 
books and papers belonging to the town of Selma, and to settle 
with James Douglas, tiie last Clerk, was appointed. Mr Doug- 
las delivered all the l>ooks and papers in his possession, and re- 
ported that he held sixteen cents of the town's funds. Au or- 
dinance was adopted re-enacting all former ordinances, and 
James Douglas, was appointed overseer of the roads and streets. 
John Simpson resigned his membership of the Council, and 
James Cante was elected to fill the vacancy. Henry Traun, 
as Captain of a patrol company, returned Hugh Ferguson, W. 
H. V. Franklin and Adam Taylor as defaulters, for not per- 
forming patrol duty, who were fined by the Council one dollar 
each, which they p;dd. James Hall was fined two dollars for 
obstructing Franklin street, between Water street and the river 
bluff, by offering crowds of negroes for sale. 

On the first Monday in January, 1836, an election was lield 
for five (Councilmen, at wiiicli election the following vote was 
cast and the following gentlemen elected : James Cante re- 
ceived 29 votes ; Thomas P. Harvey, 24 ; Gilbert Shearer, 22: 
Wm. Tredweli, 22; Tiiomas P. Ferguson, 18. This Council 
elected James Cante, Intendent, Henry Traun, Clerk and Treas- 
urer, and S. J. Elliott, constable. Henry Traun was paid twelve 
dollars for his services as Clerk and Treasurer for the past year, 
S. J. Elliott twenty-five dollars for his services as constable, 
and twenty-five dollars to Thos. J. Frow, for printing, for the 
same time. In August, 1836, all the members of the Council, 
including James Cante, the Intendent, resigned, leaving Thos. 
P. Ferguson solitary and alone, who, according to the act of 
incorporation, ordereiJ an election to fill the four vacancies in 
the Council, and on the 14th day of August, 1836, the election 
resulted as follows : C. N. Bassett received 47 votes; Dr. E. 
Embree, 36; W. H. Fellows, 31; Henry Traun, 27. This Coun- 
cil elected C. N. Bassett, Intendent, David A Bo^'d, Clerk and 
Treasurer, T. W. Walker, Tax Collector and Assessor, Wm. 
Chapman, Constable, and James Adams, overseer of roads and 
streets. The duties of all the officers were clearly set forth in 
a report of a committee composed of W. H. Fellows and Henry 
Traun, which was adopted. Henry Traun was fined fifty cents 
for non attendance of meeting of the Council. The town 
Marshal was required to keep the streets clean, and open up 
('liuvch, Sylvan and Selma streets. W. H. Fellows resigned 
on the 12th day of October, 1836, and Thomas J, Frow was 
elected to fill the vacancy. Thomas J. Rice, was appointed 
overseer of the roads. Dr. E. Embree resigned on the 18th of 
October, and .John W. Lapsley elected to fill the vacancy. 

At the annual election, held on the first day of January. 
1837, Thomas P. Ferguson, John VV. Lapsley, Henry Traun, 
Dr. Uriah Grigsby and Thomas J. Frow were elected Coun- 
cilmen, who proceeded to organize by electing Henry Traun, 
Intendent, D. A. Boyd, Clerk and Treasurer, T. W. Walker, 



62 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Gollector and Assessor of taxes. Wm. Chapman, Marshal, and 
James Adams, overseer of roads and streets. Henry Traun 
moved to the country. Thos. J. Frow resigned bis seat in the 
Council and Jeremiah Pittman was elected in his place. Thos. 
P. Ferguson resigned his seat, and Thomas L. Craig was elected 
to fill the vacancy. Dr. Uriah Grigsby was elected Intendeut to 
fill the vacancy caused by the removal of Henry Traun from 
the town. The town Marshal's salary was fixed at $100 per 
year. A lot was purchased, at the corner of Water and Wash- 
ing streets, and a contract entered into with J. W. Jones to 
build a market house for $350 Wm. Chapman resigned as 
Marshal, and Willis Brooks was elected to till his place, and 
the salary was increased to $150 and fees, amounting to about 
the same sum. Regular rules were adopted governing the ac- 
tion and business of the Council. An ordinance was passed 
prohibiting the firing of any kind of firearms or tire crackers 
within the town. Eighty dollars were appropriated to fill up 
the big pond in Broad street, Wm. Waddill, jr., becoming the 
contractor. Messrs. Waddill and Pittman were appointed a 
committee to negotiate for the building of a guard house. 
Motions to sell the market house lot were ofTered in the Coun- 
cil during the year. Willis Brooks was dismissed as Marshal 
and Pressly A. Berry appointed to fill the vacancy, on the 16th 
day of June, 1837, and authorized to collect the taxes for that 
year. John C. Perry was fined fifty dollars for fighting in the 
public streets, Wm. Waddill, jr., acting as Tntendent^ro tern. 
David A. Boyd resigned as (;lerk and Treasurer, when David 
C. Russell was elected to fill the vacancy, at a salary of fifty 
dollars per year. Wm. Waddill, jr. . was elected Treasurer. A 
resolution was adopted authorizing the issue of $500 of change 
bills to be signed by the Intendent, and Wm. Waddill, as 
Treasurer, provided the Treasurer be individually liable for all 
sums he may sign. 

At the annual election on the first Monday in January, 1838, 
John W. Lapsley, William Waddill, jr., Jeremiah Pittman, 
Uriah Grigsby, and James D. Monk, were elected Council- 
men, who organized by electing Uriah. Grigsby, Intendent ; D. 
C. Russell, Clerk ; P. A. Berry, Marshal, at one hundred dollars 
salary; William Waddill, Treasurer; J. A. Jones, Overseer of 
roads and streets; and P. A. Berry, Tax Collector, at ten per 
cent, compensation. But little business was transacted by this 
Council. 

On the first Monday in January, 1839, William Waddill, 
John W. Lapsley, James D. Monk, Jeremiah Pittman, and T. 
W. Walker, were elected Councilmen, and organized by elect- 
iug William Waddill, Intendent; D. C. Russel, Clerk and 
Treasurer; and P. A. Berry, Marshal and Overseer of the 
roads, at a salary of two hundred dollars per year. 

Taxes having been rigidly enforced, and rather increased, 
and scarcely anything in the way of work on the town having 
been done, the people became restless, and many refused to pay 
either license or taxes. The columns of the Free Press were 
resorted to, in the way of communications, to stir up the oflQ- 
cers. The following appeared in that paper: 

Mr. Editor: — 

I accord to our present Town Council that credit to which they are richly 
entitled for the steps they have taken to improve the appearance of our town, 
and to remove, in a great measure, the local causes of diseases ; but I tliink 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 



63 



they have neglected to perform ONE important duty in which every one who 
contributes to these improvements must feel an interest. I allude to the pri- 
vacy of the receipts and expenditures of the Corporation, and concur fully in 
the opinion of others that the Council should require their Clerk to publish in 
the Free Press, an annuul or semi-annual statement of the financial operations 
of the town. A Taxpayer. 

The editor of the Free Press commented upon this article 
as follows : 

In other towns it is the practice, or made the duty of the town officers, to 
publish from time to time, such statements about which our correspondent 
complains, and we can see no motive in the officers of our town for withhold- 
ing from publicity the information desired. 

The result was the following report from D. A. Boyd, Clerk 
and Treasurer, and from D. C. Russel, Clerk and Treasurer: 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF THE TOWN OF SELMA. 

Dr, Town of Selma in Account with D. A. Boyd, TrW. Or. 

1837. April 13. To amount ex 



pended from this day to i6th 
Nov., 1837, by order of the 

Board 961 58 

To balance in the Treas- 
ury, 13 29 



^974 87 



1837. April 13. By amount re- 
ceived from former Board . 349 00 
" By amount received for Tax- 
es on Town property. Road 
Tax and Violation of Or- 
dinances, to 16th Nov. in- 
clusive 625 87 



Nov. 16,1837. 



$974 87 
D. A. BOYD, Cl'k, & Treas'r. 



Town of Selma in Account with D. C. Bassel, TrW. Or. 

1837. Nov. 16. By balance re- 
ceived from former Treas- 
urer 13 29 



Dr. 

1837. Nov. 16. To amount ex- 
pended by order of the' 
Town Council of the town 
of Selma, from this day to 
the 14th May, 1838, inclu- 
sive, 232 31 

1838. To amount account for 
balance in Treasury, . . . 120 15 



52 46 



May 4. By amount re- 
ceived in the Treasury to 
this date 339 17 



$352 46 
" By amount account for bal- 
ance $120 IS 

D. C. RUSSEL, Cl'k & Treas'r, 



May 4, 1838. 

A report was also made by P. A. Berry, showing that in 
the two years' business the town was due him $19.95. 

These reports caused considerable discussion both among 
the tax payers and the Council, but were finally received and 
adopted by the Council. 

A communication appeared in the Free Press, as to the 
negligence of the Council in relation to a grand nuisance exist- 
ing between the residences of Dr, Gantt and Cooper's Hotel. 

A Committeof the Council had raised a fund by private sub- 
scription and purchased a hand Fire Engine (which had arri- 
ved), and put it in charge of the Franklin Fire Company, of 
which John W. Jones was Foreman. 

At the annual election on the first Monday in January, 
1840, David Cooper, John M, Strong, Wiley P. Swift, Jeremiah 
Pittman, and Wm, Walker, were elected Councilmen, and 
organized by electing Wiley P. Swift, Intendent; D. C. Rus- 
sel, Clerk and Treasurer, and P. A, Berry, Marshal and Over- 
seer of roads and streets, at a salary of two hundred dollars 
per year. 



64 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

This Council held but one or two pieetings during the 
year. 

The Legislature extended the limits of the town by con- 
tinuing Franklin street to the public road, now North street, 
and westwardly along the public road or North street, to where 
the Summerfield road comes into tlie public road or North 
street, and from there, south to tlie Alabama River, thence up 
the river to the foi.t of Church street. 

At the annual election in 1S41, David A. Boyd, Giles M. 
Ormond, Thomas J. Rice, Jeremiah Pittman, and William 
Waddill, were chosen Councilmen, who elected William Wad- 
dill, Intendent; Henry Traun, Clerk, at fifty dollars a year 
and fees ; Abner Jones, Marshal and Overseer of roads and 
streets, whose compensation was fixed at one hundred and 
fifty dollars, and all fees, and who gave a bond for the faithful 
performance of his duties, of one thousand dollars, with Wil - 
liam G. Hale and Aquilla M. Goodwin as securities ; and David 
A. Boyd, Treasurer. 

Tliis council went to work in good earnest, completed the 
market place, at the corner of Water and Washiugtoii streets, 
for the use of everybody who wanted to sell any kinds of fresh 
meats, poultry, vegetables, and marketable articles generally, 
and built a guard liouae at the rear end of the market house, 
opened and extended the streets throughout the additional in- 
corporated limits, and was, beyond all doubt, the most work- 
ing Council the town had for years. A house was rented for 
taking care of tlie tire engine, which had for some time stood 
exposed to all kinds of weather, contracted with Maj. Frow to 
publish all the ordinances passed during tlie year, in the Free 
jPress, for forty five dollars, and to execute all job printing for 
thirty dollars. Much credit is due Dr. Giles M. Ormond for the 
industry and energy shown by tliis (Jouucil. 

At the annual election on the first Monday in January, 
1843, Wesley Piattenburg, M. G. McKeagg, D.ivid Douglass, 
P.J. Weaver, and Isaac Cooper, werechosen Councilmen, who 
elected P. J. Weaver, Intendent ; E. Wilson Higli, Marshal 
and Overseer of roads and streets ; George Blanks Clerk and 
Treasurer. Maj. Frow was contracted with to do the printing 
for the year for twenty dollars. All male persons, between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five, were made, by an ordinance, 
subject to work on the roads and streets, or pay one dollar for 
every day, failing to perform work. The Selma Rangers were 
prohibited from shooting witliin the limits of tlie incorporation. 
Tliis was about all that was done by tliis Council. 

At the annual election on the first \ioM(lay in Januarj', 
1843, P. J. Weaver, James B. Harrison, Dr. Thomas tSmith, 
Wiley Melton, and Aquilla M. Goodwin, were elected Council- 
men, who elected Philip J. .Weaver, Intendent; A. M.Good- 
win, Clerk and Treasurer ; and E W. High, Marshal and Over- 
seer of roads and streets. This Council went to work in good 
earnest. .\noth'^r fire engine was bought [>y private sul>-crip- 
tion, and hooks and ladders, for fire purposes, were made; 
some three dozen leather water buckets were also made, to pass 
water, upon occasion of fires ; the i)ul)lic wells were also put 
in good order; proper attention given to the streets: the big 
hole in liroad, at the crossing of Selma with Broad street, was 
filled up by contract with Col. -^ eaver, for eighteen dollars ; 
a ditch opened along Donation street to the river to carry oft' 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 65 

the immense pond of water at the cros><ing of Parkmau with 
Donatiou street ; all private wells were required to be either 
covered or plauked arouod ; a system of keeping a proper ac- 
count of the finances of the town was established ; and indus- 
try and a proper interest characterized the proceedings of the 
Council. 

In November, A. M. Goodwin resigned his position aa 
Clerk and Treasurer, and Solomon Dougherty was elected to 
fill tbe vacancy, and David A. Boyd to fill the vacancy in the 
Council. 

At the annual election in January, 1844, P. J. Weaver, J. 
B. Harrison, Wiley Melton, Dr. Thomas Smith, and D. A. 
Boyd, were elected Councilmen, who elected P. J. Weaver, 
lutendent; the office of Clerk, Treasurer and Marshal, were 
all consolidated, and Solomon Dougherty elected to discharge 
the duties of all three offices, at a salary of two hundred and 
fifty dollars and fees. 

Dr. Gantt made a contract to remove the old plank fence 
from around the grave yard, and plant the Cherokee rose 
around tlie grave yard for the old plank. 

Tbe Clerk and Marshal was directed to call out the hands 
and put the roads from town to tlie race track in good condi- 
tion ; all female dogs found running at large were ordered to 
be shot, and removed from the town at the expense of the 
owner; William Waddill rented the lot 107, set apart for the 
Baptist church, for 1844, at five dollars. 

At the annual election on the 6th of January, 1845, held at 
the Planter's Hotel— under the management of W. H. Fellows, 
David C. Russell, William Waddill, Thomas P. Ferguson 
and Henry Traun— David C. Russel, David Weaver, William 
Waddill, jr., Wiley Melton and David A. Boyd, were elected 
Councilmen; William Waddill, Intendent ; David A. Boyd, 
Clerk and Treasurer ; and P. A. Berry, Marshal and Overseer 
of roads and streets. R. Rufus Kink acted Clerk and Treas- 
urer from the 19th of February, 1845, to April 8th, 1845, the 
time when Col, Boyd was absent. Six stalls were put up in 
the market house, and the Market house latticed, and a good 
door put on the front entrance on Water street, and the stalls 
offered for rent at one dollar per month, and none to be rented 
for a less term than one month ; foot pedlers to be taxed one 
dollar per day. 

Philip Weaver was appointed Tax Collector for 1845. D. 
A. Boyd resigned his membership of the Council, and also the 
office of Clerk and Treasurer. William M. Lapsley was elected 
to fill the vacancy as to the membership and Clerk and Treas- 
urer. P. A. Berry resigned the office of Marshal, and Joseph 
Hillyard elected to fill the vacancy, Frederick Vogeliu and 
William A. Taylor being securities on his bond. 

An ordinance was passed prohibiting horses and hogs from 
running at large in the town, on Sundays. 

At the annual election in January, 1846, William Waddill, 
Wiley MeltoD, William M. Lapsley, and E. W. Marks, were 
elected Councilmen — James M. Huggins and David A. Boyd 
receiving a tie vote, each receiving ninety-three votes, a choice 
devolved upon the Council, as soon as it organized. The Coun- 
cil elected William Waddill, Intendent and, decided in favor 
of James M. Uuggins ; elected Wm. M. Lapsley Clerk and 



66 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Treasurer, and Joseph Hillyard, Marshal and Overseer of roads 
and streets. 

Thi?? Council went to work and had all the fences removed 
from the various streets, which had been closed up for years ; 
had quite a number of ditches cut, and the town nearly drained 
of all its stagnant and impure pools of water; a second story 
was put upon the market house, and a nice and neat Council 
room erected. The Council had been meeting at different 
places — sometimes at the counting room of Col. Weaver — at the 
store of Boyd & Street — at D. C. Russell's house — but now, for 
the first time, had a neat Council room, the property of the 
town, to meet in. Wm. M. Lapoley was elected Tax Assessor 
and Collector for 1846. 

At the annual election in January, 1847, William Waddill, 
Wiley L. Chapman, John M Strong, Wiley Melton, and W. H. 
Gee, were elected Councilmen, who elected John M. Strong, 
Intendent ; Edward Gantt, Clerk and Treasurer ; Joseph Hill- 
yard, Marshal and Overseer of roads and streets. An ordi- 
nance was adopted instructing the Marshal to disperse all 
assemblies of slaves, for the purpose of preaching, when there 
were not five white men present, as the law required. 

At the annual election in January, 184S, John M, Strong, 
W. L. Chapman, Edward M. Gantt, Henry S. Blackburn, and 
David Weaver, were elected Councilmen," who elected John 
M. Strong, Intendent; E. M. Gantt, Clerk and Treasurer; and 
Joseph Hillyard, Marshal and Overseer of roads and streets. 

The County Surveyor was authorized and employed to 
locate the street centres of the town by the driving of an iron 
pin. 

The most interesting and exciting action this Council had 
was at a meeting held on the 11th day of May, when, after a 
most excited discussion for hours, an ordinance was passed by 
a vote of three to two, prohibiting, under a penalty of twenty 
dollars, fighting chickens, with or without gafls, within the 
limits of the corporation. As soon the ordinance was passed, 
the Council adjourned to take a drink. And we have no rec- 
ord of their having any other meeting during the remainder of 
the year. 

On the first Monday in January, 1849, J. M. Strong, Wil- 
liam Waddill, Abner Jones, David Weaver, and Henry S. 
Blackburn, were elected Councilmen, and organized by the elec- 
tion of James D. Monk, Clerk, Assessor and Tax Collector; 
Joseph Hillyard, Marshal and Overseer of roads and streets ; 
and John M. Strong, Intendent. 

But little business of general importance was transacted by 
this Council. Many new streets were opened, and general 
good order was maintained during the year. 

At the annual election for town officers in January, 1850, 
Wiley Melton. David Weaver, R. N. Philpot, John W. Laps- 
ley, and John M. Strong, were elected Councilmen, who organ- 
ized by the election of John M. Strong, Intendent; E. M. 
Gantt, Clerk, Joseph Hillyard, Marshal and Overseer of roads 
and streets ; and William Waddill, Treasurer. The spirit of 
internal improvement hail again revived. SeveraJ enterprises 
^vere discussed, among which, was the revival of the construc- 
tion of the Selmaand Tennessee Railroad. Strenuous efforts were 
made upon this Council to take stock for the town,l)ut the propo- 
sition was laid over from time to time, and Anally declined. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 67 

Au ore] iuance, enforcing a rigid system of patroliug, was 
adopted ; a large number of ditches opened, and a general 
spirit of improvement characterized the Council. 

A system of taxation and license was adopted ; a negro, by 
the name of Charley, was purchased for the city (the city thus 
became a slave holder) ; a mule and cart were purchased, to 
clean up and move oft* garbage beyond the limits of the 
to(vn. 

At the annual election on the first Monday in January, 
1851, Amos White. John W. Lapsley, R. N. Philpot, William 
Waddill, and Dr. Isaiah Morgan, were elected Councilmen ; 
Amos White, elected lutendeut ; James D. Monk, Clerk, Asses- 
sor and Tax Collector; and Joseph Hillyard, Marshal and 
Overseer of roads and streets; and William Waddill, Treas- 
ures. 

This was a decidedly able Council, composed of the most 
prominent citizens of the town.. 

The town had increased in population, and to such an 
imposing size, as to induce its title to be called a city, conse- 
quently the Legislature was induced to amend the charter 
of the town to that of a city, on the 28th of February, 1851, and 
increasing, considerably, the territorial limits. A fire engine 
was purchased, hooks, and ladders and leathern water buckets, 
and all other articles necessary to preserve property from fire, 
were also purchased. Quite a number of ordinances were 
adopted, looking to the general advancement of the place. 

At the annual election for Mayor and five Councilmen for 
the city, held on the first Monday in April, 1852, (the Legisla- 
ture having changed the charter in 1851 from a town to that of 
a city, and making many other changes, among them those of 
electing a Mayor by ihe people, increasing the Council to five 
members, and extending the limits of the corporation, taking 
in quite a large territory,) John M. Strong was elected Mayor, 
R. N. Philpot, W, Plattenburg, Sidney O'Gilvie, D. C. Russel 
and Abner Jones Councilmen, who organized by the election of 
James D. Monk, Clerk, Tax Assessor and Collector, Joseph 
Hillyard, Marshal, and Abner Jones, Treasurer. This was the 
most important Council that had ever acted, and whose action 
has had much to do with the growth and financial affairs of 
the city. A Mr. Reed was contracted with to bore two artesian 
wells in Broad street, one at the crossing of Alabama street and 
one at the foot of Broad street. From these wells fine streams 
of pure water were soon flowing, and were for several years 
after a very attractive feature of the city. The Clerk, Tax As- 
sessor and Collector was required to give a bond of $3,000 and 
the Treasurer a bond of $1,000. The rate and subjects of taxa- 
tion were fixed, as well as prices of license for carrying on busi- 
ness within the city limits. John M. Strong was elected city 
auctioneer. The new market house, at the corner of Water 
and Washington streets, was finished, latticed and painted, and 
the price of the stalls fixed at $20 per month or $160 per year. 
John W. Lapsley and David A. Boyd placed their propositions 
before the Council to fill up the large wash at the foot of Broad 
street, on the bank of the river, by the erection of a substantial 
brick building, suitable for a warehouse or any other kind of 
business, the lot of land so to be occupied, was 130 feet square, 
and for which the Council were to be paid $2,000. At that time 
the land had washed away, and nearly one half of Water street 



68 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

going into Broad had washed so as to almost make it impassable. 
The children who had broken out glass in the Masonic Academy 
were fined, but the Council remitted the fines provided the pa- 
rents of such children would whip them. An ordinance was 
adopted prohioiting negroes from hiring their own time. The 
tax collector was authorized and instructed to compromise all 
the uncollected taxes of all previous years, on the best terms 
he could, so as to place all the financial affairs of the city in a 
settled condition. A street tax of five dollars was imposed 
upon all the male inhabitants over twenty-one and under forty- 
five years of age. On the 30th day of August, 1852, the Council, 
by ordinance, subscribed $80,000 to the capital stock of the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee Railroad Company, and issued that amount 
of coupon bonds, running twenty years, bearing eight per cent, 
interest, to the railroad company to pay for the subscribed 
stock. This was done under the authority of an act of the 
State Legislature, amending the charter, approved 9th of Feb- 
ruary, 1852, and was the commencement of the present bonded 
indebtedness of the city. North street was opened from the 
Range Line road to the northwest corner of the city, 100 feet 
wide; numerous other streets were surveyed and opened for 
public use, and a decidedly improved appearance given to the 
city. The stalls in the market house were rented out at public 
auction. John J. Strawbridge and Jeremiah Pittman renting 
much the larger number of them. Bow street, which had been 
occupied heretofore by warehouse sheds, was opened for public 
use. A license was issued, by vote of the Council, to James 
Hall, for Fanny Tidwell, an old negro woman, allowing her to 
work for the public, appointing M. G. McKeagg her guardian. 
The salaries of oflBcers were fixed— the Mayor to receive $250 ; 
the Clerk and Tax Assessor and Collector to receive SlOO, and 
five per cent, upon all taxes collected, the Marshal $150. and 
fees, and the Treasurer two and a half per cent, for all moneys that 
come into his hands. W. Plattenburg represented the city in 
the meeting of stockholders of the Alabama and Tennessee 
Rivers Railroad, at Shelby Springs, and was authorized to cast 
the vote of the city for three thousand four hundred shares of 
stock. At a special meeting of the Council held the 2d day of 
December, 1852, the city subscribed for fifteen thousand dollars 
of stock in the Alabama and Mississippi Rivers Railroad Com- 
pany, upon the same terms and conditions the $85,000 had been 
subscribed for in the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad Com- 
pany, thus making the bonded debt of the city $100,000 to aid 
in constructing these two railroads projecting from the city. 
An ordinance was passed levying a tax of $20 per day upon all 
steamboats and all other water crafts landing at any point within 
the city limits. This ordinance was enforced for some time, 
but meeting with warm opposition, was finally repealed. An 
iron railing was ordered and put around the two artesian wells. 
Wm Waddill was paid $175 for building a brick culvert where 
the river road crosses the Worley branch. In compliance with 
a petition of Dr. Hen dree. Mat. Jacobs was employed to cut a 
ditch from Dallas street, along Franklin to North street. On 
motion of W. Plattenburg, at a meeting of the Council held 
January 25, 1853, the office of marshal was declared vacant from 
the 101 h day of December, 1852, in consequence of the absence 
and neglect of duty of Joseph Hillyard; the vacancy was filled 
by the election of A. C Hamilton. L. Clonaga was allowed 



HISTORY OF SET-MA. 69 

$25 for one month's services as marshal during Hillyard's ab- 
sence and neglect of tluty. One thousand dollars was paid by 
Lapsley & Boyd, due the city, which sum the Council appro- 
priated to the purchase of a fire engine. Under the amended 
charter it was the dut^' of the Council to fix upon some day in 
each year for the election of officers of the city. The Council 
fixed upon the first Monday in June, 1853, and the same day 
for each succeeding year for the annual election of city offi- 
cers. A forty foot alley was givin the city by Boyd & Lapsley, 
the alley between the stores now occupied by Hooper & Co., 
and Robt. Lapsley. An artesian well was be red In Lawrence 
street, between Water and Alabama streets, near the residence 
of George P Blevins. Ten delegates were sent to the commer- 
cial convention, to be held on the first Monday in June, 1853, 
at Nashville, at the expense of the city. 

At the election held on the first Monday in June, 1853, 
John M. Strong was re-elected Mayor, R. N. Philpot, W. Plat- 
tenburg, Abner Jones, Dr. J. E. Prestridge and Nat. Waller 
elected Councilmeu. The first this Council did was to adopt a 
rule imposing a fine of three dollars upon every member of the 
Council, Clerk and Marshal, who failed to be in attendance 
wiihin fifteen minutes after the time of meeting of the Council. 
James D. Monk was elected Clerk, Tax Assessor and Collector, 
Richard 8. Smith, Marshal, and Abner Jones, Treasurer. Fire 
limits were established, in which no wooden building should 
be erected. Tnis Council was not fond of ice cream, for an or- 
dinance wa^ passed prohibiting the peddling of icecream upon 
the streets, under a penalty of $20. Land was purchased from 
Col. Weaver upon which to build a powder house, and a maga- 
zine. An engine house was built on the market house lot, and 300 
feet of two and a half inch hose f)urchased. The Council of- 
fered a reward of $50 for the arrest of one S. Sweet, a painter 
by trade, charged with assault with intent to kill, upon Hamuel 
F. Rodifer. On the 13th of September, 1853, an ordinance was 
adopted providing against the introduction of yellow fever 
into the city. An ordinance was adopted putting the grave 
yard under the control of the city, appointing J. J. Norris, city 
sexton, allowing him fees for his services r^nd fixing a list of 
fees. The marshal was allowed to hire two persons to aid him 
in watching and doing patrol duty. Two hundred dollars 
were subscribed and paid by the city as a bonus, to induce the 
Washington City and New Orleans Telegraph Company to 
bring their line through Selma, and $1,500 was paid by 
the business men of the place for the same purpose. The Mayor 
was directed to expend the large amount of money accumulated 
in Jiis hands during the prevalence of the yellow fever in the 
city, in purchasing sup|)lies for the poor of the city. Samuel 
F. Rodifer was paid thirty dollars for services during the 
prevalence of the yellow fever in the city. W. D. Snyder was 
appointed assistant marshal during Christmas week. Wood- 
son Johnson was paid $615 for building the powder magazine. 
Drs. Barnum and Blevins were paid $88 for visiting all the 
boats landing at the city from yellow fever points, from the 
15th of Septembei- to the 12th day of November, 1853. A com- 
mittee consisting of R. N. Philpot, Nat. Waller and James D, 
Monk, w 's appointed to invite Governor A. P. Bagby, to 
visit Selma in February, 1854, and deliver a eulogy upon the 
life and character of the late Hon. W. R. King. Gov. Bagby 



70 HISTOKY OF SELMA. 

accepted the invitation, came to Selniaand delivered an oration 
creditable to himself, and did full justice to the deceased. The 
committee had the oralion printed in pamphlet form. The 
Council refused to pay the l)ill for printing and the committee 
had to pay it out of their ovi^n pockets, Edwards & Conoley 
were appointed city attorneys on the 13th of March, 1854, The 
wooden blacksmith shop at the corner of Washington and 
Alabama streets, belonging to Dr. I. Morgan, (where Lamar's 
corner is now) was declared a nuisance, and ordered to be re- 
moved within twenty days. The marshal was directed to buy 
a cart and mule for the city, to remove trash and garbage from 
the streets. (This was the second the city ordered.) R. N. 
Philpot reported the taxes collected from all sources, from Jan. 
1, 1853, to Jan. 1, 1854, to be $5,070 14. 

On the 5th day of January, 1854, P. A. Berry, Pink Stowe 
and Henry West, as managers, held an election for city officers 
for the ensuing year, which resulted in the election of John M. 
Strong, Mayor, George F. Plant. John G. Suediker, Henry S. 
Blackburn, John W. Lapsley and R, N. Philpot Councilmeu. 
The salary of the Mayor was fixed at .$300, the salary of the 
Clerk at $300 and that of the Marshal at $500. James D. Monk 
was elected Clerk. Tax Assessor and Collector, R. N. Philpot, 
Treasurer, and his salary fixed at $100, Joseph R. Curtis, Mar- 
shal. The Cherokee rose which Dr. Gantt had planted around 
the graveyard having proven a failure, the Council passed an 
appropriation in addition to private contributions made to Mr. 
J. J. Norris, the city sexton, to put a good and substantial 
fence around the graveyard. A fine against Felix Montague 
was remitted. The Marshal was directed to collect up all the 
pistols and guns of all kinds in the city and place them in the 
powder magazine. This order was not met with favor on the 
part of the citizens, who refused to give up their firearms, 
and the ordinance soon became a dead letter. The fence around 
the graveyard, 1016 feet, cost $181 75, which amount was paid 
John G. Bnediker for the work, John M. iStrong was author- 
ized to represent the city in the stockholders' meeting of the 
Alabama atid Tennessee railroad, held in Selma, .July 12, 1854. 
Boyd, Watts and Lapsley were granted permission to bore an 
artesian well on the bluff of the river, in rear of the Central 
depot building. In accordance with various petitions the 
Council appointed a committee to locate a new graveyard. 
At a meeting of the Council, on the 26th of S<"pteniber, 1854, 
a mf)st rigid quarantine ordinance was passed to protect the place 
against the introduction of yellow fever, but it was never put 
into actual force. Measures were adopted to establish a hos- 
pital. Lime was furnished to all who wanted it to use for 
sanitary purposes. The marshal was directed to notify the 
chief engineer of the Alabama and Mississippi railroad to lix 
a good and substantial croissing wjiere Mu I herry street passes 
over that road, and if not done within ten days the marshal 
was directed to remove the railroad iron out of the public 
street. The engineer fixed the crossing. That part of Bow 
street and the blufF of the river, between Greene and Wash- 
ington streets, belonging to the city, was leased for five years 
to the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad Company, at $l()i) per 
year, to be used as a coal depot. A contract was made wiuh 
Mr. Campbell to sink an artesian well at the crossing of Frank- 
lin and Water streets, the city to furnish one hand and neces- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 71 

sary tubiug. Twelve acres of land wei-e purchased from Col, 
J. L. Price at $700, for a new graveyard, which was soon after 
fenced around, and interments were made in it under rules 
and regulations of the city. New street was ordered to be 
opened from Mulberry creek to the swamp. Col. Lapsley 
opened a street called Coosa street, east of the Alabama and 
Mississippi railroad track. Alabama street was to be opened 
from the range line, through the lands of Col, P. J. Weaver, 
to Coosa street. On the 6th of January, 1854, the Selma Gas 
Light Company was granted permission to erect their buildings 
and to manufacture gae in the citj', at any point east of Sylvan 
street, and the Mayor was authorized to subscribe for the city 
ten shares of the capital stock, Geo. F. Plant and H. 8. 
Blackburn, as a committee to examine tlie books of Clerk and 
Tax Collector reported tliat there had been collected from all 
sources, !p4,464 59; had paid City Treasurer, $4,630 46; over 
paid City Treasurer,$165 87 ; The Tax Collector had received 
for railroad interest, $461 50; paid interest, $476 75; over paid, 
.$15 25. James D. Monk was the tax collector whose books ex- 
hibited the fact that ho had paid out for the city more money 
than he received. That is not the way some custodians do 
with public money in these modern days. 

On the first Monday in June, 1855, an election was held at 
the store of Abner .Jones, for Mayor and Councilmen, under 
the direction of David A. Boyd, Thomas W. Street, John 
Mitchell, Wm, Shearer, and James D. Monk; at which, 
.John M. Strong was elected Mayor; Robert N Philpot, Geo. 
F. Plant, W- T, Smith, M. C. Wiley, and Amos H. Lloyd, were 
elected Councilmen ; James D, Monk, Clerk, Assessor and Tax 
Collector; Joseph R Curtis, Marshal; and R, N, Philpot, 
Treasurer, R, N. Philpot, George F. Plant, and Amos H. 
Lloyd, were appointed to assist the Tax Assessor in making an 
assessment of the real estate of the city. W. T. Smith and M. 
C. Wiley were appointed a committee to have the new grave 
yard laid off and fenced Twenty dollai's were appropriated to 
buy powder, &c., to discharge the cannon with on Wednesday 
morning, July 4tli, 1855, and the Marshal instructed to have all 
the bells in the city rung. The Plioenix Fire Company was 
paid seventeen dollars and tliirty-eight cents. John Rierden 
done the work on tlie fence around tlie new grave yard for fif- 
teen dollars, and John W. Jones charged twenty dollars for 
making the double gate W. T. Smith resigned his seat in the 
Council, and W. Plattenburg was elected to fill the vacancy, 
who refused to serve, when Dr. I, Morgan was elected, who 
would serve. 

On January 9th, 1856, an ordinance was adopted declariiig 
the old, or West Selraa grave yard, a nuisance, and prohibiting 
any person from being buried therein after that date, upon 
penalty of fifty dollarH. The bond of the Clerk and Tax Col- 
lector was made ten thousand dollars, and that of the Treasu- 
rer five thousand dollars. 

At the election on the first Monday in June, 1856, held at 
the old post office, under the management of Wm. S. 
Phillips, Wm. M. Ford, and James D. Monk, John M. Strong, 
was elected Mayor, George F'. Plant, Wm. M. Ford, Wm. A. 
Dunklin. JohnMitchell, and W, J, Lyles. elected Council- 
men, and organized by electing James D. Monk, Clerk and 
Tax Collector ; Joseph R, Curtis, Marshal ; and Wm. M, Ford, 



11 HIvSTORY OF SELMA. 

Treasurer. John Mitchell, George F. Plant, and Wm. A. 
Dunklin, were appointed a committee to assess the value of the 
real estate of the city for this tax year. This committee 
assessed, in connection with the city Clerk, A. Collenburger & 
Co., with selling sixty thousand dollars worth of goods during 
the year, but Edward Ikelhehner, one of the firm, appeared 
before the Council and proved that twenty five thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-five dollars was the actual amount of 
merchandise sold during that tax year. The fire engines were 
placed under the control of George F. Plant, who was to be 
paid for keeping them in good order and ready for use. 

At the annual election held on the first Monday in June, 
1857, John M. Strong was elected Mayor; E. T. Watts, Wm. 
M. Ford. George F. Phint, M. J. A Keith, and Wm. L. Allen, 
elected Councilmen; who organized by the election of W J. 
Lyles, Clerk, Assessor and Collector ; Joseph R. Curtis, Mar- 
shal; and Wm. M. Ford, Treasurt^r. E. T. Watts, J. D. Aionk, 
Wm. L. Allen, and George F. Plant, were appointed to assess 
the real estate of tiie city for this tax year. John M. Strong 
was authorized to codify the laws and ordinances of the city, 
and to receive a reasonable compensation for his services. The 
committee appointed to assess the real estase of the city, 
reported, after performing their daty, tiiat the asses -te 1 value 
of real estate was $1,179,900. Tha Marshal was instructed to 
build a pound. L. Y. Tarrant an 1 A. J. Mulleu, were ordered 
not to sink any more clay holes iu the corporation. This 
Council was fond of ice cream, we should jmige, as th«^y 
repealed the ordinance prohibi ing that article from being sold 
on the streets. A committee wlio had been appointed to ascer- 
tain what would be the cost of keeping up twenty-four lamps, 
lighted with oil, on Broad and Water streets, reported that they 
would cost $16 17 eacli, for one year, and that of gas lights 
would not cost so much — not more than $12.00, including the 
posts and lamps. George F. Plant reported the fii'e engine in 
good order and shape. A heavy tax and license ordinance was 
adopted, and, perhaps, the highest rate of taxation ever adopted 
before or since — each male had to pay a street tax of five dol- 
lars and a head tax of one dollar. The net income of all law- 
yers and doctors, over two hundred dollars, was taxed twenty- 
five cents on each one hutuired dollars. Each negro mechanic 
was charged five dollars, and the entire ordinance was of a 
similar character. L. G. Sturdivant and J. D. Nance asked 
the Council to give them permission to e^tabli.sh a ferry across 
the river, at the foot of Broad street, offering to pay the city 
five hundred dollars per annum, and give free crossing to the 
City Council, but after several meetings the proposition was 
refused. John Hardy appeared before tiie Council, at its meet- 
ing on February 27th, 1858, iu behalf of the Selma Gas Light 
Company, and after a full report to the Council, of the work- 
ings and condition of the Company, the Council subscribed for 
five hundred dollars' worth of additional stock in the Gas Light 
Company. Mayor Strong wa^ allowed one hundred dollars for 
codifying the ordinances. The salary of the Mirshal was 
raised from five hundred dollars to eight hundretl dollars per 
year. The assessed value of the real estate of Capt. J. B. Har- 
rison wa.-< reduced from nine thousand dollars to seven thou- 
sand dollars. The city lot, east of the Central depot building, 
was ordered to be sold on a credit of ten years, at public sale. 



HISTORY OF SET.MA. 73 

On a vote on this proposition, however, there was a tie vote in 
tlie Couucil— W. M. Ford and George F. Plant against the pro- 
position, and E. T. Watts and M. J. A. Keith for it— Mayor 
Strong giving the casting vote in favor of the sale of tlie lot. 
Tlie negro boy Charles, belonging to the city, was sold for fif- 
teen liundred d(. liars. William iScott was paid ten dollars for 
surveying services. There had been collected six thousand 
four hundred and thirteen dollars of taxes for city purposes, and 
nine thousand six hundred and thirty dollars, to pay interest 
on the railroad bonds that year. 

At the annual election heJd at the Council room on the 7th 
day of June, 13C8, for city officers, the following jote was 
cast : ^ 

For Mayor.— M. J. A. Keith, 138 votes: John M. Strong, 
129. M. J. A. Keith was elected by nine votes. 

For Councilmeu. — W.A.Dunklin, 136 votes; George F. 
Plant, 138; M. C. . iley, 152; John Weedon, 167; Isaiah Mor- 
gan, 170; Wm. M. Ford, 121 ; Wm, M. Ridgeway, 74 ; electing 
Dunklin, Plant, Wiley, Weedon and Morgan, who elected Jno. 
M. Strong, Clerk; James M. Dedman, Marshal, and W. A. 
Dunklin, Treasurer. George F. Plant, W. A. Dunklin and 
Dr. Morgan, were elected to assess the real estate of the city 
for the years 1858 and 1859. Messrs. Fellows, Dunklin & Har- 
alson, were elected city attorneys, at a salary of two hundred 
dollars. Sign boards, giving the names of the streets, were 
ordered to be put up at the different crossings of streets. A 
contract was entered into with the Gas Light Company, tou 
light the city, at three dollars per thousand cubic feet cou-1 
sumed. The Clerk was authorized to take coupons for all dues 
to the city. John Hardy was paid one hundred dollars for print- 
ing one thousand copies of the city charter and ordinances. 
The Marshal was directed to employ three street hands. Henry 
West was appointed Deputy Marshal, at a salary of fifty dol- 
lars per month. Tiie old grave yard, in West Seliua, was put 
in good order, with an iron-wire fence on Selma street, a 
heavy plank fence at the east end, and on the west and north 
sides, a good running plank fence, with cedar posts, and the 
entire premises put in good order; and no person who had no 
relatives already buried in the yard, or strangers, nor negroes, 
were allowed to be buried there. The vacant lot east of the 
Central Depot building brought, at public sale, five thousand 
and fifty dollars. This is the lot on which stands the Fergu- 
son Bank building. The contract with the Gas Light Com- 
pany required seventeen po ts to be erected as follows : 1. cor- 
ner of Stone's Hotel ; 2, western corner of Gee's Hotel; 3, Wm. 
Johnson's old corner; 4, Harrell & Booth's corner; 5, Cun- 
ningham's corner ; 6, telegraph office; 7, north corner of 
Suter'sshop; 8, in front of Wiley & Roxe's ; 9, Clay & Co.'s 
corner ; li), P. J, Weaver's corner; 11, Eliasberg's corner; 
12, Clark's book store; 13, Cotnmercial Bank corner; 14, north 
corner of Watt's Hall, 15, Savage & Burr's corner, 16, 
Works & Thomas' stables; 17, front of Council chamber. At 
these points was the city first supplied with gas lights. At a 
meeting on the 18th of December, 1858, a supper was ordered 
for the Council, not to cost over twetity dollars. P. J. Weaver 
and B. F. Cherry proposed to the Council, upon certain terms, 
they would dig down the foot of Washington street, and establislj 
a steam ferry across the river, but the Couucil failed to accept the 



74 HISTORY OF 8ELMA. 

terms. Another mule and cart was purchased for the city. H. 
C, Billings and John J. Thompson were appointed city auc- 
tioneers. The Marshal was directed to hire three good hands 
to work on the streets. The ordinance prohibiting cock fight- 
ing, was repealed, and the boys had a glorious time for the fol- 
lowing season. A hospital was established, Dr. I. Morgan 
elected city physician, and John McQrath elected nurse, and 
John Weedon contracted with to build the present hospital 
buildings. The city was divided into two wards— all the terri- 
tory west of Broad street to be ward No. 1, all that east of 
Broad street to be ward No, 2— and a board of health estab- 
lished, with health ofHcers authorized for each ward. W. M. 
Wallace was employed to survey and define North street. The 
Council changed the day of election from the first Monday in 
June, to the first Monday in May of each year, but not to inter- 
fere with the terms of the existing city officers. An election 
was ordered, and W. 8. Phillips and John Mitchell were 
appointed managers of the election, and Abner Jones and H. 
8. Blackburn were to be clerks of the same. "Uncle Johnnie 
McGrath" was paid thirty-five dollars for extra servi(^es for 
attending small 'pox cases at the hospital. George F. Plant as 
President, and John Hardy as Secretary of the Gas Light Com- 
pany, entered into a wiitten contract with the city. 

On the first Monday in May. 1859, an election was held by 
the voters of the city, for city officers for the ensuing year, 
and resulted as follows : 

For Mayor.— M. J. A. Keith, 168 votes; John G. Snedi- 
ker. 76. 

For Couneilmen— Isaiah Morgan, 155 votes; John Mitchell, 
25; George F. Plant, 212 ; W. A. Dunklin, 196; John Weedon 
163; M. C. Wiley, 175; W. 8. Knox. 3; Wm. M Byrd, 21; 
Dr Robert Johnson, 16; Joseph J. Norris, 87; Dr. John E. 
Prestridge, 50 ; Dr. James T. Gee, 3 ; M.J. Williams, 1; R. A. 
McCrary, 1; electing W. A Dunklin, Dr. I. Morgan, George 
F. Plant, M. C. Wiley, and John Weedon. The salaries of the 
city officers was fixed— for the Mayor, $500 ; for the Marshal, 
$800; Clerk, $300; Treasurer, $100; City Attorney, $200. Geo. 
F. Plant, John Weedon and Dr. I. Morgan, were appointed to 
assess the real estate of the city for the tax year. Dr. Morgan, 
city physician, reported that the four negroos belonging to Dr. 
Prestridge, who had been confined in the city hospital with 
small pox, had been discharged, in consequence of a full recov- 
ery, their clothing all burned, and that there was no further 
danger from these negroes. Eight-teiiths of one per cent, was 
laid upon the rea) estate as a tax for the tax year. The Coun- 
cil refused to let Dr. E. J. Kirksey put up a post to hitch his 
horse to. John M, Strong was elected City Clerk ; James M. 
Dedman, Marshal; W. A. Dunklin, Treasurer; Fellows, 
Dunklin & Haralson, Attorneys ; John McGrath, City Sexton ; 
and N. W. Shelly, Printer — all at the previous rales of com- 
pensation. Henry West resigue<l his positou as Deputy Mar- 
shal, an<l R Purkie was elected to fill his place, at fifty dollars 
per month, which Purkie thought was better than driving a 
stage at thirty dollars per month. An ordinance was passed 
prohibiting slaves, or free persono of color, from playing ten- 
pins, dice, cards, or any other game of chance, under a penalty 
that the slaves were to be whipped and the free persons of color 
to work on the streets, which is the first provision for working 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 75 

convicts on the streets. John W. Lapsley was paid $300 to 
reimburse him for money he paid out in the way of expenses 
in getting up stocli and organizing the Selma and Gulf Rail- 
road. 1 he Marshal was authorized to employ three policemen ; 
and an ordinance passed to regulate the duties of the Marshal, 
Deputy Marshal and police. 

At a meeting held October 9th, 1859, the Council author- 
ized the Mayor to subscribe for $23,000 of the capital stock of 
the Railroad Company, from Uniontown, by way of Newberne, 
to Greensboro, and issue bonds with which to pay for the 
stock; thus making the bonded debt of the city $123,000, at 
eight per cent, interest, semi-annually. A committee was 
appointed to revise the city charter and prepare such amend- 
ments as may be necessary, to be presented to the next Legis- 
lature. Fourteen additional street lamps were contracted for 
with the Gas Company, thus making thirty-six public lights 
in the city. A secret Vigilance Committee was appointed by 
the Mayor to arrest any suspicious person who might be found 
in the city tampering with negroes. Five hundred dollars 
were given to the "Independent Blues" to enable the company 
to entertain their military guests, the "Talladega Artillery,'' 
on their proposed visit to Selma on the 9th of June, 1859. The 
cock fighting ordinance came up again, and a motion made to 
prohibit cock fighting in the city, was adopted, by Plant, 
Weedon and Wiley voting for its adoption, and Dr. I. Morgan 
against its adoption. So the amusement was abandoned for that 
season. The Marshal was directed to purchase one mule and 
cart for the city, and to hire six more hands to work on the 
streets. The Mayor was authorized to subscribe for $30,000 of 
the capital stock of the North-east and South-west Railroad 
Company, at a meeting of the Council held on the 28th day of 
December. 1859, and to prepare and issue coupon bonds to run 
twenty years, at eight per cent., to give to the company for 
said (Stock, thus making the bonded debt of the city $173,000, at 
eight per cent, interest. At a meeting of the Council, held on 
the 31st day of December, 1859, the Mayor was authorized and 
directed to subscribe for $60,000 of the capital stock of the 
Selma and Gulf Railroad Company, and to issue coupon eight 
per cent, twenty year bonds, to pay the company for the 
stock, (these bonds were not issued until 1865), thus making 
the bonded debt of the city, for railroad purposes, $233,000— all 
bearing eight per cent, interest. The Council appropriated fifty 
dollars towards boring the artesian well at the crossing of Ala- 
bama and New streets, near the residence of B. T. Maxey. 
Five hundred dollars were appropriated to buy acityclock. Mc- 
Clure, Thames & Wilson claimed the foot of Lauderdale street, 
to which the Council objected. Sam. Rodifer was appointed 
Deputy Marshal, at a salary of fifty dollars per month. Port 
Wardens were establiHhed, but we have never been able to 
ascertain what were their duties. The fire limits of the city 
were defined to commence on Sylvan street at the river bluff, 
thence to Water street, thence to Green street, thence along 
Green street to Alabama street, thence to Franklin street, 
thence to Selma street, thence to Washington street, thence to 
Dallas street, thence to Church street, thence along Church 
street to the Alabama River, thence up the river to the foot of 
Sylvan street; within these limits no wooden building can be 
built, nor is any house allowed to be covered with wooden 



76 HISTORY OF SELiMA. 

material. Geo. F. Plant was contracted with to put an irou 
culvert across Broad street, near the residence of W. Platteu- 
burg. An ordinance was adopted prohibiting the sale of ne- 
groes on the public streets. At a meeting of the Council, held 
on the 31st day of March, 1860^ resolutions were adopted 
authorizing the Mayor to subscribe for capital stock of the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee Railroad Company to amount of $100,000, 
and to issue coupon eight per cent, twenty year bonds and 
deliver the same to that Railroad Company. We have not been 
able to ascertain by auy of the records that these bonds were 
ever issued. One thousand dollars was appropriated to purchase 
a fire engine for the use of the Phoenix Fire Company No. 1. 
One of the rotary Are engines was loaned to the Alabama and 
Tennessee Railroad Company. Goldsby and Jones were allowed 
sixty-three dollars; Daniel Sullivan, fifty dollars; Hiram 
Granger, fifty dollars ; Mrs. Fanny Worley, forty-three dollars; 
and Robert Hall, fourteen dollars, as damages to their lauds for 
opening New street, in East Selma. Quite a number of new 
streets were opened in East Selma, among them Coosa, Flor- 
ence, Parham, Plant, Hardee, Mechanic, Division, Mulberry, 
Mullen, Dedman, Race, and other streets, the members of 
the military and fire companies of the city were exempt from 
paying street and poll tax. 

On the first Monday in M»y, 1860, an election was held for 
officers of the city, for two years. The amended charter provi- 
ded for an election every other year, instead of every year, and 
making the number of Councilmen six — at which the follow- 
ing vote was cast : 

For Mayor.— M. J. A. Keith, 156 votes: Dr. I. Morgan, 
120 votes. 

For Councilmen — M. C. Wiley, 255 votes; George F. Plant, 
238; John Weedon, 206; Wm. A. Dunklin, 2-58; A. H. Jackson, 
179; N. H. R. Dawson, 218; Wm. M. Byrd,93; Robert Hall, 
199; W. M. Smith, 80; C. E. Thames, 78; P. J. Weaver, 1 ; 
James W. Lapsley, 1; C. B. White, 3; Dr. I. Morgan, 1 ; Jas- 
per J. Norris, 1 ; James Ford, 4 ; Jack Riggs, 1 ; Wm. Ickes, 1; 
Samuel Rodifer, 1 ; W. S. Knox, 1; Dr. Robert Johnson, 34; 
resulting in the election of M. C. Wiley. George F. Plant, 
John Weedon, W. A. Dunklin, N. tl. R. Dawson and A. H. 
Jackson, who elected John M. Strong, Clerk, James M. Ded- 
man, Marshal, Fellows, Dunklin & Haralson, Attorneys, Sam- 
uel F. Rodifer, Deputy Marshal. George F. Plant,, Robert 
Hall and Dr. I. Morgan, were appointed assessors of real estate, 
whose compensation should be five dollars each per day for 
every day employed. The Mayor was directed to purchase a 
suitable bell to ring as an alarm bell in case of fire. Rules to 
govern the Council and officers of the city were adopted. The 
rate of taxation upon real estate was placed at seven-tenths. 
The salary of the Mayor was fixed at $700; Marshal $1,000; 
Clerk, $350; Assessor of personal property, $300; Treasurer, 
$250; Attorneys, $250, and three per cent, allowed the Tax Col- 
le-tor upon all moneys he collected. Alston & Huggiiis were 
granted a privi ege for twenty years *^o use tiie foot of Church 
street for the purooses of a ferry across the river. A number of 
negroes were arrested, belonging to planters in thecountiy, upon 
the charge of being engaged in a contemplated conspiracy 
against the whites. W. H. I'ellows, John Roltbins, W. S. 
Knox, W. B. Haralson, J. R. Joiiu, Alfred Berry and W. Y. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 77 

Lundie were appointed a committee to investigate the matter, 
and $500 were appropriated to pay the expenses of said investi- 
gation. Thomas Selman, Wm. Turner, James Adams and John 
E. Thompson, four additional policemen, were appointed at fifty 
dollars per month each. Two hundred dollars were paid to the 
Phenix Fire Company as a special tax paid by foreign insur- 
ance companies. The services of Capt. Samuel Rodifer as dep- 
uty marshal had become so important that his salary was in- 
creased to sixty dollars per month. The fire bell, purchased by 
the Mayor, cost $232 31, which is the bell now hung over the 
Council room, and the steamboat Flirt charged sixty dollars for 
bringing it from Mobile to Selma. W. R. Bill, Richard Fax- 
ton, J. B. Covill and 8. C. Pierce, presented a petition on be- 
half of the citizens of East Selma, asking for the building of 
an engine house, but the petition was never acted upon. A. H. 
Jackson was appointed to arrange and codify the ordinances 
under the new charter. The police force were, James M. Ded- 
man. Marshal, Samuel D. Rodifer, Deputy Marshal, Wm. Tur- 
ner, James Adams, Thomas Selman, J. E, Thompson, W. J. 
Meriweather, Samuel Clay, James Tred well, DeM. R. Vickers, 
B. T. Maxey, Wm. Wood, Sump Williamson, and J. A. Har- 
rell, policemen. Mrs. Dorsey was employed as nurse and 
matron of the hospital at twenty dollars per month. At a 
meeting of the Council, held on the 30th of November, 1860, an 
ordinance was passed authorfzing the organization of a fire de- 
partment, under which our present excellent fire department 
was organized. An ordinance regulating the city hospital was 
adopted. An election was held on the 6th day of December, 
I860, by the firemen, under the provisionsof the fire department 
ordinance and T. B. Pierce was elected Chief, John McElroy, 
First Assistant, W. Allen, Second Assistant. The Independent 
Blues were given fifty dollars to buy the company an ammu- 
nition chest; and the same amount to the Governor's Guards 
for the same purpose. M. C. Wiley resigned his seat as a 
Councilman, and the vacancy was filled by the election of Dr. I. 
Morgan. C. Sutter was employed to change the old flint and 
steel muskets into percussion ones, that belonged to the city. 
Race street was allowed to be used as a race track. The Treas- 
urer was instructed not to pay any more interest on bonds pay- 
able in New York, until the difficulties between the North and 
South are settled. John McGrath was discharged as city sex- 
ton. At almost every meeting of the Council for two years, the 
question of Second street was discussed. The opening of that 
street cost the city more money and trouble than any other 
street. E. M. Gantt was appointed superintendent of street 
hands at a salary of seventy-five dollars per month. The Mayor 
was instructed to procure arms from the Governor of the State, 
in accordance with the act of the last Legislature. The Mayor 
appointed on the board of health. Dr. Mullen, Robert Hall and 
Alfred Berry for the east ward and Dr. Kent, Dr. Morgan and 
J. M. Keep for the west ward. The duty of lighting the gas 
lamps on the streets was imposed upon E. M. Gantt, street 
overseer. On the 30th day of March, 1861, the Council directed 
John M. Strong, as Clerk of the city of Selma, to subscribe for 
$50,000 of stock in the Alabama and Mississippi Rivers Railroad 
Company and pay for the same in eight per cent, coupon 
twenty year bonds of the city, but from some cause were not 
issued until the first day of January, 1862, and thus making the 



78 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

bonded debt of the city $283,000, bearing eight per cent, inter- 
eat, payable semi-annually. The $60,000 issued to the Selma 
and Gulf, as well as this $50,000 issued to the Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi have always been considered " moon-shiny," and it 
is believed by many that their payment could not be enforced 
if the city were to resist their payment. On April 24th, $500 
were appropriated to any military company that might enrol 
from the city to the threatening war, and the marshal was di- 
rected to put the cannon in good order and to buy powder and 
ball, and a committ e appointed to ask the Governor of the State 
to furnish powder for the use of the city. The expenditures of 
the city, for city purposes, from the first day of May, 1860, to 
same day, 1861, wert $30,550, and the assessed value of real 
estate $2,500,000 and the personal taxable property, $3,000,000. 
Col. N. H. R. Dawson and A. H. Jackson resigned their seats 
as Councilmen, and E. W. Marks and James W. Lapsley were 
elected to fill the vacancies. The Mayor appointed the 2d day 
of May, 1861, for the review and drill of the Phenix Reds and 
PYaukliu Fire Company No. 2, to take place in Col. Weaver's 
old field in front of Mrs. Worley's — W. B. Haralson, J. B. Har- 
rison and Charles Lewis, were appointed judges, who awarded 
the flags that had been prepared by the ladies of the city. 

At the first meeting in May, 1861, the Council proceeded to 
the election of its officers, for the ensuing year, which resulted 
as follows : John M. Strong, Clerk and Assessor of personal 
property; W. A. Dunklin, Treasurer; James M. Dedmau, 
Marshal; Fellows, Dunklin & Haralson, Attorneys— all receiv- 
ing tne salaries as those of the previous year. Dominic Con- 
stance was paid $324, after deducting twenty dollars for one 
basket of champagne, which the Council said was not received. 
This account is supposed to have been for extras to the Council, 
after various debates. The Mayor and Marshal reported the 
gun carriages all in good condition. A standing committee on 
missiles, balls and ammunition was appointed and reported a 
lot of ball cartridges given the city by the "Blues." The 
Mayor was instructed to furnish Burnsville beat, Sumnierfleld 
beat and Union beat, each, with one keg of powder. Mrs. Mary 
E. Keith was paid $120 for making two flags, one for the Phe- 
nix Reds fire company and the other for the Franklin No. 2. 
A supper was given to the two military campanies, the Cadets 
and Governor's Guards, for which Constance & Keipp were 
paid $325. In accordance with the provisions of an ordinance, 
the Mayor appointed Alex. White, Dr. W. P. Reese, Rev. A. 
M. Small, Dr. P. H. Cabell and Joseph R. John, a committee 
to devise some plan or system of a public school for the city, 
and report the same to the Council as soon as practicable. This 
committee reported, and it has been upon tlieir report that the 
present excellent system of our city schools are conducted. 
Five thousand dollars were appropriated and paid to A. L. Haih-n 
as chairman of the committee of safety, to be use! tty that 
committee. Twenty dollars per week was appropriated as a 
charity fund to furnish supplies to the needy widows, women 
and children of the city. The titles to a lot in Selma, for build- 
ing an engitie house on was obtained in favor of the city. The 
committee on guns reported the cannon all mounted and ready 
for use. A committee composed of E. W. Marks, W. A. Dunk- 
lin and James W. Lapsley, were appointed to revise the char- 
ter and prepare an amendment to authorize the establishing of 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 79 

a system of public schools. Ou August Slst, 1861, James M. 
Dedman resigned his position as marshal, an<i resolutions quite 
complimentary to him were passed by the Council, Edward 
M, Qantt was elected to fill the vacancy. The code and ordi- 
nances prepare 1 by Jackson and Lapsley were received and 
adopted. The city paid Henry Vaughn $386 for tents for the 
Phenix Reds, after their organizatiou as a military Company. 
Dr. W. P. Reese was elected City Physician. The City Council 
borrowed $425 from Phenix Fire Company. The public scales 
were put up on the corner of Water and Lauderdale streets. 
An ordinance passed ordering and regulating the planting of 
water oaks for shade trees. J. D, Monk, A. Haverstick and W. 
Y. Lundie were appointed managers of the election to be held 
on the 5th day of May, 1862, for a Mayor and Council for the 
next year, as the charter had been changed limiting the terms 
of Mayor and Council to one year and making seven Council- 
men, at which election the following vote was had: 

For Mayor— George F. Plant, 59 votes; Jonathan Haralson, 
38 ; W. S. Knox, 32; John Weedon, 19. 

For Councilmeu — C. E. Thames, 113 votes; E. W. Marks, 
87; A. G. Mabry, 25; T. M. Cunningham. 64; Charles Lewis, 
120; Robert Hall, 90; Isaiah Morgan, 86; John H. Henry, 28; 
T. B. Pierce, 53; S. C. Pierce, 82; undrew Bogle. 97; John R. 
Wright, 34; Wm. L. Saunders, 29; Wm. A. Dunklin, 1; E. 
T. Watts, 6. 

Charles Lewis, C. E. Thames, Robert Hall, Andrew Bogle, 
A. G. Mabry, E. W. Marks, and Dr. I. Morgan were elected 
Councilraen. Dr. I. Morgan, Jonatiian Haralson and John M. 
Strong were appointed to assess the real estate of the city. 
Capt. S. D. Rodifer was directed to take charge of the street 
hands, carts, &c , as Marshal pro tern, and to clean all the filth 
from the military hospital. T. C. Daniel, Captain of the 
"Blues," was paid $500, under an ordinance of the city, because 
his company had enlisted from Selma. The following officers 
were elected: John M. Strong, Clerk and Assessor of personal 
property; John R. Wilson, Marshal; Joseph T. Hunter, Treas- 
urer; Fellows, Dunklin «fc Haralson, Attorneys; M. J. Wil- 
liams, Printer; Samuel D. Rodifer, Deputy Marshal; A. P. 
Pool, Richard S. Smith, St. John Tavell, Jack Rice, Jere Duck- 
worth, W. A. Kelley, Policemen; John McGrath, Sexton; Thos. 
Whalau, Overseer of street hands. An ordinance was adopted 
allowing Knight & Co. to establish powder mills in the incor- 
poration. Gen. John B. Forney was petitioned to establish 
Selma as a military post, and appoint T. B. Wetmore, Provost 
Marshal, which was done. George F. Plant, the Mayor elected, 
died at his residence in Selma, on the 9th day of July, 1862, and 
suitable resolutions were passed by the Council. One thousand 
dollars were sent to Mrs. Judge Hopkins, at Richmond, Va., 
for the benefit of the wounded and sick soldiers. James A. 
Hermon was appointed City Surveyor. Joseph R. John was 
elected Mayor, by the Council, until the first Monday in May, 
1863, to flU the vacancy caused by the death of George F. 
Plant, late Mayor. C. E. Tliomas resigned his place in the 
Council and Robert Hall resigned his place in the Council. 8. 
V. Pierce was elected in Hall's i lace, and M. J. A. Keith to fill 
Capt. Thomas' vacancy. Jonathan Haralson, superintendent 
of the uiire works, asked permission of the Council to let his 
negro hands sleep at works, which were in the limits of the 



80 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

city. The small pox made its appearance among some refugee 
negroes who had come to the city, and a pest house was at once 
built on the magazine, hospital and East Selma graveyard lot, 
which had been purchased from Col. J. L. Price, the adminis- 
trator of Gen. Shearer's estate, and by the vigilance of Dr. Mor- 
gan, and the rigid enforcement of the vaccine ordinance the 
disease did not spread. The Council paid Dr. Morgan $1,000 
for his services. M. L. Dedman was appointed assistant mar- 
shal at a salary of seventy-five dollars per month. Joseph T. 
Hunter, Treasurer, having died, Maj. J. C. Graham was elected 
to fill the vacancy. The Council appointed a committee com- 
posed of Dr. Mabry, Dr. Morgan and E. W. Marks, to confer 
with (yOl. J. L. White, and tender him, on behalf of the city, a 
suitable lot or lots upon which the Confederate States could 
erect a national armory, a naval gun foundry and powder works. 
Gen. Fairfax, whom Pope Walker, the Secretary of War, had 
sent to look out a suitable location, decided upon Selma, de- 
clined the offer of the city, but went to work, bought all the 
lots suitable for a naval foundry, a lot to manufacture powder 
and balls, and leased other places for the manufacture of cart- 
ridges, and in a few months the town was full of people, busy 
in the manufacture and construction of implements for the de- 
struction of life and property. The arsenal was placed under 
the control of Col. J. L. White, and some 800 men, boys and 
girls were put to work. Gen. Hunt soon had the naval foundry 
in operation and some of the most formidable cannon ever 
known were turned out daily and shipped to the different points 
where they were mostly wanted by the Confederate army. 
Extensive rolling mills were put in operation. The arsenal 
naval foundry, rolling mills and other government establish- 
ments commenced bringing thousands of tons of coal and iron 
over the Selma, Rome and Dalton railroad, double and some- 
times tri-daily, from Shelby and Bibb counties, A lot of city 
bonds were about to be sold at auction, and the Mayor was in- 
structed to buy them for the city, provided they did not sell for 
more than 105. John J. Strawbridge rented all the meat stalls 
in the market, and had the market business completely mo- 
nopolized. Henry Gatchell, Foreman of Franklin fire com- 
pany No. 2, asked permission to exchange their engine for one 
the Confederate States owned, which he was allowed to do. 
J«hn R. Wilson having resigned as marshal, M. L. Dedman 
was appointed for the time being. On the 27th of April 186.3, a 
committee was appointed to confer with the military authori- 
ties as to the best means for defending the city against raids of 
the enemy. A hirge number of new streets were established 
and new ones opened during this terra of the Council, and 
much attention was given to aid the military in command here, 
in defending the place against "Yankee raids," which were 
becoming threatening. By order of the city authorities a home 
force of those not liable to conscription was organized for de- 
fensive purposes. Plant, Race, Division. New, Coosa, Har- 
dee, Mulberry, Second, First, Dedman, Mechanic, Vine and 
Mitchell, were among the new streets opened by this Council. 
At a meeting on tho 30th of April, 1863, an election was ordered 
to be held for Mayor and Councilmen, on the first Monday in 
May, 1863, Wm, Ickes and W, J. Lyle were appointed mana- 
gers and the Marshal returning officer. At the election the 
following vote was cast : 



HISTORY OK SEIuMA. 81 

For Mayor— M. J. A. Keith, 94; Dr. I. Morgan, 48 ; E. W. 
Marks, 24. 

For Couneilmen — John Weedon, 128; Johu C. Graham, 
163; M. J. Williams, 124; John H. Heury, 93; S. C. Pierce, 
146; Wm. B. Gill, 100; Henry Gatchell, 131; J. D. Mouk, 39; 
C. D. Parke, 56; N. H. R. Dawson, 24; A. G. Mabry, 27; W. 
B. Haralson, 17; W. J. Lyle, 23; Joseph R. John, 13. 

The result was as follows; M. J. A. Keith, Mayor; S. C. 
Pierce, M.J. Williams, Dr. John H. Henry, Johu C. Graham, 
John Weedon. Henry Gatchell and Wm. B. Gill, Couneilmen, 
who elected John M. Strong, Clerk ; Andrew J. Neil, Treas- 
urer , lVI. L. Dedman, Marshal; Fellows & Haralson, Attoneys, 
and M. J. Williams, Printer. Quite a number of ordinances 
were adopted, among them one complimentary to Ca^t. Chas. 
T. Laiuier, of the Confederate army, for the able manner in 
which the defences of the city had been constructed, and others 
looking to the defence of the city against Yankee raids. The 
salary of the Marshal was increased to $1,800 per year and the 
police to $125 per month ; the Marshal was allowed $125 per 
month for charity. Reese & Backus were elected city physi- 
cian at a salary of $1,500 per annum. Daniel Sullivan was 
elected city surveyor and was instructed to select and make a 
survey of a suitable place for a city wbarf, which he did and 
made a report, that the proper place was where the wharf is 
now located, at an estimated cost to the city of $21,750. The 
Council passed a resolution giving the Confederate government 
full power to build said wharf at that price, with the right to 
use it free of charge during the war, and at half rates always 
after the war. John M. Strong was appointed attorney to visit 
Demopolis and draw the dividend declared by the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Alabama and Mississippi Rivers Railroad Com- 
pany. The payroll for April, 1863, was as follows: Police- 
men—John W. Davis, Wm. A, Kelley, Pat. Murphy, John 
E. Toole, A. W. Crail, D. Parnell, $125 each ; Adeline, for 
board, $148; Charles Butt, Street Overseer, $125 ; John McGrath, 
Sexton, $15 ; M. L. Dedman, for board, $96 25 ; Johu M. Strong, 
expenses to Demopolis, $15 ; J. W. Blandiu, stationery, $44 ; A. 
M. Goodwin, repairs on calaboose, $100 ; Charles Butt, for nails, 
$10 ; John D. Gray, for shovels, $60, making a total of $1,363 25, 
not including the salaries of Mayor, Marshal, Treasurer, At- 
torney, which would run up the amount expended for the 
month to about $2,000. At the first meeting in May, 1863, the 
Clerk reported that he had received, during the past two years, 
on real estate, $30,306 93; personal property, $9,336 38; Licenses, 
$6,098 25; fines and forfeitures, $3,215; market stalls, $707; 
all other sources, $17,010 30, making -^ total of $66,873 86. 

The election in May, 1864, for Mayor and Council for the 
ensuing year was as follows : 

For Mayor— Dr. John H. Henry, 236 votes ; A. G. Mabry, 
106 votes. 

For Couneilmen— Wm. S. Knox, 92 votes ; John J. Thomp- 
son, 201 ; Henry Gatchell, 265; Wm. M. Gilmer, 154; M. J. 
Williams, 169; R. N. Philpot, 78; 8. C. Pierce, 218; Thomas 
B. Pierce, 211 ; Charles B. Andrews, 169; Dr. I. Morgan, 155; 
Geo. F. Marlow, 243; W. Platteuburg, 43; Wm. B. Gill, 78; 
John Weedon, 58, and quite a number of scattering votes, re- 
sulting in the election of Dr. John H. Henry for Mayor, and 
Henry Gatchell, John J. Thompson, Geo. F. Marlow, Charles 



82 HISTORY OF SELMA, 

B. Andrews, T. B. Pierce, S. C. Pierce and M. J. Williams, 
Councilmen. Dr. Henry on taking f,he chair made an eloquent 
and stirring speech to his Council. John M. Strong was elected 
Clerk. M.L. Dedman, Marshal, A.J. Neil, Treasurer, Fellows & 
Haralson, Attorneys, H. F, Muliin, Physician, John McGrath, 
Sexton, and M. J. Williams, Printer. The artesian well on 
Florence street, near the residence of E. G. Gregory was re- 
ported in bad order, by Sol. K. Schimmerhorn, Chief of the 
Fire Department, which had been organized under an ordi- 
nance of the City Council, by Phenix fire company No* 1, and 
Franklin fire company No. 2. 

At an election held by the firemen on the 14th day of May, 
1864, the following officers were elected for the Fire Department 
for the ensuing year : Thomas B. Pierce, Chief Engineer; 
Henry Gatcheli, First Assistant Engineer; Harry G. Noble, 
Second Assistant Engineer ; A. Stevens, Secretary. The fol- 
lowing is "^ list of the Phenix fire company No. 1, at this date: 
John H. Henry, Foreman ; Wm. W. McCoUum, First Assistant 
Foreman; John S. Daimwood, Second Assistant Foreman ; M. 
J. A. Keith, Treasurer; Wm. B. Gill, Secretary; S. D. Rodi- 
fer, A. Elkan, H. G. Noble, C. Haverstick, C. Wouerline, Joe 
May, J. Kenner, S. P. Stoddard, J. M. Huggins, J. A. Works, 
L. A. Daniels, P. HuflT, M. J. Williams, Wm. A. Keliey C. B. 
Andrews, John Erhart, F. Laporte, A. F. Wise, J. J. Ryan, 
St. John Tavell, J. L. Jones, Charles Blaloek, Geo. Williams, 
G. F. Stevens, C. E. Butts, K. Jones, J. Morehead, P. B. Lane, 
John Haralson, J. J. Williams, Frank Fleet, A. J. Jones, M. 
Myers — numbering thirty-eight members. 

The following is a list of the officers and members of Frank- 
lin fire company No. 2: Henry Gatcheli, Foreman; John 
MeElroy, First Assistant Foreman ; C. Hatch, Second Assis- 
tant Foreman ; E. G. Gregory, Treasurer; John Batton, Secre- 
tary ; J. B. Covin, J. A. Tilton, W. R. Bill, J, Yokers, A. Me- 
Elroy, H. S. Smith, E. A. Gracier, O. R. Floyd, R. Hall, J. 
Wilkins, Dan Hughes. S. Dunham, S. C. Pierce, J. C. Waite, 
J. C. Hinehart, J. Graham, E. B. VVatson, W. Cannon — num- 
bering twenty-three members. 

On application to Col. Lockhart, the conscript officer, the 
Mayor, Councilmen and all the city officers were exempt from 
conscription into the Confederate army. A resolution was 
parsed requiring a policeman to be discharged if found on the 
streets drunk, and as a general thing it was preferable to be a 
policeman under Dr. Henry, just about this date, than going 
into the Confederate army. A negro boy belonging to W. S. 
Curtis, was found with a gun, and Mr. Curtis, his owner, fined 
twenty dollars. A resolution proposing to divide the city into 
eight wards, after much discussion, was defeated by the follow- 
ing vote: for adoption— Gatcheli and T. B. Pierce; against — 
Marlow, Williams and S. C. Pierce. A committee on educa- 
tion was appointed as follows: B. Eliasberg, John McElroy, 
W. M. Smith, Geo. F. Marlow, M. J. ^^ illiams, C. E. Thames, 
and Henry Gatcheli- Maj. John C. Graham was ofTered ten 
thousand dollars, in the old issue of five dollar bills, which 
caused some misunderstanding between the city and the Con- 
federate officers, and after considerable squabbling, by order of 
Quartermaster General A. R. Lawton, the live dollar bills were 
received as that much paid on the wharf, by the city. An office 
was ordered to be constructed on the river bluff, at the foot of 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 83 

Fraukliu street, for the wharfinger. A. W. Crail and Hiram 
Granger were dismissed from the police for drinking too mucli. 
The City Clerk was ordered to issue sixty thousand dollars of 
bonds to the Alabama and Tennessee railroad and take a cer- 
tificate of stock for the same, thus making the bonded debt of 
the city, for aid to railroads, three hundred and forty-five thou- 
sand dollars, all bearing eight per cent, interest. The city had 
a settlement with the Confederate States officers of the Quarter- 
master's Department, in regard to the wharf. The wharf, as 
shown by various bills of expenses exhibited by Capt. John C. 
Graham, cost the city $29,932 51, as follows: Rations for 
bauds, $9,08 1 15 ; tools, nails, forage, wood &c., $4,048 19; 
barge for transporting gravel, $1,050; transportation of laborers, 
$426 70; engineer, superintendent, overseers, &c. , $12,838. The 
city paid an additional $10,000, in new issue of Confederate 
notes, and took charge of the wharf upon the condition agreed 
upon, that the Confederate States could use the wharf free of 
charj^e during the war and after the war at half rates, leaving 
$9,932 51 unpaid, which amount we have no account of ever 
being; paid to the Confederate States, and taking the transac- 
tion altogether, it was a most excellent one for the city. The 
number of police agreed upon was twelve, in addition to Mar- 
shal and Deputy Marshal, the police to be paid $150 each per 
month. An ordinance was adopted requiring every person 
offering beef for sale in the city to first furnish the Market 
Clerk with the marks, brands, &c., of every such animal so 
offered to be sold, under a penalty of fifty dollars. For a short 
time thereafter the market was poorly furnished with beef. 
An election was held by the Council for a wharfinger, which 
resulted as follows : For E. M. Gantt— Councilmen S. C. Pierce, 
M, J. Williams and C. B. Andrews, 3; For J. J. Simons — 
CouncilQien T. B. Pierce, J. J. Thompson and Henry Gatchell, 
3. There being three votes cast for each candidate, the Mayor 
gave the casting vote for J. J. Simons. The pay of the police 
was increased fifty dollars per month, making the pay $200 per 
month. Various amendments to the city charter had been 
made by the Legislature, which the Council accepted. The 
receipts from the wharf for the first mouth were $472 44. The 
last meeting held by this Council, so far as we can ascertain 
from the records, was on the 7th day of February, 1865, in con- 
sequence, we suppose, of the great absorbing question of a 
visit to the place by a Yankee army, which event did take 
place on Sunday, the 2d day of April, 1865, and most terrible 
scenes were witnessed in the city on that extraordinary oc- 
casion. Dr. Henry called his Council together on the 3d day of 
May, 1865, about one month after General Wilson's visit to the 
city, and as an election had been held by the citizens, on the 
first of May, he turned over the city government to the persons 
who were elected at that time. At this election the following 
vote was cast : 

For Mayor— M, J. Williams, 128; W. B. Gill, 48. 

For Councilmen— 1st ward, Geo. O. Baker, 17; F. W. Sid- 
dons, 18: 2d ward, A. G. Mabry. 33 ; C. E. Thames, 33 : 3d 
ward, Jacob Krout, 52; John M. Stone, 44; 4th ward, John 
McElroy, 2,5, J. H. B. Daughtry, 16. 

There was no opposition in this election only for Mayor, 
and the question was in doubt whether a civil city govern- 
ment would be permitted to exist. Wiser counsel, however, 



84 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

prevailed, and it was much to the credit of Gen, McArthur, the 
Federal commander of the division in which Selma was situ- 
ated, that a civil municipal government was continued. The 
report of a committee, appointed for the purpose of adjusting 
the confused affairs of the city, reported that on the tirst day 
of May, 1865, the funds of the cily on hand, consisted of $9,253.20 
of Confederate $5 bills of the old issue, and $10,000 of eight per 
cent. Confederate bonds. The committee did not say so in so 
many words, but with so many Yankees to be seen in the 
streets in uniform, did not have a favorable influence upon the 
minds of the committee as to much future value being placed 
upon these $5 bills of the "old issue" and the eight per cent, 
bonds. The Council elected John M. Strong, Clerk ; A. J. Neil, 
Treasurer ; a tie in the vote of the Council between J. A. Moore 
and Wm. Turner, for Marshal, the Mayor, Williams, gave 
the casting vote for J. A. Moore; Dr. Mullen, City Physician; 
The Council fixed the salaries — that of the Mayor, $200 ; Clerk, 
$300; Marshal, $600 ; Treasurer, $100 ; Physician, $280; Police, 
forty dollars per mouth. Orders were given to all the city offi- 
cers not to receive anything but United States money in pay- 
ment of city dues. John McPjlroy, chief of the fire depart- 
ment, reported the two fire engines in bad order and greatly 
broken up. The Marshal was directed to take charge of tlie 
wharf and to collect wharf fees. A license of three dollars was 
put upon washerwomen, John M. Parkman was employed to go 
to New York and secure the proper plates for, and have $20,- 
000 of city shiuplasters printed, which the Mayor and Clerk 
were authorized to issue. John McGrath was allowed five 
dollars per month as City Sexton. Burnett & Rixey wanted 
pay for a barrel of good whiskey Dr. Henry had destroyed 
while the Yankees were coming into Selma, but the claim was 
refused by the Council. John Morrow's salary for taking care 
of the town clock on the Presbyterian church, was fixed at 
seventy-five dollars per year. The officers became restless at 
their small salaries. The Council increased the salary of the 
Mayor to $1,000; Clerk, $500; Marshal, $1,000; Police, sixty 
dollars per month. C. B. White was employed as wharfinger 
for one year at a salary of $1,600, payable monthly. The 
finances of the Council had increased consideraly, it is to be 
judged, from the fact that a resolution was passed to purchase 
the Central depot building for the sum of $50,000. Herrmau 
& Von Fischer, were employed to survey and make maps of 
the city. The Marshal was directed to purchase a saddle horse 
for the city, which cost the city $150. John White was paid 
fifty dollars for defending Harrell and Farmer, two policemen, in 
the Circuit Court. Jonathan Haralson was elected Attorney. 
The Council donated to the Episcopal Church the alley or street 
running from Lauderdale to Church street, between the 
property of Mrs. Tredwell and the Voegelin estate property and 
Miss Tulley's, upon whiSli to erect a church building. This 
property was afterwards sold by the church, and its donation 
caused the city some tr< uble and money. One thousand and 
fifty dollars was paid John M. Parkman for having $25,000 of 
city shiuplasters printed in New York. Thirty acres of land 
was purchased from Fred, Voegelin, in East Selma, at $750, for 
hospital purposes. Permission wasgiven to open a market house 
in East Selma. Albert Sandell had part of his license for selling 
lottery tickets refunded. C. B. White resigned as wharfinger, 



HISTORY OF SET.MA. S5 

and Jacob Krout resigued his seat as Coimcilmao. An ordi- 
nance was passed putting picks and chains around the legs of 
negro convicts, wiien put on the streets to work. This prac- 
tice at once excited tlie sympathies of tlie military authorities, 
and the custom was ordered to be discontinued. Mrs. O'Rourke 
was contracted with to take care of two orphan children for 
the city. A blue uniform was ordered to be worn by the Mar- 
shal and police, thus assimilating, in clothing at least, the civil 
and military officers. In August, 1865, the United States Dis- 
trict Attorney, at Montgomery, instituted proceedings in the 
United States District Court, against the wharf, as Confeder- 
ate property, but upon being satisfied that it was truly the 
property of the city of Selma, he dismissed the proceedings, 
and the United States Marshal returned the property to the 
possession of the city. The receipts of the wharf then were 
about $300 per month. Mr. and Mrs. O'Rourke were employed 
at a salary of $900 as nurses at the hospital, into which num- 
bers of small pox cases had been put. The Mayor was directed 
to deposit the $25,000 of city shinplasters, in equal amounts, 
with the Planters and Merchants Insurance Company, Keith 
& Co., and che First National Bank of Selma, subject to be 
drawn upon by the city. The small pox made its appearance 
in the city in August, and in a few weeks almost every shanty 
in the city was occupied with from one to ten cases of this 
pestileutial and loathsome disease. The Yankee military then 
in command of the city refused to have anything to do with 
the disorder, and the whole burden fell upon the city authorities, 
which proved a great trouble and an enormous expense to the 
City. The disease was not confined to the black and poor 
population ; it made its inroads upon the cleanliest and best 
ordered families in the city, and scarcely a family escaped the 
distemper. J. W. Walker was elected Market Clerk. The 
expenses of the city for the month of November, 1865, were 
about $2.550— the $25,000 in shinplasters in circulation and only 
$171 15 in cash on hand. 1 he Mayor was instructed to pur- 
chase a first class steam fire engine, carriage and 2,000 feet df 
hose. An act was agreed upon by the Council, to be sent to 
the Legislature oT 1865-66, providing for the people of DalJas 
county to vote for or against the removal of the court house 
from Cahaba to Selma. The act was passed by the Legislature. 
The office of street overseer was created. Thirteen police were 
put on at a salary of seventy-five dollars per month. The cur- 
rent expenses for the month of December, 1865, were over $5,000 
and the affairs of the city, especially its finances, were being 
run on a decidedly rapid schedule. A resolution was adoi)ted 
to build a new market house, a council chamber, a calaboose, 
and an engine house for the new ste im fire engine. Jonathan 
Haralson was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resig- 
nation of C. E. Tliames, in the Council. During the month of 
December, Dr. H. F. Mullen, the city physician, had under his 
charge, and at the expense of the city, one hundred and one 
black and eight white cases of small pox. A committee con- 
sisting of George O. Baker, F. W. Siddons, and J. Haralson, 
was appointed to select a suitable location for a court house for 
the county. An ordinance was passed requiring every male 
inhabitant, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, in the 
city to work on the streets ten days in each year or pay six 
dollars. Several efTorts were made to enforce this ordinance, 



86 HISTOBY OF SELMA. 

but the thing became so ridiculous and unpopular that it soon 
became a dead letter. On th 26th of February, 1866, a meeting 
of a number of citizens was held in the Council chamber, ask- 
ing the Council to take stock in the Alabama and Mississippi 
railroad, and in accordance with the urgent request of this 
meeting, the Council instructed the Mayor to take $21,666 of 
the stock of the railroad company and to draw a warrant or 
warrants upon the City Treasurer for the money whenever de- 
sired by the railroad company. George O. Baker reported that 
he had seen Dr. Showalter, and had closed a contract with him 
for the purchase of the Central Masonic Institute building, to 
be used as a court house, in case the people of the county of 
Dallas decided to move the courthouse toSelma, at the election 
to be held on the first Monday in May, 1866. Part of the en- 
gine house was ordered to be rented to M. Monteabaro, for sixty 
dollars per month. The Mayor was directed to purchase fifteen 
revolving pistols from George O. Baker, for the use of the po- 
lice force. M. J. A. Keith & Co. advanced, for the city, the 
money to pay for the steam fire engine and the necessary ap- 
paratus. Col. N. H. R Dawson asked permission to bore an 
artesian well on his lot in West Selma. The Council made it 
a fine of $500 to sell liquor of any kind to a United States sol- 
dier. At a meeting of the Council, held on the 14th of April, 
1866, an election for Mayor and Council was ordered to be held at 
certain places in each ward by certain managers, as follows : 
In ward 1, at the shop on Donation street, near Mrs. King's 
residence — Wm. S. Phillips and E. W. Marks, managers; W. 
P Lewis, returning officer. In ward 2, at the storn of P. L. 
Sink, on Broad street — W. R. Bill and Edwards, managers; 
J. A. Howard, returning officer. In ward 3, at the Council 
chamber — D. R. Purviauce and A. F. Wise, managers; J. T. 
Orr, returning officer. In ward 4, at Alva Goldsmith's shop, 
Mechanic street — S. C. Pierce and Alva Goldsmith, managers ; 
M. A. Boley, returning officer ; thus fixing definitely under the 
charter the mode and manner of holding an election for city 
(officers. The Mayor was authorized to give notice of the al- 
leged loss of city bonds and the seal of the city during 
Wilson's raid. The city paid $15,000 for the Central Masonic 
Institute building, at the foot of Alabama street, and gave it 
to the county of Dallas for a court house; paid Herrmau 
& Von Fischer $2,500 for surveying and making maps of the 
city. John Weedon was paid $500 for building the hospital and 
its furniture. 

This administration accomplished a good deal, or at least, 
made every effort to accomplish a great deal, but it was a most 
costly one to the city. We believe we can be safe in saying 
that more debts were contracted against the city and more 
money expended than had been up to that time, or since, by 
any administration of the cily government; but one thing 
should be placed to the credit of this Council, and that is, they 
commenced without a dollar in the treasury, and at a time 
nothing in the city, not even the city itself, had any credit. 

At the election in May, 1866, the following was the result: 

For Mayor. — Dr. J. T. Reese, 225 votes ; M. J. Williams, 
188; J. G. Snediker, 30. 

For Councilmen.— For Firot Ward.— Thoa. J. Goldsby, 43 
votes ; Dr. I. Morgan, 38 ; Geo. O. Baker, 27 ; B. J. Duncan, 13. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 87 

For Second Ward.— Dr. James Kent, 58 votes; O. F. Har- 
rell, 57; F. A. Woodson, 35; A. G. Mabry, 35. 

For Third Ward.— Jacob Krout, 160 ; Charles B. Adams, 
60 ; A. C. Smith, 55 ; John M. Stone, 50 ; J. A. Bill, 15 ; John 
H. Henry, 13. 

For Fourth Ward.— Henry Gatchell, 67; B. T. Maxey, 59; 
T. B. Pierce, 44; J. H. B. Daughtry, 6 ; R. D. Berry, 6; result- 
ing in the election of Dr. James T. Reese, Mayor ; Dr. I. Mor- 
gan, Thomas J. Goldsby, O. F. Harrell, J. Kent, Jacob Krout, 
C. B. Andrews, H. Gatchell and B. T. Maxey, Councilmen. 
The offices of Clerk and Tax Collector were separated. John 
M. Strong was elected Clerk ; John A. Moore, Marshal ; Heflin 
& McCraw, Attorneys , Dr. B. H. Riggs, Physician ; John Mc- 
Grath, Sexton ; John Weedon, Street Overseer. A committee 
was appointed to confer with the County Commissioners in 
regard to the court house matters. The city code was ordered 
to be revised by the city attorneys. The Mayor appointed for 
ward 1, Dr. Morgan, Fahs and Garnett ; second ward, Dr. Har- 
rell, Reese and Street ; third ward. Dr. Backus, Jackson and 
Krout ; fourth ward. Dr. Riggs, Jackson and Louis Smith, as a 
board of health for the city. The old fortification on the Sum- 
merfield and range line roads was ordered to be leveled, so as 
not to obstruct the public highway. Jere Johnson was confer- 
red with to arrange with him to cross, free of charge, all wag- 
ons coming to the city with cotton and produce. The people 
of the county having voted to move the court house from 
Cahaba to Selma, a committee was appointed to put the Cen- 
tral Masonic building in order to hold court in. The city offi- 
cers were ordered to receive nothing but United States currency 
in payment of city dues. Franklin Fire Company No. 2, asked 
that an engine house be built for them on their lot in East 
Selma. A resolution was adopted to raise a paid fire depart- 
ment out of the then two companies — the Phoenix No. 1, and 
Franklin No. 2— just reorganized. M. J. Williams was elected to 
fill the vacancy in the Council by the resignation of Dr. O. F. 
Harrell. E. M. Gantt was elected City Tax Collector. Notice 
was ordered to be given in the New York World, that the city 
would be ready to pay interest on bonds of the city. The Mayor 
recommended that $50,000 city change bills be issued. The 
previous Council had reported a surplus in the city treasury of 
about $25,000, but the finance committee of this Council reported 
this surplus consisted in coupons cut oflfof city bonds, and city 
shinplasters issued by the former Council. The office of Dep- 
uty Marshal was abolished. The assessment committee 
reported they had assessed the real estate of the city at $4,700- 
000, and that it had taken them eight entire days, at ten dol- 
lars per day, to make this assessment. The city pest house was 
tendered to theFreedman's Bureau. Herrman & Von Fischer 
were elected City Surveyors, at ten dollars per day. Thei^olice 
was reduced but pay increased. The Mayor was authorized to 
borrow $25,000 and mortgage Broad and Alabama streets. The 
Mayor recommended the establishment of a public school on 
the plan of Mobile and New Orleans, and a committee to 
inquire to whom the Dallas Female Academy property belongs ; 
this committee was Dr. Kent, Williams and the City Attor- 
ney. C. B. White, as City Wharfinger, reported the receipts 
for the first fifteen days in August, at $717.21. The Mayor was 
authorized to borrow $20,000 for the use of the city. Miss 



88 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Mary Jones' school room property was exempt from taxation. 
An arrangement was made with Messrs, Amey & Co., of New 
York, to fund a portion of the bonded debt, F. A. Woodson 
leased the wharf for ten years, at $2,000 per year; $5,000 
reward was offered for the murderer of J. B. Kleter, in the 
city, and of Addison C. Love, on the Burnsville road. The 
Council having det-^rmined to build a new market house, Coun- 
cil chamber, calaboose, &c., on Washington streets, between 
Selma and Alabama streets, directed the Mayor to sell the old 
building. R. D. Berry made application for permission to 
construct a street railroad through the streets of the city. Part 
of a street was sold to Dr, Kent, and a part of another to Sam. 
Steele, Councilmen Gatchell and Krout were appointed a 
committee to close the contract with Shelley & Wright to build 
the new market house, &c. Thos, J. Goldsby resigned his seat 
in the Council, and Wm. M, Byrd, jr., was elected to fill his 
place. The city paid Jere Johnson $210 on account of crossing 
cotton wagons over the ferry. A black uniform was adopted 
for the Marshal and Police. The Mayor was complimented by 
the Council for the able and satisfactory manner in which he 
had prepared the new charter, and he was voted thirty dollars 
for expenses in going to Montgomery to have the Legislature 
pass it into a law. Fees in arrest cases were abolished. A 
contract was made with A. Berry to extend gas to all parts of 
the city. A special tax was imposed upon foreign insurance 
compani'is for the benefit of the fire department. The Clerk 
reported the floating debt of the city at $39 677.93. The Mayor 
was authorized to borrow $7,000. Mr. Vaughn proposed to loan 
the city $15,000 at twenty-five per cent. A tax of twenty-five 
dollars was put on cock pits. Each Councilman was to be 
fined five dollars for every meeting he failed to attend. A 
proposition was made to keep up the streets by contract. Hooks 
and ladders were reported as needed. A proposition was made 
to issue $50,000 of ci*^y change bills, and the Vfayor was autbor- 
ized to have that amount prepared. R. A. Ferguson petitioned 
to allow him the privilege of constructing a street railroad, 
which was granted. The Mayor was authorized to borrow ten 
thousand dollars at twenty per cent, for twelve mouths. The 
salary of the Mayor was made $3,000 per year, that of the Mar- 
shal $3,000, Clerk $1,200, and police seventy-five dollars per 
month. Two thousand five hundred dollars were paid for 
printing shinplasters and bonds of the city. The police were 
directed to be uniformed. The act of the Legislature author- 
izing Randall D, Berry, his heirs and assi.ij;us to construct a 
street railroad on Water and Broad streets, dated December, 3, 
1866, was spread upon the minutes of the Council. The limits 
of the city were extended very much in the new charter, sent 
up to the Legislature to be passed into a law. The new mar- 
ket house having been pretty well completed by Messrs. Shelley 
& Wright, the contractors, the old market house was rented 
out for twelve months. An ordinance was passed making it 
finable to smoke inside the new market house. Watson & 
Becker were paid $-110 for the police uniforms. Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnson. Gen. John T. Morgan, Gen. W. J. Hardee and Maj. 
R. M. Robertson, were appointed delegates to represent Selma 
in a railroiid convention in New Orleans. The Mayor was au- 
thorized to borrow $10,000 on the best terms he could. The 
Mayor had 3,000 copies of the new charter printed in pamphlet 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 89 

form to distribute among the voters, to induce its adoption by 
them. This charter was never voted upon, however. F. A. 
Woodson leased the wharf for ten years at $2,000 per year, and 
kept it for about one year and returned it to the city. The 
Mayor was authorized to borrow $6,000 in gold for one hundred 
and twenty days at twentj -five per cent. The tax collector 
was authorized to take city change bills for all city dues. Dr. 
Isaiah Morgan died in May, 1867, and the Council passed a 
series of resolutions in respect to his memory. Dr. Edward 
Gantt donated, in his will, two lots to the city, on Franklin 
street, to be devoted to the erection of a lyceum building. The 
oflSces of Clerk and Tax Collector were united. 

On the 14th day of May, 1867, the following notice was 
served upon Dr. James T. Reese, Mayor of the city : 

Headquarters Sub-Division of Selma, \ 
Selma, Alabama, May 14, 1867. ( 
Hon. James T. Reeae, Mayor of Selma : 

Sir — I have the honor to request that a meeting of the 
Council of the city be convened, to meet at the Council cham- 
ber, at 5 o'clock p. m. , this day, the 14th instant. 

A Mayor and Councilmen will be qualified in compliance 
with orders from Major-General Swayne, commanding District 
of Alabama. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

First Lieut. 15th U. 8. Infantry Sub. Com.B. R. F. and A. L. 

In accordance with the above request. Dr. Reese called his 
Council together, and when the roll was called, Krout, Wil- 
liams, Byrd, and Kent answered to their names ; Andrews, 
Gatcbell and Maxey, absent, and one vacancy, caused by the 
death of Dr. I. Morgan. The following gentlemen came for- 
ward as Mayor and Councilmen, appointed by Gen. Pope, 
commanding the Division of the Gulf: 

Benj. F. Saffold, Mayor ; Councilmen— Ist ward, J. L. Per- 
kins, G. N. Wright; 2d ward, W. R. Ditmars, Wells R. Bill ; 
3d ward, W. B. Gill, Charles B. Andrews; 4th ward. Edward 
LeCroix ; who were sworn into ofiice as Mayor and Council of 
the city of Selma, by John M. Strong, a justice of the peace. 
Mayor SaflTold then called his Council to order, and the first act 
was to rescind the resoluton authorizing the city to be repre- 
sented in a meeting of the Stockholders of the Selma, Rome 
and Dalton railroad, on the 15th day of May, 1867, and adopting 
another resolution authorizing W. B. Gill, Robert Hall. W. R. 
Bill and C. B. Andrews to represent the city in the railroad 
meeting instead of those appointed by the previous Council. 
Henry Gatchell was elected Clerk, John C. Waite, Marshal, 
W. B. Gill. Treasurer, Dr. L. E. Locke, Physician, W. M. 
Wallace, Engineer. The office of attorney was left vacant. 
The contract of the wharf was cancelled. McVoy & Cawthon 
applied for the privilege of supplying the city with medicine. 
The following Board of Health was apfointed: First ward— 
Dr. Fahs, Geo. O. Baker and J. R. Wright; second ward— Dr. 
W. P. Reese, S. F. Hobbs, W. R. Ditmars; third ward— Dr. B. 
H. Riggs, D. R. Purviance, W. B. Gill ; fourth ward— Dr. 
F. G. Wilson, 8. C. Pierce, Robert Hall. The wharf was 
leased to R. H. Crosswell & Co. The city engineers surveyed 
and defined the extended limits of the city as made by the late 



90 HISTORY OF 8GLMA. 

Legislature. City shinplasters were taken at par for all debts 
due the city. A vote of thanks was tendered to J. M. Strong, 
former Clerk, and J. A. Moore, former Marshal. Wm, J. Nor- 
ris was elected by the Council to go to New York and attend to 
the finances of the city. Peter Plattenburg was elected sexton. 
There were only six interments reported during this month in 
the cemeteries. The office of Market Clerk was established 
and the Marshal was directed to attend to that duty. The sal- 
aries of the Mayor, Marshal and Clerk were fixed at $2,500 each 
per annum. The Treasurer was instructed to buy an iron safe. 
Shelley & Wright came before Council with numerous accounts. 
One thousand two hundred dollars were set apart for the benefit 
of Phenix fire company No. 1. R. C. Goodrich was elected as- 
sistant tax collector. The expenditures for the first month of 
this administration were $1,335 44— over receipts about $300. 
Tom Todd, Wash Mitchell, Thaddeus King and Henry Robin- 
son were the first colored men put on the police force in the city. 
D. R, Purviance, W. R. Bill, R. Hall and Thomas W. Street 
were appointed as an assessing committee, and the business of 
assessing occupied the time of those gentlemen nine days. The 
wharf receipts averaged $200 per month, and the salary of a 
wharfinger and repairs had to be taken out of this sum. Geo. 
O. Baker, Dr. Reese and Dr. Wilson refused to serve on the 
board of health, and Dr. A. G. Mabry, Dr. H. F. Mullin and 
J. L. Perkins were appointed to fill the vacancies. During the 
month of June, 1867, there were thirteen interments in the 
cemeteries — four blacks and nine whites. This Council opened 
its batteries upon the numerous sink holes in the various brick 
yards beyond and northeast of the Worley branch, and suc- 
ceeded in having some of them filled up, which was brought 
about by the petition of John Kayel, Patrick Higgins, Q. W. 
Wilson, T. B, Pierce, James Swinton, M. L. Dedman and 
others. S. N. McCraw was elected city attorney and D. R. 
Purviance ciiy tax collector. A bill in favor of a Mr. Owsley, 
for teaching school in East Selma, of $550 was paid. The 
Council passed resolutions of thanks to Wm. J. Norris, for his 
labors in succeeding in funding the bonded debt of the city. 
D. R. Purviance resigned the tax coUectorship and Wm. John- 
son was elected to fill the vacancy On July 18, 1867, $425 
were paid to Phenix fire company No. 1, as the amount the city 
was due that fire company. The Clerk purchased an iron safe 
from Geo. O. Baker & Co., for $450. The tax was placed for 
this year at one per cent. The city constituted and appointed 
Amy & Co., agents to a^ljust and fund the bonded and interest 
debt of the city. W. B. Gill, Treasury, made the following 
report : 

August 1, 1867. 

" The balance in the treasurer is composed of city bills and 
all her promises to pay, without one dollar of available currency 
for emergent cases, or to pay her mortgage debts, of which 
about $9,000 are due on the 12th of this month," 

This report showed rather an empty treasury. Mrs. Ryan 
was employed to take charge of the hospital. On August 15th. 
1867, a committee composed of W. R. Ditmars, J. L. Perkins, 
G. M. McConnico and D. A. Boyd, destroyed by fire $9,401 of city 
shinplasters and seventy-three dollars and fifteen cents of the 
same kind of paper in bills less than one dollar. The Council 
ofFered $2,000 reward for the arrest of the persons who assas- 



HISTORY OF 8ELMA. 91 

sinated Capt. J. B. Harrison. A previous Council had borrowed 
some money from Col. C. W. Lea, of Perry, and he was press- 
ing this Council, who finally made arrangements and paid him. 
Quite a number of the business men of Selma had agreed to 
take the shinplasters in the way of trade, bnt this promise was 
not adhered to. The immense amount of shinplasters issued by 
the two previous administrations, the precise amount of which 
was never correctly ascertained, gave this administration much 
trouble. It had no credit, the shinplasters would not pass, and 
the city could get but little of any other kind of currency for 
dues. The receipts during the month of August, 1867, were 
$22,699 48, almost all of which was in city of Selma shinplas- 
ters— only $275 90 in U. 8. currency. Permission was given by 
the Council to a Committee of physicians to have a dissecting 
room in the city, A suitable market ordinance was adopted to 
apply to the new market house. Wm. Johnson resigned as tax 
collector and D. R. Purviance was elected to fill the vacancy. 

In January, 1868, W. R. Ditmars, who had been appointed 
to ascertain what the bonded debt of the city was up to the first 
day of that month, reported it to be, with over due and unpaid 
interest, $508,133, and the Council had employed Amy & Co., of 
New York, to fund as much of it as possible. The Jewish cem- 
etery in East Selma was put in good order. About this time 
quite a number of coupons commenced making their appear- 
ance, which had been paid, and several hundred dollars of them 
were taken by the eity officers before the fraud was discovered. 
Wm. J. Norris was appointed Auditor, and no claim upon the 
city was paid unless reported correct by him. W. B. Gill, Geo. 
O. Baker and Henry Gatchell were appointed a committee to 
assess real estate for'the year 1868. This Council rescinded the 
ordinance authorizing the issuing of bonds to the Selma and 
Gulf railroad for $60,000, and that to the Selma and Meridian 
railroad, in 1862, for $40,000, During the month of April, 1868, 
the income from the wharf was thirty-seven dollars and twenty 
cents— John W. Davis, Wharfinger. The ordinance subscrib- 
ing $100,000 to the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad Company, 
in 1860, was repealed The city physician's salary was reduced 
to $1,200 per annum. The Broad Street Hotel Company was 
allowed to pay half taxes. The last meeting of this Council 
was held on the 6th day of July 1868, A State government 
having been established, a Governor elected, and a civil govern- 
ment having taken the place of a military one to some extent, 
Gov, W, H, Smith set aside this Council, as one Instituted by 
the military authorities, and appointed a Mayor and Council 
for the city. 

On the 4th day of September, 1868, ex-Mayor Saffbld swore 
into office, W. B. Gill, as Mayor; B, F. Saflbld and J. L. Per- 
kins, Councilmen for the first ward ; John K. Goodwin and M. 
R. Boggs, for the second ward ; Edward Woods and D. R. Pur- 
viance, for the third ward, and Robert Hall, for the fourth ward, 
who entered upon the duties of Mayor and Councilmen for the 
city of Selma, under an appointment by Gov. W. H. Smith, of 
the State of Alabama. Wm. Hart was elected to fill the va- 
cancy in the fourth ward, who took his seat as a Councilman. 
The Council then elected Henry Gatchell, Clerk ; J. M, Ded- 
man. Marshal; W. B, Gill, (the Mayor) Treasurer; Dr. H. S. 
Hudson, Physician; J. C. Waite, Street Commissioner* W. 
Hart, (the Councilman) Market Clerk. The Mayor and Mar- 



92 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

shal appointed the following policemen: J, C. Scarff, C. M. 
Attaway, A. H. Woodson, A. M. Barnett, Wm. Pettibone, 
John O'Rourke, Henry C. Lea, Wm. C. Coney — white; and 
Henry Robinson, Thomas Picket and Thad. King— colored. 
The old market house was ordered to be rented on the first day 
of October, 1868, for 12 months, at public auction. This Coun- 
cil reported that they found in the city treasury, in city bills, 
(over one dollar) $3,755 50; in city fractional, (under one dollar) 
$335 30— total amount, $4,090 80. The Council exhibited con- 
siderable anxiety to have Beech creek swamp ditched, but it 
seemed to be too large an undertaking without one dollar of 
money in the treasury; R. S. Pettibone, elected wharfinger, who 
reported eleven dollars and seventy-five cents as the receipts for 
the month of September, 1868. There were thirteen patients in 
the hospital, seven admitted and one born during the month 
of September. During the month of ^eptember, 186s, there 
were twenty-three interments in the cemeteries — fourteen 
Avhites and nine blacks. Joseph R, John was selected as city 
attorney, who read the new charter, which was ordered to be 
placed on file in the Clerk's oflSce. In November, 1868, Coun- 
cilman Saffbld and Mayor Gill were appointed to go to Mont- 
gomery and have the new Charter passed into a law, and to en- 
able them to accomplish this purpose, $550 was appropriated to 
pay their expenses. Twenty-three thousand eight hundred 
and eighty dollars of Alabama and Tennessee coupons were de- 
stroyed on the first day of December, 1868, On the 4th day of 
December, 1868, the Legislature passed a new charter for the 
city, and in the 66th section of the charter it was provided that 
an election should be held for Mayor and Council, on the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in December, 1868, to be man- 
aged and conducted by the sheriff" of Dallas county, George P. 
Rex, was then acting as said sheriff", and at the same election 
the voters were to vote for and against the new charter. The 
sheriff" gave the ten days' notice as required and the election 
was held. The newly elected Mayor and Councilmen assem- 
bled in the Council room on the 24th of December, 1868, when 
the following communication was read : 

Sheriff's Office, Selma, December 28, 1868. 

Gentlemen : I would most respectfully tender to you the 
oflBcial report of the election held in the city of Selma, on 
Tuesday, December 22d, 1868, for city officers, and for the adop- 
tion or rejection of the new city charter. Whole number of 
votes cast, 1,775. 

For Mayor— J. L. Perkins, 1,183; W. B. Gill, 512; Geo. C. 
Johnson, 55; Dan. Hughes, 1. 

For Marshal— J. C. Waite, 1,146; J. M. Dedman, 624. 

For City Clerk— R. C. Goodrich, 1,158; Henry Fatchell, 607. 

For City Physician— Dr. John H. Henry, 1,146; Dr. John 
A. McKinuon, 372; Dr. L. E. Locke, 1. 

For Councilmen— First ward— B. F. Saffbld, 1,146; J. 8. 
Corbiu, 1,142; W. H. Fellows, 620 . S. F. Hobbs, 609. Second 
ward— W. R. Bill, 1,428; John Silsby, 1,139; W. R. Ditmars, 
601. Third ward— J. F. Carraichael, 1,154 ; B. S. Turner. 1,134; 
Robt. Lapsley, 617 ; A. C. F. Smith, 603. Fourth ward— Geo. 
F. Beach, 1,684; Edward Northup, 1,141; Robert Hall, 542. 

For adoption of Charter, 1,638; against, 29. 

Respectfully, George P. Rex, 

Sheriff of Dallas county. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 03 

After this commuuication was read, ex-Mayor W. B. Gill 
administered tlie oath of office to J. L. Perkius, as Mayor ; B. 
F. Saffold, J. S. Corbiu, John Hilsby, W. R. Bill, George F. 
Beach, B. S. Turner, J. F. Carmichael aud Edward Northup— 
as Counciiinen. Mayor Perkius addressed the uewly assembled 
Council, aud then administered the oath of office to R C. Good- 
rich, as Clerk, and John C. Waite, as Marshal. The former 
police were requested to remain on duty until further notice. 
Henry Gatchell, the former Clerk, being sick, was not able to 
report. Robert A. Pettibone was appointed Wharfinger, W.R. 
Ditmars, Treasurer; Edward I. Morgan, Tax Collector ; Fellows 
& John, Attorneys; Wm, Hart, Market Clerk ; Peter Platten- 
burg, City Sexton ; Wm. M. Wallace, Engineer, and Mrs. E. 
L. Christian, Hospital Matron. At the second meeting the fol- 
lowing police were announced as selected: F. J. Eskert, A. 
H. Woodson, Jack Lawler, J. A. Harrell, T. D. Alford, Frank 
Donah— whites; Thad. King, Isaac Portis, Wash. Mitchell, 
Henry Robinson, Addison Smith, A. Cook— colored. Mar- 
shal Dedman reported that he had in his hands $264 50, the re- 
ceipts for December, 1868, for fines. Treasurer Gill reported 
that he had on hand, of city bills, $239 ; fractional city money, 
$6 50; cash in U. S. currency, $1 02; total amount, $246 52; 
that during the mouth of December, 1868, he reported $21,- 
920 of cancelled coupons had been burned, and $2,000 in cur- 
rency had been sent to H. Amy & Co., New York, to pay in- 
terest debt of the city. A hook and ladder truck v/as ordered, 
not to cost over $750. Laborers were to be paid one dollar per 
day, and police seventy-five dollars per month. Beach, as 
Chairman of Committee, reported that he had obtained $1,900 
private subscriptions, to purchase a steam fire engine, which 
the council agreed to order. Editors and reporters of the city 
press were invited to take seats within the bar. The Mayor 
reported that he had ordered the steam fire engine and 600 feet 
of hose, and it would be delivered by the 13th Of March, and 
the money must be in the city treasury to meet the draft. Reso- 
lutions complimentary to E. Gillman were adopted, for being 
the largest subscriber towards buying the steam fire engine;, 
and that the machine should be named E. Oillman No. 1. 
Resolutions were adopted requiring the County Commissioners 
to bury paupers in the city. The Prc^s was selected as the 
printer of the Council. The Chamber of Commerce, and Gen. 
John T. Morgan, Dr. J. R. Robertson and Col. B. M. Woolsey 
asked the Council to subscribe $5,000 to the capital stock of the 
Selraa and New Orleans Railroad Company, to be used in a 
preliminary and locating survey of a route to New Orleans. 
Dr. Rex was paid twenty- five dollars, as his fee for holding the 
city election. The steam fire engine was received, and B. Jacob 
was elected engineer, to sleep in the engine house for $600 per 
year. The city wharf was declared free. Two hundred 
and eighty dollars was paid Jere Johnson for passing cot- 
ton wagons over the river. A. M. Goodwin asked that de- 
tached coupons be received in payment of taxes. Thad. King, 
one of the colored policemen, was shot and killed while at- 
tempting to arrest a white man and a law violator. The Mar- 
shal's and Clerk's offices were ordered to be carpeted. The 
Ccuncil refused to bury any more paupers, and presented aa 
account to the Commissioners' Court for burying some half a 
dozen. The Commissioners replied that they had not given the 



94 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Council any instructions to bury paupers for them, and, there- 
fore, the county would not pay the city for any buried paupers. 
That settled the matter, and the city continued burying the pau- 
pers. The Council refused to let Dr. J. T. Gee open a cock pit 
in the city. W. R. Bill, Daniel Sullivan and W. R. Ditmars 
were appointed as an assessing committee on real estate. W. R. 
Ditmars reported tbe bonded and floating debt of the city to be 
$349,280. A good fire ordinance was adopted providing for the 
organization of a fire department, to be composed of a number 
of companies organized with different means for putting out 
fires. The committee on assessment of real estate made their 
report, giving the information that there were four hundred 
and seventy-one whites, real estate owners, at $3,248,290; 
fifty-one freedmeu, real estate owners, $378,600; owners un- 
known, 3,250; total assessment, $3,630,140. A vote of the real 
estate owners was taken on the 22d of April, 1869, on a propo- 
sition for the city to subscribe $10,000 to the stock of the Selma, 
Marion and Memphis railroad, which resulted, for subscription, 
72 votes ; no subscription, 12. The city finally borrowed the 
money and subscribed for the stock. The Mayor was author- 
ized to close the contract with Bates & Co., about the ferry 
across the Alabama river, which he did, and the ferry run a 
short time and closed out. The New Orleans and Selma Rail- 
road Company made application for the city to subscribe $10,000 
of stock in that company, which proposition was voted upon 
by the qualified voters of the city who were real estate owners, 
which resulted, eighteen votes for and eighty-six against the 
subscription. The following are the names of the real estate 
owners in the city who voted upon the proposition : E. Gillman, 
H. G. Noble, Wm. M. Weaver, W, Rothrock, J. L. Perkins, S. 
W. John, Henry Robertson, W. R. Bill, John C. Waite, M. L. 
Dedman, Jos. Savary, Geo. E. Keipp, B. S. Turner, John 
O'Rourke, R. R. Pickering, S. P. Stoddard, Z. H, Bowles, B. 
Sykes, W. R, Ditmars, Wm. Hart, Phillip Smith, J. N. Haney, 
Archie Stilt, J. C. Waddell, J. M. Dedman, Daniel Parke, T. 
M. Cunningham, John F. Conoley, Madison Reed.S. F. Hobbs, 
B. H. Craig, V. G. Weaver. A. Berry, O. R. Floyd, C. Suter, 
A. Rickey, J. J. Bryan, Tobe Bosswell, Frank Diggs, Isaac 
Lundie, E. A. Jackson, G. M. Chapman, T. A. Hall, J. C. 
Compton, Geo. Coney, Geo. R. Boyd. W. N. Boynton, L. H. 
Harrell, M. J. Williams, R. Tipton, E. W. Peake, Wm. M. 
Wallace, M. Millions, W. B. Haralson, E. B. Martin, A. H. 
Lloyd, E. T. Watts, N. H. R. Dawson, A. G. Stollenwerck, G. 
Huckabee, G. R. Vanderslice, E. I. Morgan, S. N. McCrow, J. 
P. Armstrong, T. W. Street, Central City Insurance Company, 
L. G. Weaver, S. A. Bryant, M. H. Smith, T. S. Berrien, Geo. 
Peacock, A. J. Goodwin, D. M. R. Vickers, Burns, Goodwin & 
Co., James Kayser, J. H. Robinson, Robert Lapsley, H. A. Har- 
alson, W. D. Huggins, J. A. Love, Jack Weaver, J. L. McVoy, 
A. Elkau, James W. Lapsley, N, Waller, Geo. O. Baker, W. E. 
Wailes, J. W. Roberts, A. J. Mulliu, J. Morrow, A. W. Caw- 
thon, S. G. Todd, Alex. Goldsby, John Silsby, J. M. Lamar, 
Alfred Evans, Samuel D. Rodifer, Dr. J. Hendree, J. H. B. 
Daughtry, L. E. Locke, J. F. John, R. Hall, Sumter Lea, D. R. 
Purviance. 

J, Silsby, B. F. Saffold and W. R. Bill, reported a plan for 
the Mayor and Council to establish a system of free public 
schools, under the new charter, which had been adopted. J, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 95 

H. Robbins withdrew from E. I. Morgan's bond, as Tax Col- 
lector for the city. An ordinance was adopted providing for 
the establishing of a public school system, and a school board, 
composed of the following gentlemen, was appointed: J. L. 
Perkins, Joseph Hardie, Geo. Peacock, E, W. Pettus, W. C. 
Ward, W. R. Bill, James W, Lapsley, John Silsby and R. M. 
Moore, to take charge of the schools of the city. On May 10, 
1869, the following officers were elected for the fire department: 
E. W. Pettus, Chref Engineer; H. G. Noble, First Assistant 
Engineer ; Robert Lapsley, Second Assistant Engineer ; and 
George Peacock, W. S. Knox and D. R. Purvianee, Fire War- 
dens. The new charter extended the city limits com-idably; 
petitions went into the Council to reduce the tax on some, and to 
exempt other property from taxation, lately brought into the 
city limits. These petitions were signed by Geo. O. Baker & 
Co., and numerous others. Forty dollars— twenty-nine dollars 
and thirty-four cents to the Dallas Male and Female Academy, 
ten dollars and sixty-six cents to the State Public School — was 
appropriated and paid to the City Board of Education and to 
the Superintendent of the county. The City Tax Collector, E. 
I. Morgan, became quite negligent in paying over moneys aa 
he received them; charges were brought against him, and after 
much investigation and contention in the Council, he was dis- 
missed and D. R. Purvianee appointed to fill the office. Gen. 
Shelley made a contract with the city to work city prisoners in 
his brick yards. The hook and ladder and all accompanying 
apparatus cost $1,270, The police pay roll for June, 1869, was 
$825, and that for city officers and labor, $1,794 84. The Mayor 
was directed to have a well drove in the West Selm-^ graveyard. 
Judge E. W. Pettus declined to serve on the city school board, 
and Col. C. Cadle was elected to fill the vacancy. The salary 
of Councilmen was fixed at twenty dollars per month. B. S. 
Turner resigned his seat. in the Council. The Mayor vetoed the 
ordinance giving the Councilmen twenty dollars per month. 
The right of way to the New Orleans and Selma railroad was 
granted along North street and through other streets. W. B. 
Gill was elected to fill the vacancy in the Council in place of B. 
8. Turner. Judge Pettus resigned the office of Chief Engineer 
of the fire department. Ten per cent, of the gross revenue of 
the city was appropriated to the public schools of the city, to 
be paid to the City Board of Education. O. R. Floyd was given 
permission to open a market house in East Selma. D. R. Pur- 
viance's term, for which he was selected as tax collector, having 
expired, Capt. Henry Cochran was elected tax collector. Coun- 
cilmen Beach and Silsby resigned their seats in the Council. 
The Treasurer was forbidden to put the city money in bank, 
except at his own risk. Henry Bievins was elected Council- 
man from the second ward, in place of John Silsby, and Mr. 
Silsby was elected to fill the vacancy of Capt. Beach, from the 
fourth ward. Resolutions were passed thanking the Selma, 
Rome and Dal ton Railroad Company, for transporting the hook 
and ladder apparatus free of charge, from Dalton to Selma. B. 
Jacob resigned as engineer of the steam fire engine. The old 
market house building and lot was sold to Thos. K. Ferguson 
& Co.. for $25,000. R, C. Goodrich, the City Clerk, became in- 
volved in some way, and W. 8. Corbin was appointed City 
Clerk. Simmons & Co. leased the city wharf for one year. 
Col. C. Cadle was elected City Auditor. The Mayor was au- 



96 HISTORY OP SELMA. 

thorized to employ some oue to take charge of the steam fire 
engine and act as market clerk, Mr. Hart having resigned as 
market clerk. Judge Saffold and Col. Cadle were paid $200 to 
go to Montgomery and look after the railroad interests of the 
city. The Mayor employed B. Jacob as engineer of the steam 
fire engine and market clerk for oue year at $1,000 salary. A 
pair of horses were purchased at $550 for the steam fire engine, 
E. Gillman No. 1. Wm. Smoke was appointed policeman for 
the south side of the river at fifty dollars per month. The City 
ClerK reported that he had collected from the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1869, to the 31st day of December, 1869, the following 
amounts from the various sources mentioned : From taxes, 
$54,721 78; licenses, $11,754 98; Marshal, $6,526 68, Market 
Clerk, $300 05; Rent of stalls in market, $1,833; Rent of old 
market house, $144; Insurance Companies, $595 42; Miscella- 
neous sources, $958 18— making a total of $77,334 10. W. C. 
Ward was appointed on the assessment committee in place of G. 
O. Baker, resigned. All property of all cotton factories was 
exempt from taxation. An application was made to Col Weaver 
to buy the Weaver square, located between Second street and 
North street, and Lauderdale and Church streets, to be used 
as a public square; but Col. Weaver declined to sell. A. com- 
naittee from the Central City fire company reported to the Coun- 
cil that the company was fully organized in July, and that the 
following officers had been elected: B. S. Turner, Foreman; 
Henry Blevins, First Assissistant Foreman; Sidney Fowlkes, 
Second Assistant Foreman; Samuel Edwards, treasurer ; R. 
B. Thomas, Secretary, and that the company consisted of forty 
members. W. C. Ward sent a communication to the Council 
in regard to the free public schools of the city, urging the ne- 
cessity of placing them upon a firm basis. The city was divided 
into five wards at a meeting of the Council, in August, 1870. 
The hook and ladder company was organized. Three thousand 
dollars were sent fo H. Amy & Co., New York, October 20, 
1870. The Clerk was authorized to open a registration in his 
oflflce, to register the names, ages, &c., of the qualified voters 
of the city— the registration to be made by wards. At a meet- 
ing, in November, the Selma and Gulf railroad asked the issu- 
ance of $60,000 of city bonds, which petition was referred to 
the city attorneys. An election was ordered for city officers, to 
take place in December, 1870. 

In December, 1870, an election was held for city officers, 
at which the following gentlemen were elected ; James M. Ded- 
man, Mayor, Thomas M. Williams, Marshal; John B. Stone, 
Clerk ; Dr. H. S. Hudson, Physician. 

Counciimen— First ward— W. M. Byrd, jr., W. C. Ward ; 
Second ward— M. J. Williams. C. A, Patterson ; Third ward—' 
A. Elkan, R. D. Berry ; Fourth ward— Alfred Wilson, Alex. 
Goldsby ; Fifth ward— John Hardy, Ed. Northup, who met and 
organized on the 2d day of January, 1871. 

The Mayor addresse<l the Couucil, when a communication 
was read from the hook and ladder company, which was dis- 
posed of, and the following policemen were appointed : W. P. 
Jones, W. J. Davis, I. Qiiartermas, A. M. Barnett, J. W. Har- 
rell, Edward Grumbles, B. F. Albriglit, James Steele, Samuel 
T. Potter, Henry Robinson, Armstead Cook, Chauuce McCon- 
nico, Allen Moore. The offices of engineer of the steamer E; 
Gillman and market clerk were united and Steven Daniels 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 97 

elected. The offices of attorney and auditor were united, and 
Johnson & Nelson elected. The duties of city clerk and tax 
collector were united. Peter Plattenburg was elected sexton. 
John O'Neal was appointed policeman for the south side of the 
river, at a salary of the fees he could make for arrests. The 
pest house was rented to Rodifer & Vickers. The bonded debt 
of the city was reported to be $347,120, after repudiating about 
$60,000. Joseph R. John, John White, Geo. P. Rex, James W. 
Lapsley, Geo. O. Baker and James M. Dedmaii, of the City 
Board of Education, made a report to the Council, asking for 
some legislation by the Council. Gen. R. L. Walker, Super- 
intendent of the Selraa and Gulf railroad, made a report to the 
Council of the progress of the work on that road. A commit- 
tee was appointed to negotiate for establishing a ferry across the 
river at the foot of Franklin street. Quite a number of good 
ordinances were adopted in relation to the market house, sani- 
tary, taxation, &c. The office of captain of the guard was cre- 
ated, and Col. J. P. Jones, of Pensacola, Florida, appointed to 
that ntfice, at a salary of $1,500 per annum. The police were or- 
dered to be uniformed with a gray suit. The term of office of at- 
torney was made to be two years. The $60,000 of the Selma and 
Gulf railroad bonds were repudiated, because their issuance had 
not been submitted to a vote of the real estate owners of the 
city, as required by the charter. A contract to establish a ferry 
was entered into with \\'. T. Hatchett & Co., of Montgomery, 
who put a flatboat on the river and commenced ferrying, but 
finally sold out their claim to the city, on which there was a 
loss of about $400 to the city. S. J. Saffold was elected city 
printer. John O'Neal resigned as policeman for South Selma 
and Wm. J, Smoke was appointed at a salary of fifty dollars 
per month. The city attorneys were instructed to revise the 
charter and ordinances. The Mayor was instructed to pur- 
chase an iron safe. The pay roll for the police, for the month 
of June, 1871, was $1,050, The Legislature authorized the City 
Council to issue bonds to fund the city debt, which was, with 
the Selma and Gulf railroad bonds, about $380,000. Dan. Sul- 
livan, Robert Hall and W. R. Ditmars were appointed an assess- 
ing committee for 1871. New carpets were purchased for Mar- 
shal and Clerk's offices. Mayor Dedman vetoed several ordi- 
nances. Joseph Aunspaugh was elected wharfinger. The city 
hospital was abolished. The Council was petitioned to buy 
another steam fire engine. A street tax of five dollars was 
established, but was afterwards reduced to three dollars, on all 
male inhabitants of the city between the ages of twenty and 
fifty years. Five hundred dollars were appropriated to build a 
bridge over Beech creek. Amy & Co., of New York, who had 
managed to get control of the largest portion of the bonded 
debt of the city, became quite persistent in their demands for 
payment. The organization of the Mechanics fire company 
was reported, and its acceptance was recomnaended by E. W. 
Pettus, Chief of Fire Department. The property of the Cen- 
tral City Agricultural Association was exempt from taxation. 
The hand engine that belonged to Franklin fire company was 
sold to the town of Talladega. The Treasurer paid over the ten 
per cent, to City Board of Education. A board of health was 
orj^anized as follows : Jas. Kent, M. D., President; C. F. Fahs, 
M. D., Secretary; J. P. Furniss, M. D., L. E. Locke, M. D., and 
B. H. Riggs, M. D. The wharf was rented to Thomas & Vance. 



98 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

A contract was made to build a fire engine house iu EastSelma, 
which was located where it was subsequently built for Mechanic 
fire company on Alabama street. Central City fire company 
wao organized November 4, 1871. J. M. Purviauce, the turn- 
key, resigned and E. M. Gantt was elected to fill the place. 
Each member of the Council was furnished with a bird's eye 
view of the city. The Legislature, in 1872, passed an act allow- 
ing the city to create a sinking fund, to protect the bonded debt 
of the city. A commission, composed of H. A. Haralson and 
W. P. Armstrong, were sent to New York to arrange financial 
matters with Amy & Co., if possible, which they did to some 
extent. A judgment was obtained in the United States Court, 
at Montgomery, against the city, for about $1,500, in favor of 
James J. Stewart, and the United States Marshal commenced 
pressing the city for payment, which was finally arranged. 
The ordinance creating the sinking fund was passed, and E. 
Gillman, Rooert Hall and Jonathan Haralson were appointed 
commissioners. Wm. M. Wallace was continued city surveyor. 
The R. E. Lee hose company was organized and asked to be ad- 
mitted into the Fire Department. The following officers were 
elected for the Fire Department, on the 6th day of May, 1872: 
Robert J. Fowler, Chief; D. M. R. Vickers, First Assistant ; C. 
W. Hooper, Second Assistant; T. H. Rosser, Warden for first 
ward ; John Weedon, Warden for second ward ; Geo. Peacaek, 
Warden for third ward ; Wm. M. Wallace, Warden for fourth 
ward ; O. R. Floyd, Warden for fifth warden. Thomas M. 
Williams resigned as Marshal, and Col. J P. Jones was directed 
to discharge the duties of that office, and finally, the office of 
captain of the guard was abolished and Col. Jones elected Mar- 
shal for the term. Two horses were purchased forPlienix fire 
company. The Mayor was directed to borrow $16,000. An or- 
dinance regulating the street railroad was passed. The Central 
City Oil Mills property was exempted from city taxes. John 
B. Stone resigned the" city clerkship and A. J. Goodwin was 
elected to fill the vacancy. The Mayor was authorized to bor- 
row $2,400. An ordinance was adopted authorizing the issuance 
of $160,000 of bonds of the city to be used in the construction 
of a railroad, wagon and foot bridge across the Alabama river 
just above the ferry crossing; these bonds, however, were never 
issued, nor was there ever a vote of the real estate owners taken 
upon the question of issuing them. At a meeting on the 4th of 
September, 187:?, appropriate resolutions were adopted and 
spread upon a separate page of the minutes, in honor of Madi- 
son J. Williams, who had died, and was a member of the Coun- 
cil. A. E. Baker was elected to fill the vacancy iu the Council 
caused by the death of M, J. Williams. McConnico & Ethe- 
ridge rented the wharf for one year at sixty-six dollars per 
month. An excellent ordinance regulating the public schools 
of the city was adopted. The boundaries of the first ward were 
changed by taking from the second and adding to the first ward. 
This Council done much wholesome legislation for the city, and 
everything went on harmoniously until a meeting held on the 
16th of December, 1872. An election for city officers had been 
ordered as required by law, and the election was to take place 
the next day, (the 17th of December, 1872,) when a resolution 
was introduced and, with a strict [arty vote, adopted, author- 
izing the Mayor to issue a proclamation setting aside the elec- 
tion. This action on the part of. the Council caused great ex- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 99 

citemeut among the people of the city. At a meeting of the 
Council held January, 2d 1873, the following communication 
was read : 

" The undersigned believing the action of this Council and 
the publication of a proclamation by the Mayor, in accordance 
with a resolution adopted by a vote of a majority of this Coun- 
cil, on the evening of the 16th of December, 1872, the day just 
before the city election for a Mayor and Couucilmen for the 
next two years, as the charter provides, should have been held, 
destroyed the legal right of the Mayor and Council to longer 
discharge the duties of a Mayor and Council, as authorized by 
the charter. This Mayor and Council were elected for two 
years, or until their successors were elected and qualified. 

"This Mayor and Council did not only fail to provide for 
the 'election and qualification of their successors,' but inter- 
vened by resolution of the Council and proclamation by the 
Mayor prohibited the 'election and qualification of their suc- 
cessors,' and as the two years for which the present Mayor 
and Council were elected have expired their legal authority to 
further enforce the provisions of the city charter expired with 
this meeting, as we believe, and have so been advised. 

"An election for Mayor and Councilmen, by the citizens of 
the incorporation, at the time, and as provided by the act of the 
Legislature, was a vital requirement, as we believe, to perpetu- 
ate authority to any person or persons to enforce the provisions 
granted in the act of incorporation ; and a continuance to act 
as a Councilman would be aiding indirectly, if not directly, in 
the enforcement upon the people, penalties not warranted by 
law, and consequent liabilities pecuniarily in the State courts, 
and especially criminally liable in the Federal courts under the 
Federal statutes, for the protection of the personal liberties of 
the citizen. Entertaining these views, and as we are advised 
this is the last meeting this Mayor and Council can hold with- 
out incurring serious liabilities, we decline further to act as 
members of the present Council for the city of Selma; and we 
ask, so as to exempt us from all such liabilities, that these, our 
reasons for declining further to act as Councilmen, may be, 
by the Clerk, spread upon the minutes of this meeting. 

" John Hardy, 
"Edward Northup, 
" ALFRED Wilson, 
" Alex. Goldsby." 

A meeting was held on the evening of the 9th of January, 
1873, by the six remaining Councilmen, when a communication 
from Messrs. Johnson & Nelson, City Attorneys, was read. A 
resolution was adopted, that thereafter five members should be 
a quorum for business, and proceeded to elect Charles Collier, 
James J. bryan, W. H. Welch and E. N. Medley to act in the 
place of the four who had refused longer to act witli the Coun- 
cil. This created quite an interest in the condition of affairs in 
the city. Both parties appealed to the Legislature, then in ses- 
sion, and as the House was of one party and the Senate of an- 
other, a compromise was finally effected between J. M. Dedman 
and John Hardy, the two candidates for Mayor, which was the 
passage of an act, by the Legislature, providing that W. H. 
Fellows, John White, W. R. Bill and A. S, Toler should hold 
an election for Mayor and Councilmen on the first Tuesday in 
April, 1873, whose term of office should be two years. 

Ltrc. 



100 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

An election was held by these commissioners, under this act, 
the vote for Mayor resulting as follows: J. M. Dedman, 851; 
John Hardy, 1,208. The friends of Col. Dedman entered into a 
contest against the result of this election, before the commis- 
sioners, but after a most searching investigation of the vote of 
the first, second and third wards, which continued for several 
days, the contest was abandoned, and the election declared by 
the commissioners as follows : 

Mayor— John Hardy. 

Couucilmen— First ward— W. A. Brantley, E. I. Morgan ; 
Second ward— Sumter Lea, C, A. Patterson ; Third ward— C. 
J, Clark, A. Elkan; Fourth ward— John Silsby, R. B. Thomas; 
Fifth ward — John C. Waite, Clark Mixon, who assembled in 
the Council room on the 16th day of April, 1873. 

John Hardy, as Mayor, John C. Waite, John Silsby, R. B. 
Thomas, C. Mixon and "W. A. Brantley, Couucilmen, took the 
oath of office before the Hon. Geo. H. Craig, Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court ; C. J. Clark, Sumter Lea, C. A. Patterson, A. Elkan 
and E. I. Morgan, took the oath of office before Col. J. M. 
Dedman, the ex-Mayor; thus disorganized did this Mayor and 
Council organize, and went into an election for officers, which 
was as follows: White & Tillman, Attorneys; A.J. Goodwin, 
Clerk and Tax Collector; R M. Moore, Marshal ; J. L. Perkins, 
Treasurer; Dr. John H. Henry, Physician ; Joseph F John. 
Surveyor; Peter Plattenburg. Sexton. The following police 
were appointed: Alex. Kerr, W, H. Blevius, Henry Loder, 
James Steele, John Boylan, Grandison Rodgers. W. H. Red- 
path, John O'Rourke, J. A. Harrell, Henry Tipton, Addison 
Smith, A. H. Woodson — twelve policemen in. all, six white and 
six colored. W. H. Whitfield was elected Market Clerk. Mike 
Fitzgerald was elected engineer of the steam fire engine "Little 
Mechanic." Six Councilraen should con*tij,ute a quorum for 
business. For several meetings of this Council, upon almost 
all questions, the vote stood five and five, leaving the Mayor 
to make his own choice, but finally, harmony of opinion was 
exhibited, and things were not so much divided, and the Coun- 
cil went to work in good earnest. The first matter was the 
financial aflkirs of the city. The assessors reported the value 
of the real estate of the city, for the previous year, at $5,744,649, 
upon which $72,458 had been collected up to April 15th, 1873. 
On the 5th of May, 1873, the following officers were elected for 
tlie P"'ire Department: R. J. Fowler, Chief; C. W. Hooper, 
First Assistant; Geo. A. Stuck, Second Assistant; Wardens- 
First ward, S. F. Hobbs ; Second ward, John Weedon ; Third 
ward, Geo. Peacock; Fourth ward, Charles Collier ; Fifth ward, 
E. N. Medley. The committee on finance, after a thorough 
examination into the financial condition of the city, found that 
there was a judgment against the city, in the United States Dis- 
trict <'ourtat Montgomery, of $4,000, and one in the Dallas (;!ir- 
cuit Court, for $3,000, for due and unpaid interest on the bonded 
debt, in addition to a floating debt long past due, of $27,481 97. 
The taxes had pretty well all been collected, and but little rev- 
enue could be expected from that source until fall, and the 
owners and controllers of these claims were most persistent in 
their demands for payment. In addition to the payment of 
this large floating debt of near $30,000, the current expenses 
necessary to keep up a city government of some $3,000 per 
month, had to be met, and how to do it was rather a difficult 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 101 

problem, especially' when the treasury was as dry as a powder 
house. The rate of taxation the previous year had heea about 
two per cent, and the people were not resting easy under it. 
The assessed value of the property of the city had largely de- 
clined. To borrow was what all other Mayors and Councils 
had done, which made bad worse. In this condition of attairs, 
the Council passed an ordinance directing the Mayor an » Clerk 
to issue $20,000 of tax certificates, or rather city certificates, 
which were to be taken in payment of all dues to the city ex- 
cept to the sinking fund. These certificates were put in circu- 
lation with care, and with their aid the difficulty was bridged 
over until fall, wlien thy revenue from taxation commenced 
coming into the treasury, amply sutficient, not only to meet the 
current expenses of the cit^\ , but quite an amount of the float- 
iiig debt was paid and the city change bills tliat had been put 
in circulation redeemed and burned. The sinking fund com- 
missioners arranged and finally paid the two executions against 
the city for interest, and the financial aflTairs of the city looked 
cheerful. The wrongs that had existed in the management of 
the market house, were regulated and systematized by wise or- 
dinances. The board of health came to the aid of the Council, 
and a most wise sanitary system inaugurate.!. The Fire De- 
partment was aided and encouraged ; the streets, bridges and 
culverts met with the closest atte'ution ; the stock, tools, &c., of 
the city were properly cared for, and the city attorneys hunted 
up the real estate the city owned, which had been overlooked. 
The sal tries of officers and employes of the city were greatly 
reduced. The salary of the Mayor was reduced from $150 per 
mouth to $75, and other officers in proportion. The police were 
paid $50 per month instead of $75. Strict attention was given 
to purchasing supplies and material for the city. The hospital 
was re-established, and the sick poor were taken care of, and 
really the only item of ai)parent extravagance was the amount 
($100) per mouth appropriated to be used in taking care of the 
Indigent and poor people of the citf. John C. Waite was ap- 
pointed street overseer, and with the convicts, the labor upon 
the streets was principally performed. The board of education 
of the city discharged their duties well,aud the cause of free edu- 
cation in the city was greatly promoted. For the first year of 
this administration everything went on well. The officers, 
with two exceptions, all performed their several duties with 
fidelity. The market clerk, H. W. Whitfield, a colored man, 
became a delintiuent and was dismissed, and another colored 
man wasappoiuled, W. VV. Hampton, who, becoming behind in 
his money matters, ran away with about $250 of the city's money. 
Geo. L. Stuck, was appointed market clerk in connection with 
his duties as engineer of the steam fire engine E. Gillman, and 
discharged the duties of both positions faithfully for the balance 
of the entire term of the two years. Councilman Lea acted as 
Mayor pro tem. during the absence of the Mayor at New Or- 
leans, and Councilman Silsby, during his absence in New York. 
In the fall the yellow fever made its appearance in .all the 
Gulf cities, and in the city of Montgomery. The (|Uarantine 
ordinances were put in force by proclamation of the Mayor, and 
aided by the board of health, this terrible pestilence was kept 
from among our citizens. So much gratified were the people of 
Selma, at their escape from the ravages of yellow fever, that 



102 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

the Mayor was induced to issue the following proclamation of 
thanks to Almighty God : 

Mayor's Office, \ 

City of Selma, Nov. 3, 1873. j 

The year that is soon to close has been a season of peculiar 
mercies to us as a people ; while other cities have been sadly af- 
flicted witn those terrible scourges of cholera and yellow fever, 
the destroyer has been averted from us ; no evil has befallen us, 
no plague has come near our dwellings ; good health, peace and 
quiecude have prevailed in our city. It is meet, therefore, that 
we acknowledge the good hand of our God, with devout and 
appropriate thanksgiving for those mercies. In behalf, there- 
fore, of the good people of this city, I, John Hardy, Mayor of 
the city of Selma, do hereby appoint Thursday, the 13th day of 
November, 1873, as a day of public thanksgiving, and recom- 
mend that, on that day, the people of the city of Selma repair 
to their respective places of worship, to make acknowledgment 
to Almighty God for His gracious favors to us. 

John Habdy, 
Mayor city of Selma. 

R. B. Thomas resigned as Councilman and A. J. Mullin 
was elected to fill his place. A terrible hurricane swept over 
Montevallo, making terrible havoc of life and property in that 
ill-fated town. The Council and citizens contributed largely to 
their relief. The receipts into the city treasury, from r\pril, 

1873, to April, 1874, were as follows : Licenses, $15,357 76 ; 
taxes, $78,215 29; fines, $4,776 14; market, $3,822 61; rents, 
$468 20; miscellaneous, $6 17; total, $102,646 17. Thirty-four 
thousand nine hundred and forty-two dollars and eleven cents 
of this amount was paid to the sinking fund to pay on the 
bonded debt and interests. John Silsby resigned his seat in 
the Council and Richard Coe was elected to fill the vacancy. 
On the first day of January, 1874, the bonded debt of the city 
was $330,000, bearing eight per cent, per annum. The Council 
made another move to econc^mize expenditures by the reduction 
of salaries of oflicers and employes of the city. The salary of 
the Mayor was placed at $600 per annum, and the salary of 
other officers were reduced in the same proportion— the wages 
of the police were reduced to $30 per month, and a spirit of econ- 
omy seemed to have taken possession of the Council. The 
number of police was reduced to six. The board of health for 

1874, appointed the following ward inspectors: First ward, Dr, 
J T. West; Second ward. Dr. James Kent; Third ward. Dr. 
F. E. Locke; Fourth ward, Dr. W. P. Reese; Fifth ward, Dr. 
B H. Riggs. The average sales at the market house for one 
year, had been per week, twenty-eight beeves, 17 hogs, 16 
sheep, six goats, 4,000 pounds of sausage, 2,700 chickens, 5,400 
dozen eggs. The beeves had averaged eleven cents per ^lound, 
the hogs twelve cents, the slieep and goats twelve cents, the 
sausage thirteen cents, the chickens nineteen cents each, the eggs 
thirteen cents per dozen. The average sales of vegetables, as 
near as could be ascertained, were about forty-three dollars per 
week. The sales of river fish, in and around the market house, 
averaged about eighteen dollars per week. The rents from stalls 
in the market house averaged about $300 per mouth to the city, 
A new charter was passed by the State Legislature in March, 

1875, which greatly curtailed the limits of the city, and reduced 
the revenue from real estate very much. This charter made 
several material changes, among others it created a board of 



HISTORY OF SBLMA. 103 

equalization to value real estate, to be composed of three 
citizens, real estate owners in the city, and who were to be 
elected by real estate owners; another was, providing for the 
election, on the first Monday in May, 1875, of a Mayor and 
Council, and every two years thereafter. From April 16, 1873, 
to May 1, 1875, two years and fourteen days, there were tried be- 
fore Mayor Hardy, 3,169 parties, in 2,270 of these cases fines 
were imposed to the amount of $14,027 45, of which $6,626 40 
were paid in cash ; $5,702 35 paid in labor on the streets; $1,- 
142 70 remitted, and $556 appealed to the Circuit Court. The 
following was the result of the registration by the City Clerk, 
on the 25th day of April, 1875 : 

WARDS. WHITE. COLORED. TOTAL. 

First 120 98 218 

Second 186 85 271 

Third 227 103 330 

Fourth 70 261 331 

Fifth 82 120 202 

Total 685 667 1,352 

The receipts of this administration were as follows; Assets 
on hand 16th of April, 1873, $2,357 47 ; from licenses, $30,992 79; 
real and personal taxes, $52,756 98; fines, $6,764 74; Market, 
$7,468 22; rents, $501 20; miscellaneous sources, $223 62— Total, 
$201,565 02. Of this amount, $77,515 98 were paid to the sink- 
ing fund to pay the bonded debt and interest, which, on the 
first day of May, 1875, was $330,410, bearing eight per cent, in- 
terest. ' The board of health for 1875, was as follows : W. P. 
Reese, M. D., President; John P. Furniss, M. D., Health Ofii- 
cer; Inspectors — First ward, W. H. Johnston, M. D.; Second 
ward, James Kent, M. D.; Third ward, H. S. Hudson, M. D.; 
Fourth ward, J. T. West. M. D.; Fifth ward, W. P. Reese, M. D. 

On the 24th day of May, 1875, an election was held, under 
the new charter, for a Mayor and Council, and a board of equal- 
ization, by the real estate owners, to serve for the ensuing two 
years, which resulted as follows: 

For Mayor— Col. B. M. Woolsey- First ward, 100 votes ; 
Second ward, 143; Third ward, 196; Fourth ward, 48; Fifth 
ward, 65; total, 552. N. Woodruff— First ward, 93 votes; 
Second ward, 96; Third ward, 107; Fourth ward, 250; Fifth 
ward, 113 ; total, 659, giving Mr. Woodruff 107 majority. 

For Councilmen — First ward, S. W. John, 113 votes; H. 
A. Haralson, 156; T. S. Bowen, 89; scattering, 2. Second 
ward, Wm. Ullman, 240 votes; C. Young, 242; scattering, 2. 
Third ward, C. J. C\ark, 176 votes, H. Kohn, 138; Joe Meyer, 
182. Fourth ward, S. D. Rodifer, 250 votes; David White, 253; 
Wm. Berg, 40 ; Richard C'oe, 45. Fifth ward, John Hardy, 
108 votes, James Allen, 109; Wm. H. Welch, 67; C. Heinz, 
69; electing N. Woodruff Mayor, S. W. John and H. A. Har- 
alson, from the first ward ; C. Young and Wm. Ulman, from 
the second ward ; C. J. Clark and Joe Meyer, from the third 
ward; 8. D. Rodifer and David White, from the fourth ward, 
John Hardy and James Allen, from the fifth ward. Council- 
men. Daniel Sullivan, N. Waller and W. B. Gill were elected 
as the board of equalization, each receiving 171 votes, who were 
required to be real estate owners in the city, thus showing that 
property valued at over two hmillions of dollars is owned by 
171 persons. On the second day of June, 1875, this Mayor and 



104 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Council appeared in the Council chamber, the oath of office ad- 
ministered by John Hardy, the retiring Mayor, to the incom- 
ing Mayor, N. Woodruff, who administered the oatli of office 
to the new Couneilmen. 'i he Mayor delivered a good, sensible, 
business like address to the Council, when, on motion, the elec- 
tion of officers was taken up. which resulted as follows ; A. J. 
Goodwin, Clerk and Tax Collector, John F. Daimwood, Mar- 
shal : Dr. John H. Henry, Physician ; Sumter Lea, Attorney 
and Auditor; W. M. Wallace, Engineer; W. T. Brisliu, Sex- 
ton ; Geo. L. Stuck, Engineer of E. Gillnian, and Market Clerk ; 
T. W. Street, Tax Assessor ; W. M. Wallace, E. N. Medley, 
Assistant Assessirs ; Mike Fitzgerald, Engineer of Littie Me- 
chanic; J. C. Waite, Street Overseer. The financial affairs of 
the city attracted much attention from the Council, and with a 
view of providing means necessary to meet the indebtedness of 
the city, a good tax and license ordinance was passed. Various 
ordinances were adopted in regard to sanitary affairs, the hos- 
pital, market, &c., all of which were intended to advance the 
various interests of the city. A room was provided for the 
hook and ladder company. Water pipes wer laid along Broad, 
from Dallas to Water streets, for fire purposes. All ordinances 
were required to be published before put in force. The stock 
ordinance was suspended. The city wharf was rented to Robt. 
J. Fowler. The officers of the Western railroad were requested 
not to permit an excursion from Pensacola to enter the cicy — 
yellow fever was prevailing at Pensacola. T. W. Street, W.M. 
WaMace and E. N. Medley, Tax Assessors, reported the value 
of the personal property of the city at $911,744, and the real 
estate, $2,204,315, a total of $3,121,059; the rate of taxation was 
fixed at one per cent, upon real estate, to pay the bonded debt 
and interest, and one half per cent, for city purposes, on real 
and personal property. The tax law was rigid '3 enforced, and 
quite a lot of real estate was sold for taxes. W. T. Atkins re- 
signed as First Assistant of the Fire Department. J. L. Perkins, 
resigned as Treasurer, and G. W. Lewis elected, who refused 
to accept the office. J. F. John was elected Treasurer. Geo. 
L. Stuck resigned as Market Clerk and J. A. Jones was elected to 
fill the office. The Fire Department elected the following offi- 
cers : I. A. McMillan, Chief; L. R McKee, First Assistant ; 
H. C Fulmer, Second Assistant. An ordinance was ado{)ted 
providing for the registration of all birtlis and deaths in the 
city, which has been kept up by the boar«l of health. Resolu- 
tions passed, tendering th.nnks to Dr. W. P. Reese, for his able, 
efficient and effective services as President of the board of 
health. The legality of the $60,000 of bonds issued to the Selma 
and Gulf railroad wa.s agitated, but the Council, altera full in- 
vestigation, refused to repudiate them, and continued to pay 
the interest. The affairs of the city during this administration 
were well managed. Maj. Goodwin, a most excellent and safe 
business man, as Clerk and Tax Collector directed the business 
of bis office well ; peace and good order was maintained by Mr. 
Daimwood, the Marshal The streets and public highways of 
the city, under the supervision of Mr. Waite, were directed 
with skill and ability, and really, this administration gave very 
general satisfaction to the people. 

Ou the first day of May, 1877, an election was held for 
Mayor and Council, to serve for two years, which resulted as 
follows : 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 105r 

For Mayor— N. Woodruff— First ward, 98 votes; Second 
ward, 71; Third ward, 132; Fourtli ward, 275; Fifth ward, 147; 
total, 723. W. C. Ward -First ward, 101 votes ; Second ward, 
128; Third ward, 160; Fourth ward, 47; Fifth ward, 65; total, 501. 

For Counciltuen— First ward, C. D. Parke, 112 votes ; Geo. 
F. Lindsey, 111 ; W. F. Airy, 91; J. L. Perkins, 81 ; JoeMeyer, 
2. Second ward, H, H. Stewart, 133 votes ; A. Kayser, 197 ; M. 
Stanton, 65. Tiiird ward, J. M. Dedman, 174 votes; D. Sulli- 
van, 143; Joe Meyer, 155; C. W. Hooper, 1. Fourth ward, 
Richard Coe, 312 votes ; S. D. Rodifer, 271 , Alex. Goldsby, 34. 
Fifth ward, James Allen, 150 votes; C. Heinze, 203; K. N. 
Medley, 17; John Shannahan, 45. E. N. Medley, E. iKel- 
lieimer and W* B. Gill were elected by the owners of real estate 
as a board of equalization to value real estate. This Coun- 
cil organized on the 18th of May, 1877, by the election of 
A. J. Goodwin, Clerk and Tax Collector; J. F. Daimwood, 
Marshal; S. Kohn, Treasurer; T. W. Clark, A.ttorney and Au- 
ditor ; Dr. J. H. Henry, Physician ; W. M, Wallace, Engineer ; 
W. J. Norris, Tax Assessor; W. M. Wallace and B. T. Maxey, 
Assistant Assessors; E. M. Gantt, Turnkey; W. T. Brislin, 
Sexton; Geo. L. Stuck, Engineer for steamer E. Gillman; James 
Fitzgerald, Engineer for steamer Little Mechanic; J. A. Jones, 
Market Clerk. The Council elected H. Quartermas, W. W. 
Roberts, P. Costigan, Allen Moore, Ed. Nelson and Alex. Carr, 
policemen. B. T. Maxey resigned as Assistant Assessor, and 
E. N. Medley was appointed to fill the place. E. N. Medley 
resigned as one of the board of equalization and N. Waller was 
elected to fill his place. A movement was made to purchase 
some ten or fifteen acres of land from Col. Rixey, representing 
the Jones estate, westof the West Selma graveyard, upon which 
to make a new cemetery. This movement was finally success- 
ful, by the purchase of (he land and a beautifully laid off ceme- 
tery opened and properly enclosed, called "Live Oak Cemetery," 
and family lots offered for sale in it. The salaries of officers were 
continued at the rates of the previous administration. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the Fire Department for the 
year 1878: Menzo Watson, Chief; J. W. Stillwell. First Assis- 
tant ; C. Lovelady, Second Assistant; Wardens— First ward, J. 
W. Davis; Second ward, D. M. R. Vickers ; Third ward, Geo. 
Peacock ; Fourth ward, J. H. Holley ; Fifth ward, J. T. Plant. 
Mules were purchased for the Little Mechanic fire engine. A 
suit was instituted by Mr. H. H. Stewart, for damages, against 
the Mayor, for arresting, fining and imprisoning, for obstruct- 
ing sidewalks. One lot of land acre was appropriated to the 
Confederate Memorial Association in the new cemetery. Nu- 
merous ordinances were adopted — some very good, and some 
not so good. The Medical Society elected the following officers 
for the year 1878 : W. H Johnston, M, D., President ; J. H. 
Williamson, M. D., Vice-President; C. D. Parke, M. D. Treas- 
urer; J. A. McKinnon, M. D., Secretary. The Auditor's re- 
port for the month of December, 1878, showed that the follow- 
ing amounts had been paid out (hiring that month on account of 
the various departments : Fire, $6 06; Street, $45 90; Hospital, 
$81 45; Sanitary, $8 25; Gas, $183 32; Contingent, $7; Print- 
ing, $8; Charity, $4; Police, $14 38. The Marshal's report 
showed that during the same month, the Mayor had tried fifty- 
four cases — fifty-one of which were convicted and three ac- 
quitted. The fines amounted to$485— $169 of which was worked 



/_. 



106 HISTORY OF 8ELMA. 

out on the streets, $50 appealed to the Circuit Court, $34 50 re- 
mitted, $2 served out in prison, and $229 paid in cash. A. J. 
Goodwin, Clerk and Tax Collector, reported that he had paid 
the sinking fund commissioners, during the year 1878, $24,. 
099 29 in currency, and $534 55 in coupons. A. J. Neil, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the sinking fund commissioners, reported 
the bonded debt of the city to be $372,948. 8. Kohn, Treasurer, 
reported that he had received for the month of December, 1878, 
$2,299 96, and had paid out $1,736 54. A. J. Goodwin, Clerk, 
reported he had received during the month of December, 1878, 
from the city wharf, $79 58 ; Market Clerk, $133 80 ; Marshal, 
$220 50 ; License, $826 91 ; Taxes on property, $5,044 02— total, 
$6,314 71. He also reported he had sold lots in Live Oak Ceme- 
tery to the amount^of $322 70. With the reports of the oflBcers 
for December, 1878, ends our Municipal History of Selma. 



CHAPTEE III. 

RAILROADS AND MANUFACTORIES. 

Selma, Home andDalton Railroad.— Hhe Alabama and Ten- 
nessee Rivers Railroad, though distinct from the Selma and 
Tennessee road, may be said lo have had its origin in the latter. 
There are some remarkable facts relating to the latter. The 
obtaining of the charter for it, which was strongly contested 
in the Legislature by Judge Smith, then a very influential rep- 
resentative from Madison county, and Arthur P. Bagby, then 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, was considered such 
an achievement as to induce the people of Selma to compliment 
Senator James M. Calhoun with a public dinner on account of 
his strenuous and successful exertions in obtaining the charter 
against such formidable opposition. The charter was granted 
at the session of 1836-37. and contained provisions that five per 
cent, in specie should be paid on all suDscriptions at the time 
of subscribing, and that $500,000 should be subscribed before 
the company could be organized. Books of subscription were 
opened in Selma in the early part of 1838. As evidence of the 
popularity of the scheme, and of the liberality of the people of 
Selma and the surrounding country, although Selma then had 
a population of whites not, probably, exceeding 1,000 or 1,200, 
if so many, $500,000 were subscribed on the day the books 
were first opened ; not by men of straw, but by men of property, 
who subscribed in good faith, with the expectation of making 
good their subscriptions. Wm. Johnson, then a leading mer- 
chant and man of wealth, subscribed $50,000; P. J. Weaver, 
$40,000; Dr. Uriah Grigsby, $30,000 ; while the planters sub- 
scribed liberally— John Tipton, $20,000; James M. Calhoun, 
$10,000, and various others from $2,500 to $50,000. The com- 
pany organized soon after the $500,000 were subscribed. Gen. 
Gilbert Shearer was elected President and Maj. Alfred A. Dex- 
ter was appointed Chief Engineer. Immediate preparations 



108 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

were made for surveying and locating the road, and putting the 
work of grading under contract ; the contractors being David 
and Isaac Cooper, brothers, of Delaware. They went to work 
energetically, and graded the road to Plantersville, or there- 
about. In the meantime, the great monetary revulsion of that 
period occurred, extending through several years, which 
brought the enterprise to a close. The commencement of this 
enterprise acted like magic on real estate in ^'elma, and engen- 
dered a general feeling of speculation, and much speculation in 
real estate, by which not a few small fortunes were made on 
paper. 

The Alabama and Tennessee rivers road, now a part of the 
Selma, Rome and Dalton railroad, was chartered in 1848. The 
first decided step in regard to this road was a convention at 
Shelby Springs in the summer of 1849, composed of delegates 
from Mobile, "Dallas, Perry, Autauga, Coosa, Shelby, Talladega 
and Calhoun (then Benton)counties. Montgomery and We- 
tumpka were the rivals of Selma. The great object in view 
was to secure the co-operation and aid of the people of Talla- 
dega, Calhoun and other counties north of the Coosa river who 
were very anxious for a railroad connection with the Alabama 
river. Montgomery was the favorite of the people north of 
the Coosa, and had Montgomery been represented in the Shelby 
Springs' convention, the whole enterprise would probably have 
been changed, and Montgomery would have become the south- 
ern terminus of the road, but the people of that aspiring city 
seemed to have regarded the convention of too small conse- 
quence to deserve their notice, and sent no representation. 
Some of the delegates from Talladega took such umbrage at this 
as to cast off their allegiance to Montgomery and side with 
Selma. The result was, after a warm contest and debate, ex- 
tending through a good part of two days, a decision in favor of 
Selma, by a small majority. The result would probably- have 
been diflferent but for the "Wetumpka delegation. The Rev. J. 
P. Perham, one of its delegates, a whole-souled, clever fellow, 
and one of the ablest debaters in the convention, sided with 
Selma, and exerted himself strongly in its behalf. Had his ef- 
fort? and influence been thrown against Selma in the very close 
contest, the decision would doubtless have defeated her claims, 
and changed the course of the railroad. Mr. Perham after- 
wards became an enterprising and much respected citizen of 
Selma, and rendered valuable services in obtaining subscrip- 
tions for the Alabama and Tennessee rivers railroad. At the 
close of this convention, a motion was made and adopted, to 
adjourn the convention to the town of Talladega, to be held in 
thirty days. At this convention the same counties were repre- 
sented as at Shelby Springs, with the addition of Cherokee, 
DeKalb and Montgomery, the latter with a strong delegation, 
headed by the Hon. James E. Belser, one of the most popular 
and influential men in Montgomery, while Selma was repre- 
sented by her chivalry. A very ardent contest ensued, extend- 
ing through two days, resulting in the triumph of Selma, and 
the defeat of the combined forces of Montgomery and We- 
tumpka, " horse, foot and dragoons." This secured to Selma, 
not only the location of the road, but large pecuniary and po- 
litical or legislative support from Talladega to the Tennessee 
river. In addition to large subscriptions to the stock of the 
company, large amounts of the two and three per cent, funds 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 109 

were obtained. Had the decisions of these conventions been 
against Selma, its destiny and whole history would have been 
changed. 

The Alabama and Tennessee Rivers Railroad Company was 
organized in 1850, by the election of John W. Lapsley as Presi- 
dent, and Walker Reynolds, W. B. McClellan and William 
Curry, of Talladega; Hudson Allen and T. A. Walker, of Cal- 
houn ; Edmond King, of Shelby ; Phillip J. Weaver, Thorn- 
ton B. Goldsby, John F. Conoley and Wesley Plattenburg of 
Dallas, Directors. The same board was elected for the succeed- 
ing annual term. With two or three changes, one of which 
being the election of William 8. Phillips, President, the same 
board was elected in 1852. Col. Phillips continued President 
for two successive terms, and was succeeded by Col. Goldsby, 
who held the office two terms, and was succeeded by Judge 
Thomas A. Walker, who held the office until the road was 
merged in the Selma, Rome and Dalton road. Walker Rey- 
nolds, T. B. Goldsby, P. J. Weaver and J. W. Lapsley were 
the largest subscribers to the stock of this company ; but there 
were many other liberal subscribers from one end of the road 
to the other — especially in Talladega and Calhoun counties. 
Col. Lewis Troust, of Mobile, was appointed Chief Engineer 
soon after the organization of the company, and held the office 
until the survey and location of the road were completed, and 
a large portion of the road was constructed. He was an en- 
gineer of much ability and great fidelity, and is understood to 
have saved the company a large amount by his skill, economy 
and good management. The work of construction was com- 
menced at Selma tbe early part of 1851. The first locomotive, 
called the Alabama, was put upon the road about May of that 
year. By the close of 1852, the track was completed to a point 
at or near the present Dixie Station, and track-laying was con- 
tinued, with short intermissions, until it reached Montevallo, 
in 1853. 

On the 4th day of July, 1853, a grand dinner was given by 
the people of Shelby and surrounding country. Here the track 
laying stopped for over fifteen months, but was again com- 
menced and continued uninterrupted until it reached the Coosa 
river, in 1855. The bridge was built, and the track laying con- 
tinued until it reached Talladega, in 1859. A short time after 
the bridge was built over the Coosa it was burned, but in 1857 
the present splendid structure was completed. A short halt 
was made at Talladega, but track laying was renewed and by 
1861 the road was completed to Blue Mountain, one hundred and 
forty miles from Selma. The warcmeon, and nothing further 
was done upon the work until 1867. It is proper to say here, 
that our fellow citizen, Wm. Rothrock, was at the driv- 
ing of the first nail at Selma, in 1851, and was connected, 
in various capacities, with the road, until the last rail was laid 
at Blue Mountain, in 1861, thus giving to this grand work ten 
years of his skill and labor. 

In 1867, a contract was made with Mr. A, D. Breed, of Cin- 
cinnati, to complete the road through to Dalton, Ga., and the 
Alabama and Tennessee rivers railroad, and two corporations in 
Georgia, were merged into the Selma, Rome and Dalton rail- 
road. Capt. E. G. Barney, the agent for the lessee, was made 
general manager of the road, and under his management it was 
finished to Dalton, in 1869. F. A. Delano, of New York, sue- 



110 HISTORY OF SBLMA. 

ceeded General Joseph E. Johnston, as President, and Hon. 
John Tucker, of Philadelphia, succeeded him in 1870. He con- 
tiuHed President until the spring of 1873, when the road was 
thrown into the Chancery Court. Up to this time Capt. Barney 
continued General Superintendent, and Mr. M. Stanton, Assis- 
tant Superintendent. Hon. Thos. A. Walker was made Re^ 
ceiver, and a short time after Hon. John Tucker was associated 
with liim. Judge Walker continued as Receiver until two years 
ago, when he resigned, and Mr. Tucker has continued since 
that time. Mr. John B. Peck was Superintendent under Re- 
ceivers until August, 1874, when Mr. M. Stanton was appointed, 
and held the ofHce until his death, February 21st, 1879. Mr. 
iNorman Webb has since been appointed. 

As previously stated, the first locomotive put upon this 
road was on the lOth day of May, 1851, called the "Alabama," 
and on its first trial, for about four miles, the locomotive, tender 
and a flat car were decked with ladies, of the city, the en- 
gineer being Harry Van Pelt, and conducted by John Hodges. 
This locomotive was of thirty tons power, and of Norris, 
Philadelphia, build. The second locomotive was the "Tennes- 
see," received in 1852, from the Globe Works, in Boston. In 
1853, the "Coosa," and in 1856, the "Walker Reynolds," and 
" Shelby," were put upon the road. Wm. Waddill & Co. were 
the principal contractors to Dixie, and J. C. Riddle & Co. 
from thence to Montevallo. In 1852, the present immense 
shops of the company were commenced in the city, and have 
gradually increased in capacity since. The first engine put in 
the shops in 1852, runs the machinery of the shop in 1879, 
which proves that these works have been in good hands. 

Alabama Central Railroad. — The success met with in the 
construction of the Alabama and Tennessee rivers railroad, in 
1851, 1852 and 1853. stimulated the people to the buiiding of a 
road from Selma in the direction of Vicksburg, Miss. In 1852, 
a charter was obtained for the Alabama and Mississippi rivers 
railroad. The rich canebrake country felt the importance of a 
railroad to the Alabama river, and in a few months after the 
charter was obtained, stock sufficient was taken, mostly by the 
planters west of the Cahaba river, and an organization of the 
company took place at Woodville, now Uniontown. Col. Jas. 
L. Price, an extensive planter of the prairies, and who was a 
very energetic, go-a-head man, was elected President. The 
grading was commenced. Col. Wm. Waddill, jr., & Co., and 
Col. Thornton B. Goldsby taking the contract for the grading 
to Louisville, twenty miles from Selma, and early in 1855, the 
track was completed to that point. An engine, the "Cane- 
brake," built at Richmond, Va., was put upon the road, shops, 
for repairs, &c., were put up, and in 1857, the " Uniontown '* 
was received ; the bridges over Valley creek and the Cahaba 
river were completed, and a very handsome business opened 
over the road. The locomotive "Uniontown" was built by 
Norris & Co., of Philadelphia. S. C. Pierce was appointed 
Master Mechanic and Geo. L. Stuck run the first locomotive 
on the road. 

This stimulated capitalists along the line, and additional 
stock was subscribed by such men as Col. Weaver, F. 8. Bee- 
ton, Dr. Griffin, Col. Whitfield and others. Again work com- 
menced, and its construction was rapid until completed and 



HISTORY OF SELMA. Ill 

equipped to Woodville, early in 1858, when a third engine, the 
"S. C. Pierce," was put upon the road. An immense business 
was done over theroad. Almost the entire grading was com- 
pleted from Uniontown to Demopolis. and ready for the rails, 
when the war came on, in 1861. In 1862, the Confederate au- 
thorities found this unfinished line of railway too important to 
neglect, and the road was not only completed to Demopolis, 
but to Y.ork Station, eighty-one miles from Selma, to which 
point the JWill's Valley railroad had been completed from 
Meridian. 

The close of the war found all the assets Of the road in Con- 
federate bonds, and the stock, so far as the original stockhold- 
ers were concerned, pretty well used up. A new organization 
was effected, and the name of the road changed to that of the 
Selma and Meridian, and placed in charge of Gen. W. J. Har- 
dee as President. The affairs of the company continued thus 
until about 1869. The bonds falling due the road was put in 
charge of Col. Sam. Tate, as Receiver, by the United States 
District Court, and who continued to manage it until 1870. 
The management of Col. Tate was not satisfactory to the city 
of Selma. Col. Alex. White was employed to file a cross bill 
in the proceeding in the Unil^ed States Court, and moved to 
have Col. Tate removed, which, after a very strenuous contest, 
was done, and John Hardy appointed in his place, who man- 
aged the affairs of the company until 1872, when it was sold 
under an order of the United States Court, and purchased by 
Col. James Robb, of New York, for the bondholders for the 
sum of about one and half millions of dollars. The new pur- 
chasers organized under the name of the Alabama Central, and 
placed Maj. W. L. Lanier in charge as President, and John M. 
Bridges as Superintendent. Under the new name and oflflcers, 
the road has been well managed, is in good repair, supplied 
with first-class passenger coaches, locomotives, and rolling 
stock, all of the first class, and beyond all doubt is the best 
railroad stock in the South. 

It is proper for us to say, that within the last year the track 
has been completed from York Station to Lauderdale Station, 
on the Mobile and Ohio road, relieving the road of that obstruc- 
tion heretofore existing between York Station and Meridian. 

Western Railroad of Alabama. — A survey of this road from 
Selma to Montgomery was made in 1860, in the interest of the 
Central railroad of Georgia. Nothing further was done toward 
ito construction until 1866, when a locating survey was made, 
in the same interest under the immediate supervision of Col. 
Samuel G. Jones, one of the most experienced railroad men in 
the State, and the work of construction commenced and was 
prosecuted with much vigor. By 1871 the work on the entire 
line, forty-seven miles, was completed, with the exception of 
the bridge over the Alabama river, seven miles from Selma. 
Daily trains were put upon each end of the road — the Selma 
and Meridian road running its trains to the bridge. All neces- 
sary conveniences for crossing freight and passengers at the 
river, and in a few weeks an immense freight and travel was 
secured. In the meantime the splendid iron bridge was in 
process of construction over the river which was completed in 
1872. This is one of the important lines of travel terminating 
at Selma ; and we predict, in time, will be a link in the great 



112 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

chain of railways from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. It is 
owned almost entirely by the Central road of Georgia, and like 
all other schemes which that remarkable man, \\m. M. Wad- 
ley, takes hold of, was and is yielding a handsome revenue to 
its stockholders. It is a competing line with the Selnia, Rome 
and Dalton road, from Selma, for Northern and Eastern travel 
and freights, by the way of Savannah, from thence by steamers 
to Philadelphia, New York and Eastern points. Capt. Lauder- 
dale, is the agent at Selma. ^ 

Selma and Gulf Railroad. — The construction of the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee rivers railroad and that of the Alabama 
and Mississippi rivers, suggested the necessity of the construc- 
tion of a road to the south, in the direction of Peusacola. In 
1858, a charter was obtained for the Selma and Gulf railroad. 
Col. W. S. Burr, and others of our citizens took hold of the 
enterprise. Books of subscription were opened in Selma and 
other places along the contemplated line, and soon about six 
hundred thousand dollars of stock was subscribed au(^the com- 
pany organized by the election of Col. Wm. T. Minter, Presi- 
dent, and Willis S. Burr, Secretary and Treasurer. The grad- 
ing for forty miles was soon put under contract and all finished, 
or nearly so, by 1861, when the war came on and put a stop to 
the work. 

In 1868, the New York and Alabama Contracting Company, 
composed of E. G. Barney, P. D. Roddy, W. R. Bill, Thomas 
K. Fergusson and others, proposed to take charge of the work, 
pay the debts, about $20,000, complete and equip the road. The 
stockholders accepted the proposition, elected a new Board of 
Directors, of which Dr. D. C. Smyley, was President, and W. 
S. Burr, Secretary and Treasurer, and all necessary arrange- 
ments entered into. The contracting company went to work 
under the supervision of Capt. E. G. Barney, and the work 
was rapidly shoved forward. The contracting company issued 
about one million dollars of twenty year bonds, at eight per 
cent, interest, and about the same amount of stock. As soon 
as the first twenty miles were constructed, $320,000 of their 
bonds were endorsed by the State, put upon the market and 
sold, and at the completion of thesecond twenty miles, another 
$320,000 were endorsed by the State, and put upon the market 
and sold, thus creating a bonded debt of $640,000. Temporary 
shops were put on the south side of the river, an engine pur- 
chased from the Selma, Rome and Dalton road was taken across 
the river in boats, named "E.G. Barney," early in 186S. A 
good business opened up on the road, and early in 1869, another 
engine was crossed over the river, placed on the road and 
named the " Malena Smyley," as a compliment to the daughter 
of Dr. Smj ley, the President of the road. 

The business of the road was managed under the auspices 
of the contracting company until 1876, when proceedings in 
chancery were instituted, and the property was put in the hands 
of Col. 8. G. Jones, as receiver, who managed the property un- 
til 1878, when Col. Jones was succeeded by W. R. Bill, as Re- 
ceiver, and at the present writing, January 1, 1879, is being 
managed by W. R. Bill, Receiver, J. C Waite, Road Master, 
R. Tipton, Superintendent, and Adolphus Gay, Engineer, 
which management has given general satisfaction, not only to 
Selma, but along the entire line. 



HISTORY OB^ SELMA. 113 

This road brings to Selma about 15,000 bales of cotton 
each season, and with a bridge over the Alabama river and the 
road constructed t>venty miles further, trible the business 
would be done. 



The New Orleans and Selma Railroad. — Immediately after 
the war in 1867, Dr. R. M. Robertson and others obtained a 
charter from the State Legislature for this corporation, through 
the State of Alabama, in the direction of the city of New Or- 
leans, with the most remarkable and valuable privileges that 
could be given by the Legislature. The act exempts all the real 
and personal propertj' of the corporation from State and county 
taxation. Books of subscription for stock were opened in 1868, 
and the necessary amount of stock was taken in a few days, 
and an organization effected by the election of Wm. M. Byrd, 
R. M. Robertson, B. M. Woolsey, John Hardy, A. B. Cooper, 
Alexander White and Charles Hays, as Directors. The Direc- 
tors elected Wm. M. Byrd, President, and P. D. Barker, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer. Maj. Robertson, with a good corps of en- 
gineers, made a locating survey to Rehobeth Church, in Wilcox 
county, forty miles from Selma, and a preliminary survey to 
the Bi'gbee river in Clark county. The county subscribed $140,- 
000 of stock, and issued bonds for the same. A contract was 
entered into with P. Hawkins Duprey, for the construction and 
equipment of the first twenty miles, which contract was soon 
complied with. Three hundred and twenty thousand dollars 
of first mortgage bonds were issued and endorsed by the State, 
and thus this important work to Selma's interest is permitted 
to slumber. There are trains running tri-weekly on the road, 
to Martin's S'tation, twenty miles from Selma. This road brings 
to Selma, every season, over 10,000 bales of cotton, and if com- 
pleted to the Bigbee'river, we predict it would increase this to 
30,000 bales. F. G. Ellis is the Superintendent, and James 
Allen, Engineer, M. A, Smith, Road Master. The repairing 
of machinery is done at the Selma, Rome and Dalton shops, 
and the rolling stock is mostly furnished by the same read. 



Selma and Oreenshoro Railroad. — In 1839, a large amount 
of grading was done on the Cahaba and Marion railroad, from 
Cahaba, but when the great monetary crash came on about that 
time, the work was abandoned, but in 1851 the work was 
resumed and the road completed to the present Marion Junc- 
tion, and soon after continued and completed to Marion, chang- 
ing its corporate name to that of Cahaba, Marion and Greens- 
boro railroad. In 1855. when the Alabama and Mississippi road, 
from Selma, was completed to that point, that portion of the 
road from the Junction to Cahaba, proving unprofitable, and an 
arrangement was made with the Alabama and Mississippi road 
by which the track from the Junction to Cahaba was taken up 
and the iron used on the A]al)amaand Mississippi. Thus mat-^ 
ters stood until after the war; in 1866, Gen. Forrest became Pres-* 
ident of the road, the name of Selma, Marion and Memphis 
superceding that of the Cahaba, Marion and Greensboro, and 
with the aid of endorsed bonds by the State, the road was 
pushed on to and beyon(J Greensboro, but the death of General 
Forrest occurring, put a stop to the work. The bonds of the 
road beeomiug'due, the property was put into the hands of a 
receiver, by the Chancery Court, and in 1878, the property was 



114 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

sold and is now, as the Selma and Greensboro Railroad Com- 
pany, under the management of Gen. Rucker, an experienced 
railroad man, and who, we hope will carry out the purposes of 
Gen. Forrest in its completion to Memphis, Tennessee. 

The Street Railroad.— On the 27th of August, 1872, the 
Selma Street Railroad Qompany opened books of subscription 
for stock, in accordance with an act of the Legislature of the 
State, which had been previously passed by that body, and on 
the 7th of December, 1872, the company was organized by the 
election of E, Gillman, President, and R. Lapsley, Secretary 
and Treasurer, Sufficient iron rails were purchased to lay a 
track from the crossing of the Selma, Rome and Dal ton railroad 
and the Alabama Central railroad, along Water to Broad, and 
thence along Broad street to the general depot of the Alabama 
Central railroad, and thence to the fair grounds, a distance of 
some two miles. The track was soon constructed under the 
superintendence of the late Mr. Robinson, suitable coaches ob- 
tained, and a good business commenced over the road by the 
first of December, 1872, affording a great convenience to our 
business men and the community generally. We are glad to 
say that the stockholders in this enterprise have found it 
(though not profitable) quite self-sustaining. The rate of travel 
is ten cents, but twenty tickets can be purchased for one dollar. 

Alabama Manufactory. — The Alabama Manufacturing 
Company was organized in 1850. by J. P. Perham, R. N. Phil- 
pot, F. S. Becton, Frederick Vogelin, Dr. I. Morgan and Wm. 
Ickes, and was the first manufacturing establishment of any 
consequence in the city. It was located on the southeast cor- 
ner of Sylvan and Water streets. Casting and all kinds of 
foundry and machine work was done; wool carding, manufac- 
turing flour and meal were also branches of industry connected 
with the establishment. Rev. J. P. Perham was its Superin- 
tendent for about two years, when he was succeeded by L. W. 
Terrell, a most skillful manager. This establishment continued 
to do a flourishing and profitable business until 1862, when it 
was succeeded by, and became a part of the Confederate Naval 
Foundry, the most magnificent and grandest establishment 
on the continent. 



The Foulton Foundry. — This foundry was established at the 
northeast corner of Sylvan and Water streets, in 1852, by Thos. 
B. Pierce, Peter L. Campbell and George Whitley, and, until 
the commencement of the war, did a large business. When 
the war commenced the Confederate authorities took charge of 
it, and it is, we believe, the only manufacturing establishment 
used by the Confederacy, that was spared from the flames by 
Gen. Wilson's forces in 1865. 



Selma Soda Water Works.— ¥ . B. Bartlett, an enterprising 
Tennessee gentleman, in 1871, established the Selma Soda Water 
Manufactory, on Lauderdale street, where he has continued up 
to this time (with the exception of one or two short periods) the 
manufacture of this most excellent summer beverage. He sup- 
plies the people of Selma, and during the spring and summer, 
there is scarcely a train of cars which leave Selma but has, as 
part of its freight, boxes of Bartlett'ssoda water, for the people 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 115 

at different poiots. This manufactory has not only proved a 
great luxury, but has become a necessity. 

Selma Variety Works, — These works were established in 
1854, by J. D. Nance and Wiley Melton, at the foot of Sylvan 
street. Sash, doors and blinds were the principal features of 
the works. Nance «fe Melton conducted this establishment 
for years, and were succeeded by Wm. Berg, who is now 
running the establishment successfully and profitably. 

Steam Laundry.— In 1876, E. N. Medley established a Steam 
Laundry, on his lot, at the corner of Water and Mechanic 
streets, which has proven of great utility to hundreds of fami- 
lies in Selma, and, we are glad to say, has proven remunerative 
to its enterprising projector. The capacity of this establish- 
ment is amply sufficient to meet the demands of the people of 
the city. It is under the supervision of a most experienced 
and careful person. A wagon is sent to get the clothes, awash 
bill given, and the clothes can be returned at any specified time 
by the same wagon, after one hour. Mr. Medley deserves 
patronage from the people of the city. 

Dallas Steam Mills.— T!h\s, useful institution was built by 
Alfred Berry, in 1867, and was managed and directed by him 
for several years. But since Mr. Berry owned these mills the 
property has passed through several hands, until they finally 
became the property of two among our most enterprising and 
go-a-head citizens — Messrs. Riemer «& Knowlen — who thor- 
oughly repaired and almost made a new set of mills, and under 
whose direction and management, have not only proven a great 
benefit and convenience to the people of the city, but lucrative 
and profitable to the worthy owners. Pure and fresh ground 
meal and grits can be purchased at these mills at any time, thus 
avoiding the necessity of using musty and unsound Western 
and Northern meal and hominy. 

Selma Marble Works —In 1852, J. N. Montgomery estab- 
lished his Marble Works in Selma, which have gradually grown 
under his own management, in capacity and business. At these 
works the finest quality of marble, both native and imported, 
for all purposes, is to be found. There is scarcely a cemetery 
in the surrounding country but specimens from these works 
are to be found. Hundreds of specimens in Selma cemeteries 
are to be seen of the skill and taste exhibited by Mr. Montgom- 
ery;, the crowning one of which is the Confederate monument, 
constructed by him for the ladies of the Confederate Memorial 
Association of Selma. This monument, beyond all doubt, is 
the finest piece of massive marble work to be found in the 
country, and is worthy of an inspection by every stranger who 
may visit Selma. 

The Selma Gas Light Company. — The Legislature of the 
State in 1854, incorporated Jno. B, Mattison, Philip J. Weaver, 
N.Waller and Hugh Ferguson, as a company to manufacture gas 
in the city of Selma, with a capital of not less than $30,000 nor 
more than $60,000, to extend twenty years. The act provided 
that John W. Lapsley, E. W. Marks and N. Waller, should 
have power to open books of subscription for stock, within 



116 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

one year from the passage of the act. Books for stock were 
opened on the 18th day of July, 1854, at the store of P. J. Wea- 
ver. Gas was not looked upon with much favor just at that 
time, and but little stock was taken. Mr. Mattison, the prime 
mover in this scheme, was not looked upon with much favor as 
to gas, but a good carpenter, and a man of indomitable perse- 
verance. Much was written in the two papers of the city, 
going to prove gas a most profitable investment; but such 
«vere the doubts as to Mr. Mattison's capabilities to manufac- 
ture gas out of coal, that a private subscription of about $150 
was raised and placed in the hands of Mr, Mattison, so as to 
enable him to prove that he could make gas. He went to work, 
constructed a Lilliputian gasometer about the size of a large 
washpot, put up two retorts of similar dimension, procured a 
few hundred feet of one-half inch iron pipe, established his 
works on the vacant lot where now stand the stores of Messrs. 
Adler and Rosenberg, on Broad st., and went to work with two 
barrels of lime. Mr. Mattison run his pipe iiito the three 
story brick building just built by Mike Wheelan, occupied as 
a drinking and billiard saloon and ten pin alley, now the book 
store of W. G. Boyd. On the night of the 29th of November, 
1854, Mr. Mattison let his gas upon his pipes, and in a very few 
minutes the large building was brilliantly lighted with gas, the 
first that had ever been lighted in Selma. This was a grand 
occasion, and a large crowd of people assembled to witness the 
feat of Mr. Mattison; Mike Wheelan doing a larger business 
that night than on any occasion. 

This proved beyond question that Mattison could make gas. 
The books of subscription were again opened at Col. Weaver's 
store, and Col. Weaver himself, having held aloof from the 
stock until now, subscribed $3,000, to be paid in material, and 
which amount was afterwards largely increased, and the con- 
sequence was, that in a very few days the $30,000 was sub- 
scribed, and the company organized by the election of George 
F. Plant, Philip Weaver and John Hardy, directors, who 
elected George F. Plant, President, John Hardy, Secretary, Philip 
Weaver, Treasurer, and John B. Mattison Superintendent. 
A contract was made with Alfred Berry to complete the works 
ready to make gas, with the exception of building the gasome- 
ter, for $20,000, one-half in stock. The gasometer was built by 
George F. Plant. Six inch main pipe, sufficient to run down 
Water and up Broad to the Presbyterian church, was purchased 
at Newburg, N. Y. One hundred meters, fixtures and pipes 
were pureliased of Code, Hopper & Co., of Philadelphia, ]and in 
the fall of 1855, some sixty consumers were supplied with gas, 
as well as twenty-five lights to the city. 

The first test of the coal obtained from the Alabama Coal 
Company, near Montevallo, proved that one pound of coal 
would generate four cubic feet of gas, a result almost unexam- 
pled in the United States. 

Tlie works were continued with a gradual increase of busi- 
ness until the war, with the exception of the death of Mr. 
Mattison, who was succeeded by Mr. Godwyn. During the war 
the stock cliauged hands, and but few of the original project- 
ors were owners of stock. The end of the war found the works 
in possession of almost entire new owners, but men of ener- 
gy and enterprise. The works had pretty well worn out, and 
to make them profitable required the expenditure of money. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 117 

The charter was amended and its privileges extended. Bonds 
were issued and sold at par, or nearly so; and under the super- 
vision of Charles Collier, a most practical gas manufacturer, 
the works were almost rebuilt, and are to-day yielding a hand- 
some dividend to its stockholders. The capital stock is $60,000, 
upon which amount there is a dividend of 5 per cent, declared 
semiannually. At least 1,000 tons of coal are consumed an- 
nually; ten retorts are used, which are charged every five hours 
separately with 200 pounds of coal each. A. H. Lloyd, one of 
the safest men in the city, is the general collector, and John 
Kenan, President and Treasurer, and Mr. Harthan Superinten- 
dent, and who claims to have furnished Selma and its citizens, 
during the year 1878, with 7,000,r00 of cubic feet of pure gas. 

Selma Moss Factory. — Was established in 1877, and under 
the supervision of Joe. Hampshire, has proven to be one of 
the institutions of Selma. The raw or green moss is collected 
in large quantities in the flat woods and swamp lands in this 
section of the State, and brought to Selma and is purchased at 
this factory. Here it undergoes a preparation in drying and 
curing by steam, is baled up and shipped in bales to such points 
as there is a demand. The city of Cincinnati, up to this time, 
has been the largest customer for the fabric of the Selma Moss 
Factory. 

This establishment is certainly a new business in our city, 
and brings to the city a traffic in a long neglected article, the 
greatest abundance of which can be gathered on our river low 
lands. We wish the proprietors of this pioneer business will 
find it both pleasant and profitable, and may be the means of 
inaugurating other branches of industry in our city now not 
thought of. 

Ice in Selma. — The history of ice in Selma has been as pro- 
gressive as that of cotton, steamboats or buildings. The first 
ice brought to Selma for sale was in 1840, by Constance Domi- 
nic, who erected an ice box just back of his restaurant, on the 
lot now occupied by the bakery and confectionery store of Mr. 
Skinner. Here he kept ice for sale for years, the price ranging 
from ten to twenty cents per pound. 

About 1850, after Mr. Dominic had left the town, Jacob 
Krout constructed a rude ice house on the lot now occupied 
by the residence of J. H. Holly, and kept ice for sale for a few 
years. In 1851, F. S. Jackson built the brick building on the 
bank of the river, between Lauderdale and Church streets, 
now occupied by Mr. Canning as a blacksmith shop, especially 
for an ice house, and in 1852 filled it with three barge loads 
of ice. In 1854 Jackson sold this business to E. T. Watts, un- 
der whose management the ice business did not prove profita- 
ble. During the war but little ice was used in Selma. In 1866 
Daniel Sullivan erected an ice house near the railroad crossing, 
and kept a supply for several years. A. Aicordi also opened 
an ice house on Alabama street, in 1867, which is kept up to 
this date. 

But the crowning effort to keep the people of Selma and sur- 
rounding country cool, was made by Messrs, Clayton & Cook, 
in 1877. They erected a small manufactory at the corner of 
Water and Mechanic streets, in 1877, to make ice hy steam, 
which feat they performed during the summer of 1877 to the 



118 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

astonishment of not only many of the people of Selma, but of 
the surrounding country. The ice made by steam by these 
gentlemen proved as satisfactory as the best lake ice. So the 
making of ice by steam was a fixed fact in Selma. The capaci- 
ity of the machinery proving insufficient to manufacture ice 
enough for the demand in 1877, in the spring of 1878 Messrs. 
Clayton, Cook & Stuck leased for five years a suitable building 
on the south side of Water street, from the estate of Robert 
Hall, and with a capital of $12,000, established "The Enter- 
prise Ice Company." Machinery of sufiicient capacity was 
purchased, and they engaged in the manufacture of ice from 
water supplied by one of the immense artesian wells near by. 
This company manufactured, during the spring, summer and 
fall of 1878, an average of seven tons of the very best ice per 
day, and at the very low price of one cent per pound, thus 
placing the use of this great luxury within the means of the 
very poorest of our people. 

This enterprise, beyond all doubt, will, we predict, prove 
one among the grandest of our manufactories. Besides the use 
of ice as a luxury, in eases of sickness its value is of the utmost 
importance. We are glad to know that the eflForts of these en- 
terprising gentlemen are properly appreciated, not only by the 
people of JSelma, but the people along the line of our several 
railroads avail themselves of the use of ice made by this com- 
pany, not only in Alabama, but Meridian, Jackson, and even 
Vicksburg, Miss., are supplied with ice from the "Enterprise 
Ice Company" of Selma. 



Peacoek^s Foundry. — In 1869, George Peacock, one of the 
most experienced foundrymen in the South, with limited 
means, erected his Brass and Iron Foundry in Selma. His fi- 
delity to his patrons and strict attention to and skill displayed 
in his business, rapidly brought to him customers, and in a 
very few years he was able to materially enlarge his business. 
He went into the manufacture of car wheels on an extensive 
scale, and there is scarcely a railroad in the South to-day, but 
more or less of Peacock's make of wheels are to be found, and 
are acknowledged to be the best made in the ^-'outh. Mr. Pea- 
cock is fully prepared to furnish any machinery that may be 
needed, out of either brass or iron. H s foundry is certainly 
one of the institutions of Selma, and her people are justly 
proud of his genius. 

Cotton Compress. — The process of compressing cotton bales 
preparatory to affording greater convenience for transportation, 
was inaugurated in Selma in 1870, by James H. Franklin & Co., 
in the yard of the large and commodious brick warehouse of the 
Selma and Meridian railroad company, where the business was 
carried on successfully for several years. 

When the extensive warehouse of the Selma, Rome and 
Dalton railroad was built near the junction of the Selma, Rome 
and Dalton, the Central railroad and the Alabama Western road, 
compressing was abandoned at the Selma and Meridian ware- 
house, and one of greater power and on a more extensive scale, 
was erected in the new railroad warehouse, under the organi- 
zation of a Compress Company, and which has been a complete 
success. The press used by this company is one of the famous 
Tyler presses, capable, during an ordinary day's work of ten 



HISTORY OF 8ELMA. 119 

hours, with ten hands, of compressing six hundred bales of 
cotton. The actual pressure per bale is 1,352 tons, given from 
120 pounds pressure to the inch on two four-flue boilers of for- 
ty-eight inches diameter and twenty-nine feet long. 

The company is composed of some eight stockholders, is in- 
corporated by an act of the Legislature of the State, John 
Kenan is President and J. W. Stillwell Superintendent. 

About 60,000 bales are compressed by this company each 
season, at a cost of 50 cents per bale to the owner of the cotton. 

Central City Oil Mills —Messrs. Watts, White & Co. started 
an oil mill in Selma in 1868, to make oil from cotton seed, but 
it proved a failure after three years' experience and experiment. 
A company was formed under the name of the "Selma Oil 
Works," composed of George O. Baker, J. L. Perkins and P. D. 
Barker, which framed its organization under the exemption 
law, and bought the machinery of the mill lately deceased. 
The stock of the new concern was not marketable, but after 
years of industrious toil, uphill work and indomitable energy, 
the company is now an undoubted success. Every visitor to 
Selma, anxious to see our resources and industrial enterprises, 
visits the oil mills. The turnout is marvelous. Every week, 
one hundred and fifty barrels of oil and sixty tons of oil cake 
are the net products. These are shipped to Europe and through- 
out the United States. Employment is furnished to fifty hands, 
and aliment to over two hundred of our residents. To under- 
stand this, we will say that the weekly disbursements of this 
establishment alone are $2,500, and this money is spent in our 
city. The institution is SM^ s'eneWs, working under two of its 
own patents, whilst a third patent is now beiug taken out. 
The lint saved for batting almost pays for the seed delivered at 
the mills, and the talent manifested by the gentlemen in charge 
proves what cau be done in manufacturing in the South. As 
a financial investment, it has no superior. 

Berg's Planing il/i^^s.— This enterprise was established by 
Mr. Berg in 1856. The army of invasion in 1865 burnt it to the 
ground, but Phoenix-like it rose from its ashes in 1866, and be- 
came one of the institutions of Selma. After another decade 
it was burned once more, but within two months Mr. Berg had 
restored it to its pristine utility. There is hardly any portion 
of the State where you will not find moulding, cornicing and 
fancy work turned out by Mr. Berg. The capacity of the mill 
in dressing alone, is 10,000 feet daily. 

The Central City Iron Works and Machine Shops.— Were es- 
tablished in September, 1869, by Messrs. Edward G, Gregory 
and R. Coe. The success which this establishment had already 
attained, and the numerous demands for foundry work, which 
under the then management they were unable to supply, created 
a necessity which was supplied by the addition of Mr. Joseph 
Pollock, one of the best foundrymen in the South. With a 
capital of $25,000, and having in their employ about twenty- 
four hands, this establishment ranks among the most laudable 
enterprises. The shops are fitted up with the latest improve- 
ments, among which we could mention the National Bolt Cut- 
ter and Sturdevant Blower. Steam engines of all kinds made 
to order, saw mills made and repaired, as well as all kinds of 



120 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

sugar mills, cotton presses, castings in iron and brass, and every 
kind of gearing. They manufacture the famous Alabama Cot- 
ton Press, the wrought iron friction press, and a hundred other 
specialties. 



Sash, Doors and Blinds.— In 1878 Messrs. Riemer &Knowl- 
en, seeing the opening presented, and appreciating the advan- 
tages of such an institution, established their factory. An ex- 
tensive trade throughout the State has been the reward of their 
industry and foresight. In addition to the above, the same 
gentlemen run one of the largest grist mills in our State, near 
the compress. 



The Matthews Cotton Mills Company.— In 1873, Joel E. 
Matthews, one of our most enierprising and wealthy citizens, 
started a cotton factory. In it he invested about $52,000. When 
his undertaking was about half finished he died. The enter- 
prise thus started in Selma's interest was not allowed to die; 
and on February 19th, 1876, a company was organized, which 
purchased the property for the sum of $15,000. The principal 
movers in the enterprise were Messrs. S. F. Hobbs and H. A. 
Haralson. With $100,000 capital the new company started, and 
the mill was completed under the able superintendence of Mr. 
Ernest T. Hobbs, of Biddeford, Maine. This cotton factory, 
at present writing, employs one hundred and twenty-five hands, 
many of them from the resident population, who, under skill- 
full training, have become experts. 

By this enterprise alone, to our city's population at least 
three hundrecf and fifty souls are added, with a secured support 
and unfailing maintenance. The amount paid out monthly to 
this working population, varies $1,500 to $1,800; thus so much 
is added to our commercial prosperity. The number of spindles 
in the factory is 4,584; the spinning machinery is the work of 
the Bridesburg Manufacturing Company, of Philadelphia. 
Everything connected with the concern is put up in the most 
improved style. The engine is a 125 horse power automatic 
cut-off Corliss, of identically the same manufacture as the fa- 
mous Centennial engine, and is of the best construction. Dur- 
ing the year 1878, this factory was run every day save three 
(Sundays also excepted.) As to the quality of goods turned out, 
nothing superior can be found in the South. The best proof of 
this last statement is to be found in the fact that the demand 
often exceeds the supply, and goods will soon be saleable at the 
mill, without the necessity of drummers. 

Besides our home trade in Alabama, this factory now ships 
goods to St. Louis, Cincinnati, New Orleans, Galveston, Lynch- 
burg and most of the towns in Mississippi. Principal produc- 
tions are 4-4 sheeting, 7-8 shirting and drilling. The factory 
is convenient of access, the railroad running by the very door, 
thus affording every facility to the shipper, and saving dray- 
age to buyers. The members of the company, as at present or- 
ganized, are: S. F. Hobbs, President; H. A. Haralson, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer ; Ernest S. Hobbs, Superintendent. Direc- 
tors— S. F. Hobbs, H. A. Haralson, D. Partridge, C. Turner, N. 
H. R. Dawson and E. G. Gregory. 

PRODUCTION FOR 1878. 

One hundred and eighteen and one half bales 4-4 sheeting, 
making 1,183,500 yards, weighing 384,301 pounds, 428J bales 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 121 

7--8shirtiug, making 428,311 yards, weighing 106,273 pounds; 




503,229 poimds 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHURCHES AND SABBATH SCHOOLS. 

Methodist Episcopal Church.— The friends of tlie Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church had a woodeu huildiug erected hy J, L. 
('laughton, in January, 1835, on the lot set apart by the Seltua 
Town Land Company for a Methodist church; the precise loca- 
tion was just between the present tine brick church building 
and tlie parsonage. Daniel H. Norwood James Jordan, George 
Childers, Harris Brantly and Josiah Hinds were the trustees. 
In 1836 Rev. Daniel H. Norwood organized a church in this 
buililing with eleven members, among whom were Josiah 
Hinds and wife, James Adams and wife, J. L. Claughton, Mrs. 
Nolly, Miss Eliza Nolly and Mrs. Sarah Maples, only two of 
whom are living at this time— Mrs. Maples and J. L. Claughton. 

The Rev. Mr. Norwood preached in this building to these 
few members, and those who would attend the meetings, quite 
regular, until (he Conference was induced to take charge of the 
church and provide services for them. In the latter part of 
1837, the Rev. Wra. A. Smith was put in charge of the church 
in connection with his duties at Summerfield, preaching at 
Selma every other Sanbath. This arrangement was continued 
with the Rev. Wra. A. Smith during 183'J, in the fall of which 
j'ear there was a great revival at a cam[)-meeting held near 
Summerfield, and resulted in a large acquisition to the Selma 
church, among whom were Wm. J. Norris, James A. Norris 
and Thomas W. Street, and in the latter part of 1839, Rev. As- 
bury Shanks took charge of the Church as its preacher iu 
charge. In 1840, the Rev. Wm. Moore was placed in charge. 
In 1840 the State Conference was held in Selma, and in this 



122 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

church building, Bishop J. O. Andrews presiding, and from 
this time members were rapidly added to the church. 

The following are the names of the preachers in charge of 
this church since 1839: 1840, Wm. Moore; 1841, Wiley W. 
Thomas; 1842, Wm. W. Bell and Louis G. Hicks; 1843, T. F. 
Selby ; 1844, James A. Lewis and Jas. Young; 1845, Greenberry 
Garrett, the Presiding Elder, had charge of the church ; 1846, 
A. H. Mitchell; 1847-48, James A. Heard; 1849, Thomas G. 
Ramsey ; 1850, J. W. Surry ; 1851-52, J. L. Cotton ; 1853-54, J. 
Hamilton; 1855, J. W. Patson ; 1856, B. D. C. Connerly ; 1857, 
Wm. Shaperd ; 1858-59-60, Edward Wadsworth ; 1861-62, J. 
Bancroft; 1863, J. L. Cotton; 1864-65. E. Baldwin : 1866 67-68, 
C. D. N. Campell; 1869-70-71, E. M. Bowers; 1872-73-74-75, M. 
S. Andrews; 1876-77-78, W. M. Motley; 1879, E. L. Loveless. 

The present splendid bricK church building was completed 
in 1856, and is certainly a credit to those who had it constructed, 
as well as an ornament to the city. There are about 240 mem- 
bers belonging to this church, and some 350 children attend its 
Sabbath School. 



St. PauVs Church. — The congregation of St. Paul's church 
was organized in February, 1838, and admitted into union with 
the convention of the Protestant Episcopal church in this State 
May 5, 1838. Rev. Lucien B. Wright, missionary in charge, 
presented the application, and Messrs. William Wuddell, W. 
H. Austin, S. W. Murley and Geo. L. Brewer took their seats 
as delegates from said congregation. The number of commu- 
nicants was very small. On the third day of May, 1839, the 
eighth annual convention met in Selma, and the cburch not 
being finished, held its sessions in the Presbyterian church. 
Messrs. William Waddell, R. N. Phil pot, Thomas J. Frow, P. 
J. Weaver and Geo. L. Brewer were delegates from Selma, and 
Thomas J. Frow was made Secretary pro tern, of the conven- 
tion. Rev. Lucien B. Wright continued to be minister and 
missionary in charge up to 1846. During this period the first 
church was built upon the corner of Lauderdale and Alabama 
streets, the site of the present Jewish Synagogue. This church 
was a brick and frame building, about forty by seventy feet, 
with tower, and cost $8,000, including the lot. The funds, with 
the exception of about $500, were provided by the subscriptions 
of the congregation and citizens of the town. It was furnished 
with a bell and one of "Jardine's best barrel and finger organs." 
The communion service was the gift of the "Ladies' Sewing 
Society of Annapolis, Md." Amoug the earliest members of 
the congregation during this time were Messrs. William v\ ad- 
dell, R. N. Philpot, W. H. Austin, S. W. Murley, Thomas J. 
Frow, A. G. Mabry, B R. Hogan, Daniel M. Riggs, Isaiah 
Morgan, J. R Purnell, J. M. Strong, P. J. Weaver, A. S. Jef- 
fries, W. S. Jeffries and Geo. L. Brewer On Sunday, May 19, 
l'-45, Right Rev. Nicholas H. Cobbs, the newly elected Bishop 
of the diocese, made his first visit to the parish, and confirmed 
one person. The communicants then numbered nineteen. In 
1846 Mr. Wright was succeeded by Rev. James H. Linebough. 
He continued to be rector of tlie parish until November, 1849, 
when he removed to the diocese of Louisiana. He was very 
popular, as a preacher and pastor, and under his ministry the 
church was very much improved ; its membership increased, 
and the parish ceased to be a missionary station, and became 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 123 

self-supporting. The convention of 1849 was held here, when 
Messrs. Puruell, Waddell, Mabry, D. M. Riggs and Amos 
White were delegates from Selma, 

Rev. M. F. Maiir^ , of Kentucky, was the successor of Mr. 
Linebough. He entered upon his duties Nov., 1850, and re- 
signed, on account of ill health. May, 1851. In 1852 Rev. W. 
H. Piatt, who had just come into tlie ministry and was then a 
deacon, succeeded Mr. Maury, and continued in charge until 
1855, when he accepted a call to Petersburg, Va. 

In 1857 Rev. J. H. Ticknor was elected, and continued to 
be its rector until Easter, 1856, when he resigned. The rectory 
was built in 1857, the lot having been donated by Major John 
Mitchell, and a new communion service was presented by the 
ladies of the parish. In May, 1857, the convention was again 
held in Selma-jthe delegates from the parish being Messrs. 
Samuel R. Blake, I. Morgan, R. N. Philpot, A. G. Mabry and 
N. H. R. Dawson. 

In November, 1861, an adjourned meeting of the convention 
was held in Selma. The sainted, good and gentle Bishop Cobbs 
had died early in the year, and this convention was held to 
elect his successor. The Rev. R. H. Wilmer, D. D., of Vir- 
ginia, was unanimously chosen, and has since filled tlaeepisco- 
pateof this diocese, discharging his duties with great satisfac- 
tion to the people. The church grew under the ministration 
of Mr. Ticknor, the communicants increasing from about fifty 
to one hundred. On the evening of the memorable Sunday, 
April 2d, 1865, when General Wilson, with the Federal army, 
captured the city, Mr Ticknor with all the citizens, went out 
to the lines to meet the invaders, and in the fight which ensued 
was severely wounded. 

In the conflagration which ensued upon the capture of the 
city, St. Paul's church was burned, and until the erection of a 
new building upon its site, wliieh was not completed until 1868, 
the congregation worshipped in the Dallas Academy and in the 
Cumberland Presbyterian and Cliristiau churches. In Novem- 
ber, 1866, Rev. S. M. Bird, of Virginia, was elected Rector, and 
served the church until Easter, 1872, wnen he removed to Gal- 
veston. During his ministry the affairs of the parish greatly 
improved, the communicants increasing from one hundred to 
two hundred and thirty-five. A new building was erected in 

1868 upon the site of tlae burned church at a cost of $15,000. 
This building was used by the congregation as a place of wor- 
ship until Easter Sunday, 1875, when service was first held in 
the present church building. It has since been sold to the 
Jewish congregation, and is now used by them as their Syna- 
gogue. In 1871, under his auspiccs and management, the foun- 
dations of the new church on Lauderdale and Selma streets 
were laid. The lot was given by Mr. William Weaver, and 
among the donations to the parisli were a beautiful men)orial 
cross, by Mrs. William J. Hardee, and a communion service by 
Mrs. N. H. R. Dawson, which is now used by the church. In 

1869 the convention was held in Selma, when the parish was 
represented by Messrs. William J. Hardee, Wm. Berg, B. H. 
Riggs, T. B. Roy and N. H. R. Dawson. 

Rev. J. J. Clemens, in October, 1872, succeeded Mr. Bird. 
The new church was pushed forward during this time, and the 
congregation made strenuous efforts to complete their under- 
taking. It was a great burden, and interfei*ed much with the 



124 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

growtli of the parish. In November, 1874, Mr. Clemeus re- 
signed, and accei)ted a call to Houston, Texas. The parish was 
vacant until the fall of 1875. On Easter Sunday, 1875, the new 
church having been sutHeiently completed, was occupied for 
the first time by the congregation, the Bishop of the diocese 
officiating. 

In November, 1875, Rev. Ellison Capera, of Greenville, S. C, 
took charge of the parish, and in November, 1S76, owing to the 
ill health of a member of his family, resigned. The congrega- 
tion were greatly attached to Mr. Capers, and gave him up with 
great reluctance. 

In May, 1876, the convention was held in St. Paul's church, 
when the parish was represented by Messrs. B. H. Riggs, Wm. 
Berg, N. H, R. Dawson, R. M. Nelson and Thos. Peters. 

Rev. Frank Hallam, of Georgia, succeeded Mr. Capers, in 
November, 1876, and continued his service until November, 
1878, when he resigned. 

The present church is a commodious building, of brick and 
stone, cruciform in shape, covered with tiles, gothic in style, 
with tower and pointed roof and gables. It will seat about 800 
persons comfortably. When completed, it will be one of the 
most beautiful churches in the South. The windows are filled 
with stained glass; among them are several very handsome. 
That in tiie chancel was put in by a member of his family to 
the memory of General W. J. Hardee and his wife, who were 
communicants and liberal supporters of the parish. The paint- 
ing represents four scenes from the life of St. Paul. 

The first funerals from the church were those of Col. Geo. 
W. Gayle and iVTrs. W. J. Hardee, The first marriage celebra- 
ted was that of Dr. R. P. Hanger and Miss Mary Allston, 

The parish was incorporated on the oth of May, 1857, by 
the name of " The Wardens and vestry of St. Paul's Church, 
Selma," with the following vestrymen : R. N. Philpot, Wm, 
Waddill, A, L. Hadeu, A. G. Miabry, John Mitchell, I. Mor- 
gan, W. H. Eagar, J. S. Jeffries and A. W, Spaight, all of 
whom, except the last, are now dead. Messrs. N. H. R. Daw- 
son, R. M. Nelson, J. L. Perkins, T. B. Roy, Edward C. Greg- 
ory, B. H. Riggs, Geo. O. Baker and Edward Gait are the 
present vestry. The two first named are the Wardens. B. H. 
Riggs is the Secretary and Wm, Berg, Treasurer. 

The congregation is composed of 500 persons, of whom 
about 200 are communicanls. The church is now without a 
minister, but we understand that efforts are on foot to secure 
one. Services are held regularly b> Gen. John H. Forney, who, 
as lay reader, reads the service to large and attentive congresra- 
tions The Sunday School is under the superintendanceof Mr. 
M. R. Jarvis, who, for twelve years, in season and out of season, 
at great personal inconvenience, has served the church as lay 
reader and Sunday School Superintendent with unfiaggiug zeal 
and fidelity. The Sabbath School numbei's about 250. 



Presbyterian Church. — The friends of the Presbyterian 
Churcn, in 183G and 1837, though few in the town, determintd 
to not only organize a churcia, but erect a building of their own 
in which th-y could worship. On the 22d day of Deceml)er, 
1838, the Rev. Francis Porter, an eminent divine who resided 
in the country, and had occasionally preached to the people of 
Selma, in the Cumberland church building, organized a Pres- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 125 

byterian church, consisting of the following persons : Roderick 
McLeod, Mary McLeod, R. A. Nicoll, Mary M. Nicoll, David 
C. Russell, Giles M. Ormond, Catherine Hunter, James D, 
Monk, Martha Lawrence, R. H. W. Bigger, Isabella Talbert, 
Rarali Gautt, Isabella Porter, David Hamilton, Mrs. David 
Hamilton, and Jacob, a servant of the Rev. Francis Porter. 
And just here we will say, but four of ti^ese people are now liv- 
ing-Mr. and Mrs. Nicoll, David Hamiltou and David C. Rus- 
sell — all the others have jjassed from earth. 

Arrangements were niaile for Rev. Francis Porter to take 
charge of this little flock, which he did, and by his zeal and 
perseverance in about one year a good substantial wooden build- 
ing was erected on the lot set apart by the Selnia Town Land 
Company for a church, at the corner of Dallas and Washington 
streets, on which the residence of Dr. C. J. Clark, is now situ- 
ated, and on his retiring from the charge of the church, in the 
fall of 1839, there were about twenty-five members. 

At the organization of the ct urch Robert A. Nicoll, Giles 
M. Ormond and David C. Russell were constituted Elders. 

Rev. W. F. McRea became pastor in the fall of 1839, and 
was succeeded in 1845 by Rev. Richard B. Cater, a most zeal- 
ous, faithful and able divine, and who added largely to the 
membership of the church, and to whose foresight and zeal the 
construction of the present splendid brick church tiuildiug is 
to be attributed, and in 1851 was succeeded by the Rev. A. A. 
Porter. There were one hundred and twenty members of the 
church at that date. 



The Rev. Abner A. Porter, a most worthy and good man, 

continued in charge until 1859, leaving a membership of two 

hundred and forty-eight, several, however, had withdrawn 

their membership "to other Presbyterian churches. In 1859 the 

Rev. Arthur M, Small was called to the charge of the church, 

' and continued in charge until the fatal day of the 2d of April, 

s* 1805, when he was killed in the defense of Selma, against Gen. 

^ Wilson's forces. In the fall of 1865, the Rev. W. J. Lowry 

•* became its pastor, and continued in charge until 1875, when the 

f^^Rev. Alfred J. INIorrison became the pastor Up to this time 

'■. there had been 660 persons who had become members since ttie 

*>^ organization of the church in 1838. In 1S76, the Rev. T. W. 

^ Hooper became in charge and is at tills time the pastor of the 

t church. Since the organization of this church, in 1838, up to 

u the first of January, 1879, there have been 787 persons who 



I 



have been its members, 484 of whom have either died or with- 
drawn by letter to join other churches, leaving an active mem- 
l)ership at present of 303. 

Its Ruling Elders are, W. H. Fellows, A. H. Lloyd, J. W. 
Lapsley, R. Lapsley, Ed. Woods, W. P. Armstrong, J. H. 
F'ranklin, C. W. Hooper and S. F. Hobbs. 

Deacons— A. E. Baker, M. R. Boggs, W. R. Nelson, W. B. 
Gill, C. Young, J. C. Graham and C. F. Force. Treasurer, N. 
D. Cross. 

The Sunday School has on its roll thirty-seven officers and 
teachers, and 302 scholars. The officers are, James H. Frank- 
lin, Superintendent ; W. R. Nelson, Assistant ; A. G. Parish, 
Treasurer; Thos. Driscoll, Librai ian ; Lyman Brazer, Secretary. 



Catholic Chu7'ch.— Selma, like many inland towns of our 



126 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

State, in which few Catholics were found, was visited occasion- 
ally by priests from Mobile, Charleston and Savannah. It was 
not, however, until the year 1850, that any regular missionary 
appointments were made. In that year the Rev. A. D. Pellicer 
was ordained priest and appointed to the pastorate of Mont- 
gomery and adjoining missions. From Montgomery, Selma 
was regularly attended twice a year, the paucity of Catholics 
not requiring visits oftener. Thus things continued until the 
death of the lameuted Bishop Portier. On the 4th day of De- 
cember, 1859, and in the Cathedral at New Orleans, the present 
Catholic Bishop of Mobile, Rt. Rev. John Quinlan, was conse- 
crated. The new Bishop, in the spring of 1861, dispatched 
from Mobile to Selma the Rev. I. F. Tfecy on a missionary tour. 
In December, 1861, Rev. K. J. Quinlivan, assistant to Rev. A. 
D. Pellicer, at Montgomery, visited Selma and found a room in 
Mullen & Hall's building, ou Broad street, which he rented and 
fitted up as a chapel. This had been done through the energy 
of the Rev. J. B. Baasen, who had been assistant priest ''t 
Montgomery previous to the Rev. E. J. Quinlivan. About the 
first of May, 1862, Father Baasen again resumed charge of 
Selma and neighboring places, which received his regular at- 
tention until he was relieved by Rev. D. Gibbons, iu Septem- 
ber, 1862. The Rev. D. Gibbons was the first permanent pastor 
of Selma, he having made Selma his place of residence. About 
this time a great many Catholics had congregated in Selma, 
mostly mechanics attached to the naval foundry of the then 
Confederate States. At that time the Catholics numbered about 
200. About this time measures were taken for the purchase of 
a church lot. 

In September, 1865, the Rev, D. Gibbons was succeeded by 
Rev. P. McMahon, the latter continuing as resident pastor 
until the 1st of December, 1867. Arriving in Selma on Decem- 
ber 1st, 1867, the Rev. I. J. O'Leary, by his indomitable zeal 
and attractive manners, drew many to his church, and active 
measures were immediately taken to erect a suitable church 
building on a lot on Washington street, which had been already 
purchased. The present handsome church, built of rock, 
•and gothic in style, is a proof of his successful energy. In the 
erection of this church Father O'Leary was liberally supported 
by the good will and contributions of all classes and creeds. 

On the death of Father O'Leary, on April 1st, 1874, the 
Rev. J. G. J. Crowley was appointed to Selma as pastor. The 
Rev. J. G. J. Crowley was relieved in 1877, and was succeeded 
by Father McDonough, the present pastor. In all there may 
at present be about 150 Catholics in Selma. 



The Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — This church was 
erected in 1835; Rev. Samuel M. Nelson was the first pastor. 
He resigned about the year 1840 or 1841, and was succeeded by 
Rev. John P. Campbell, whose ministration continued only one 
year. The next pastor was the Rev. W. H. Merideth, D. D., 
who served the church until about the year 1849 or 1850. At 
this time the building having become dilapidated, the idea of 
repairing it was for a while entertained, and the work was even 
commenced, which, at the suggestion of friends in and out of 
the church, it was decided to remove the old wooden structure, 
and the present brick edifice was erected. Soon after the com- 
pletion of the church Rev. S. R. Rosboro became the pastor for 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 127 

two years, when he resigned and was succeeded by Rev. L. C. 
Ransom. His ministry continued for four years, when he re- 
signed to accept a call to St. Louis. During this pastorate the 
church enjoyed its greatest prosperity, having increased steadily 
until its membership reached near one hundred. The next 
minister in charge of the cliurch was Rev. J. M. B. Roach, who 
resigned after one year to take the position of Chap.'aiu in the 
army. After the surrender of Vicksburg, Rev. L. C. Ransom 
(who was Chaplain of the 20th regiment Alabama volunteers) 
returned to Selmaand supplied the church until the autumn of 
1865. August 1st, 1871, the church engaged the services of Rev. 
J. M. Halsell for one year. The following year, 1872, in No- 
vember, the church called the Rev O. B. Chapman, who ac- 
cepted the call, and became pastor of the church for one year. 
During the next year, and until October, 1875, it had no pastor, 
when Rev. R. F. Jennings accepted a call, but was called away 
by death after serving the church only about six mouths. 
During 1876 and 1877 and the first part of 1878, the chbrch was 
closed. Since that time services have been held twice a month 
by Its flrst pastor. Rev. S. M. Nelson, now in his seventy-sixth 
year, though in vigorous health and strength. 

The church is now open for services every Sabbath, the 
Rev. Mr. Paisley preaching two Sabbaths in each month. 
During all the years of the existence of this church Sabbath 
School has been kept up, except about two years. 

The followtng persons have composed the eldership of this / 
church, viz: Robert C. Morrison deceased ; James Ferguson, ^ 
E. P. Shulibaringer, N. Waller, W. P. Reese, M. D., deceased; 
G. M. McConnico; W. M. Ridgway, deceased; J, N. Mont- 
gomery. The membership at present is about thirty, and tde 
Sunday School numbers about the same, including teachers and 
scholars. 



East Selma Methodist Church.— On the 30th day of June, 
1860, Hugh Ferguson and wife made a deed to Joseph R. John 
and others, as trustees, to the lot of ground now occupied by 
this church. Some five hundred dollars were made up by pri- 
vate subscription and a neat wo(.den building erected thereon, 
and in 1861 a church was organized in it, composed of twelve 
persons, among them William Wren and wife, W. E. Rousseau 
and wife, by the Rev. F. T. J. Brandon, who continued in 
charge of the Church, preaching once every month during that 
year, and was succeeded in 1862, by Rev. L. P. Golson, he 
preaching alternately at Benton and East Selma. In 1863 there 
was no regular minister and services were only held occasion- 
ally during the year by itinerant preachers. In 1864 the Rev, 
W. A. Montgome.ry preached once a month. In 1865 there was 
no regular minister, and but little attention given to this church 
by either ministers or members. In 1866 the Rev. N. B. Cooper 
discharged the duties of pastor, and a few new members were 
added to the church. In 1867 the Rev. R. S. Gary had charge 
of the church, and under his influence a Sabbath School was 
opened, but did but little, not more than half a dozen children 
hardly ever attending. The membership had diminished until 
there were not more than half a dozen left; but the few who 
were left proved true and faithful, and in 1869 the Rev. W. S. 
McDaniel, a most zealous minister was placed in charge of the 
church, and through his zeal and fidelity a better feeling was 



128 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

created, and since that year the following have been the pastors 
in charge: 1870, C. L. 8trider ; 1871, P R. MeCrary ; 1872, A. 
D. Mevoy ; 1873, J. W. Glenn ; 1874, C. H. Kelly and J. B. 
Cottrell; 1875, P. H. Lightfoot ; 1876, J. W. Shores, 1877-78, 
W. A. Rice; 1879, W. S. Wade, During 1873 some substantial 
additions were made to the building. The insideof the church 
building was materially improved, neat seats placed, a nice pul- 
pit erected, good lights arranged, blinds put to the windows. 
Some fifteen or twenty members of the West Selma Methodist 
church were transferred to tliis church, among them E. John- 
son, a most active worker, and soon a new condition of affairs 
were visible in the church. A corps of Sabbath School teachers 
was organized by Mr. Johnson, and now there are over one 
hundred members, wi h a Sabbath School well attended by 150 
children, and really no church jn the city is doing more real 
good than the East Selma Methodist church. The building is 
capable of seating 400 people and is brilliantly lighted with gas 
during e\fening services. The Sabbath School numbers about 
150 children. 



Alabama Street Presbyterian Church. — The Broad Street 
Presbyterian Church, in 1872, rented from James W. Lapsley a 
small wooden building situated on the south side of Alabama 
street, in East Selma, for a mission chapel, and engaged Rev. 
John T. McBride to take charge of it and conduct regular ser- 
vices in it. In December, 1872, assisted by Rev. Jas. Watson, 
Evangelist, of the South Alabama Presl)ytery, a protracted 
meeting was held in this building, resulting in the conversion 
of quite a number of persons, twenty-five of whom were re- 
ceived into the church by Rev. James Watson. It was then 
deemed advisable to organize a Presbyterian church in the 
east*^rn part of the city. On Sunday, January 12th, 1873, Rev. 
James Watson, Evangelist, of the South Atalaania Presbytery, 
assisted by Rev. John McBride, and Elders W. H. Fellows and 
James W. Lapsley, proceeded to organize the Alal>ama Street 
Presbyterian Church, with thirty-three members, among whom 
were Mrs. E. Saunders, Lizzie Saunders, Mittie Saunders, Mrs. 
Caroline Laporte, Mrs. S Curry, Mrs. Schuitz and Miss Ema- 
lena i^'chultz. Twentj'five of the thirty-three were of those 
recently received into the church during the protracted meet- 
ing, the remaining eight were those who had taki^n out letters 
from the Broad Street Presbyterian church. The organization 
was completed by the election of Joseph Hardiej Harvey L. 
McKee and Charles S. Crane as Ruling Elders, and Wm. M. 
Wallace as Deacon. Messrs. Hardie and McKee having been 
ordained as Elders in the Broad Street Presbyterian Church, 
Elder Crane and Deacon Wallace were ordained to tiieir respec- 
tive oflice". The several Elders and Deacon were regularly in- 
stalled into office. The small wooden building on the south 
sloe of Alabama street was continued to be occupied, the Rev. 
John McBride keeping charge of the church until he received 
a call from Mobile, which he accepted. In March, 1873, the 
services of the Rev. Peter Gowan, of Charleston, S. C, were 
secured, who has had charge of this church ever since that 
time to the present date, January 1, 1879, as its pastor. Soon 
after the organization of the church, its members proceeded to 
obtain means to erect a suitable building of their own, and by 
their zeal and energy soon succeeded with the aid of numbers 



HISTORY OF SEI.MA. 129 

of Christians and other good people, in raising the necessary 
means to erect a very neat and handsome churcli building on 
the northwest corner of Alabama street and Range avenue, 
which was dedicated on Sunday, the 28th day of September, 
1873, the Rev. Joseph Lowry preaching the dedication sermon 
to a very large congregation. Thus in a very few months, less 
than one year, from the zeal, energy and perseverance of a few 
men, did we witness the organization of acliurcb and the erec- 
tion of a beautiful building, in which to hold services, that is 
not only a credit to those engaged in the high trust but an or- 
nament to the city. The present membership of this cburch is 
about eighty, and about the same number of Sabbath School 
children. 



The Congregational Church, — This church was formed on 
the 12th day of May, 1872, with the following members : 

John Silsby, H. W. Carter, Anna Taylor, S. L. Emerson, 
Daniel Gantt, Antoinette Gantt, Letitia Whitman, T>. J. Smith 
Isabella Smith, Jordan Fourschee, John Lowry, Susan Toxey, 
Melviua Smith, Andrew Osborne, Mary Jones, Cheena Melton, 
George Washington, Jefferson Croom, Minerva Croom, Lucy 
Trauu, Andrew Mcintosh, Chas. J. Taggart, Julia Moore. 

Rev. D. R. Miller and H. E. Brown, and also a delegate 
from each of the Congregational churches of Marion, Mont- 
gomery and Talladega were present, and assisted in the organi- 
zation. 

The preliminary meeting was held in the chapel of Burrell 
Academy, at which place the congregation met for their church 
services until the erection of their house of worshp. 

In 1873 a lot was purchased on the west side of Lawrence, 
between Selma and North streets, and the erection of a church 
edifice was begun under the direct supervision of the pastor. It 
was built at an expense of $3,150, and dedicated October 5, 1873. 
It is a neat wooden structure, with a seating capacity of 650. 
Tlie wood-work of the interior is pine, with oil finish. The 
pulpit desk is made of selected specimens of the native pine, 
with beautiful curled grain, polished and oiled. 

The congregation was assisted in building their church by 
large contributions from the American Missionary Association 
and other friends. North and South. The bell in the tower 
was purchased by the Sabbath School — being placed there 
in 1875. 

During the winter of 1875-6 two basement rooms were built 
under the church, one of which is used as prayer, lecture and 
infant class room ; the other as a free reading room, and dedi- 
cated to that purpose February 14, 1876. The latter was for a 
time occupied by the Selma Reading Room Association, (or- 
ganized October 18, 1875) but by reason of the dissolution of the 
society the room is now controlled by the church for the free 
use of the public. 

The pastors of the church have been as follows : At organ- 
ization, D. R. Miller; November, 1872 to 1876, G. S. Pope; 
1876-7, H. W. Carter; 1877-78, Fletcher Clark ; 1878, C. B.Curtis. 

The following persons have ministered during the pastoral 
vacations: J. Silsby, Barnabas Root, J. R. McLean, A. J. 
Headen. The present membership (January, 1879,) is 88, 
A Sabbath School comprising three officers, thirteen teachers 
and one hundred and forty scholars is an adjunct of the church. 



130 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Hebrew Congregation. — On the 6th of January, 1867, only a 
few members of the Jewish faith started here a society by tbe 
name of " Gemeloth Chasodim " (benevolent association), and 
purchased at the same time a parcel of land for a Jewish bury- 
ing ground. For three years only this society was in existence. 
On the 10th of July, 1870, they converted themselves into a 
congregation under the name " Mishkan Israel " (the dwelling 
place of Israel.) For several years the congregation kept reli- 
gious services only twice a year — on the New Year's and the 
Day of Atonement. The first regular minister was Dr. Meyer, 
at present minister in Pittsburg, Pa. About one year later the 
second minister was Mr. Yaker. He, a non-believer in true 
Judaism, was only able to guide the congregation for a few 
months. After his departure a Sunday School was started by 
the deceased and generally beloved Mr. Elkan, a member of the 
congregation, assiisted by the energetic Moses Schwarz, who su- 
perintended the school, after Mr. Elkan's death, for a long while. 
The real existence of the present well-to-do congregation is due 
to Mr. G. L. Rosenberger, who took charge of the Sunday 
School in August, 1876, and conducted services on the holy 
days of the same year. Their present house of worship, the 
former Episcopal church, was rented only for a place in which 
to keep the Suuday School; but Mr. R being in possession of 
this house of worship, introduced a regular service. The con- 
gregation elected him then at once as their regular minister ; 
and as a token of gratitude they presented him last Pentecost 
with a handsome gold watch, with their wishes that the Lord 
may spare him for many years as their guide and teacher. Last 
year this house of worship was bought by the congregatibn. The 
present officers of the congregation are, Mr. Joe Meyer, Presi- 
dent; Mr. A. Kayser, Vice President; Mr. A. Jacobson, Sec- 
retary; Mr. Samuel Sterne, Treasurer; and Messrs. M. Meyer, 
Moses Schwarz, O. L. Rodenberg, J. C. Adler and Sol. Kohn. 
Trustees. A large amount of credit is due these officers and 
trustees for the great success of the last movements of the con- 
gregation. The congregation has forty contributing members. 
Praiseworthy and to be remembered is the Ladies' Hebrew 
Benevolent Association, numbering only twenty members, who 
rendered great assistance to the congregation Mishkan Israel, 
and whose labors cannot be surpassed. 

Baptist Church. — Th s church was constituted on the fifth 
Suuday in May, 1842, with ten members. It now numbers 
about 250 members. Its present otlicers are. Pastor, W. C. 
<'leveland; Deacons, J. Haralson, J. H. Williamson, A. G. 
Thompson, J. W. Hudson, R. C. Keeble and W. C. Ward; 
H. S. D. Mallory, Church Clerk ; J. W. Wilson, Superinten- 
dent Sabbath School. Among its former pastors were A. G. 
McCraw, N. L. DeVotie, Rev. Drs. Buck, Spaulding, Haw- 
thorne and Teague. 

EastSclma Baptist Mission. — This Mission was started about 
eighteen months ago by the Baptist church in West Selma, and 
has been maintained ever since, mainly as a Sabbath School, 
by members of the church. It has no pastor, nor stated ser- 
vices of any kind, except Sabbath School every Sunday after- 
noon, and prayer meeting Friday evenings. Meetings are well 
attended ; much interest is taken in it by teachers and. scholars. 



HISTORY OF SETiMA. 131 

Christian Church.— The Christian church, located ou the 
corner of Alabama and Greene streets, was organized in 1850. 
Officers of the church : P. B. Lawsou, Pastor, C. H. Lavender 
and 8amuel Wilson, Deacons. Sunday .-chool officers: C. H. 
Lavender, Superintendent; A. B, Butler, Secretary. Its mem- 
bership is about thirty, with about the same number of Sabbath 
School children. 



First Sabbath School in Selmn.— The First Sabbath School 
in Selina was orjjjanized in the spring of 1835, in the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, of which Wm. Waddill, jr., was 
Superintendent, and Mrs. Sarah Maples, Miss Eliza Nolly, Miss 
.Mary Curry, A. H. Lloyd and George L. Brewer were teachers, 
with al)()ut twenty-five scholars. This organization met with 
general approbation, and on the 4th day of July, 1835, the first 
Sabbath School celebration took place, on which occasion two 
neat and beautiful little banners, one of nice white Marseilles 
silk, with the inscription : 

Sabbath Schools was first instituted by Robert Raikea 

in Gloucester, Eng. A. D. 1782. 

SELMA SUNDAY SCHOOL. 

JULY 4th, 1835. 

"Suffer little Children to come unto me, and forbid 

them not ; for such is the kingdom of God ;" 

the other of beautiful blue Marseilles silk, with the same in- 
scription, were borne in the procession by the children. These 
banners were about eighteen inches wide and thirty inches long, 
and have appeared on several occasions of Sunday School cele- 
brations since that day. In May, 18G8, the Sunday Schools of 
our neighboring town, Marion, invited the Sabbath Schools of 
Selnia to participate with them in a picnic celebration; the 
Selma schools accepted, and a delegation of some twelve or tif- 
teen hundred of our good people, young and old, went to 
Marion on which occasion Col. W. Waddill, jr., and A. H. 
Lloyd displayed the ancient relics of the cause of Sunday 
Schools in that procession at Marion. 

In May, 1869, the Selma Sabbath Schools invited the Ma- 
rion schools to join them in Selma in a Sunday School celebra- 
tion. Some eight hundred of the good little folks and old folks 
of Marion joined our Selma schools, and on this occasion these 
two Sunday School relics appeared in the procession, one borne 
by Mrs. Sarah Maples (Col. Waddill having died,) and the other 
borne by A. H. Lloyd, the only two surviving teachers of thir- 
ty-four years before, when these little banners were borne in 
the first Sabbath School celebration witnessed in Selma. One 
of the banners is in the possession of Mrs. Maples to-day, and 
the other in that of Mr. Lloyd, the original owners, and are 
prized highly, not only by the owners, but by the friends of 
Sunday Schools in the city. 

It is not improper for us to say, before closing this article, 
that the Sabbath School thus begun in 1835, continued, and was 
much encouraged, to hold its meetings in the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church building. 

In 1837, the Methodists organized a church and established 
a Sabbath School of their own, and so did every other church 



132 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

in the town; as each church organization was formed, each 
opened a Sabbath School, until now, as near as we can ascer- 
tain, there are about 2,500 Sunday School teachers and children 
in the city. Thus showing that our Christian people are doing 
their full duty toward the rising generation. 



CHAPTER V. 

SOCIETIES. 

Fraternal Lodge No. 27. — This Lodge wae instituted and 
organized on the 14th day of January, 1828, under a charter 
granted by the Grand Lodge of the State of Alabama, at Ca- 
haba. The charter was signed by N. E. Benson, grand master; 
Robert E. B. Baylor, deputy grand master; Wm. D. Stone, 
senior grand warden, and to Edward Gautt, Geo. W Parsons, 
John T. Connelly, Hugh Spencer, Vincent R. Shackelford and 
several other brethren. 

Edward Gautt, master; Geo. W. Parsons, senior warden ; 
John T. Connelly, junior warden ; proceeded to open the Lodge 
and put it to work. After this we have no records of the action 
of the Lodge until 1838. ten years after. 

In 1838 we find the following officers in charge of the Lodge: 
Edward Gantt, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, jr., senior 
warden ; R. L. Downmau, junior warden; J. Pittman, treas- 
urer; H. Kirkland, senior deacon — the membership number- 
ing fifteen. 

1839— Wm. Waddill, jr., worshipful master; R. L. Down- 
man, senior warden ; H. Kirkland, junior warden ; J. Pittman, 
treasurer; Henry Traun, secretary ; Alex. H. Conoley, senior 
deacon; John F. Conoley, junior deacon ; Thomas S. Fellows, 
tyler — with twenty-three members. 

1840— R. L. Downraan, worshipful master; H. Kirkland, 
senior warden ; John M. Strong, junior warden ; S. M. Murley, 
treasurer; H. Traun, secretary; Wm. Waddill, senior deacon , 
Andrew Rankin, junior deacon ; Thomas S. Fellows, tyler — 
with twenty members. 

1841— John M. Strong, worshipful master; R, O. Shaw, 
senior^warden ; Wm. Waddill, jr, junior warden ; T. J. Rice, 



HISTORY OP SELMA. 133 

treasurer; Henry Traun, secretary; A. Jones, senior deacon; 
James Cante, junior deacon; Thomas B. Fellows, tyler. Dur- 
ing this year A. H. Conoley, oq the 29th of June, died, being 
the first death among the members of the Lodge, and Wm. 
Waddill, jr., represented the Lodge in the Grand Lodge of the 
State. 

1842— John M. Strong, worshipful master ; Wra. VVaddill, 
jr., secretary 

1843— John M. Strong, worshipful master ; *Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary — with twenty-five members on the roll. 

1844— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— with twenty-eight members, and Geo. W- Gayle, 
representative to State Grand Lodge. 

1845— John M. Strong worshipful master, Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— with thirty members, and Rev. James Younge, 
representative to Grand Lodge. 

1846— Abner Jones, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, jr., 
secretary— Wm. M. Lapsley, representative to Grand Lodge. 

1847— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., senior warden; John F. Conoley, junior warden— George W. 
Gayle, representative. 

1848— John M. Strong, worshipful master ; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary — with sixty members. Jesse V. Kirkland and 
Wm. Downs died during this year. 

1849— John M. Strong, worshipful master; John F. Conoley, 
senior warden ; Wm. A. Taylor, junior warden ; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary — Amos White, representative. Dues paid to 
Grand Lodge, thirty dollars, and the use of the Hall in the 
Central Institute, in Selma, was tendered to the Grand Lodge of 
the State, free of charge, in which to hold the annual sessions. 
1850— John M. Strong, worshipful master ; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— L. R. Wright, representative, with sixty-five 
members. J. H. Bogle died and Thomas B. Carson was lost 
on the steamboat St. John, on the Alabama river. 

1851— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Wm. A. Taylor, 
senior warden ; Wm. Waddill, jr., secretary— Edward M. Gantt, 
representative. John F. Lea and John K. Campbell died this 
year. 

1852— John M. Strong, worshipful master; W. A. Taylor, 
senior warden ; Wm. Waddill, jr., secretary— Edward M. Gantt, 
representative. Leroy W. Chapman and John A. McLeane 
died during the year. 

1853— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary. Amos White and Wm. Morgan died this year. 
1854— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— Wm. A. Taylor, representative, with sixty-seven 
members. ,,.,1 

1855— J. B. Harrison, worshipful master; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— W. H. Plant, representative, with sixty-eight 
members. Matt H. Bogle died on the 13th of November. 

1856— John M. Strong, worshipful mas^^er ; Wm. Waddill, 
jr., secretary— fifty-nine members. Wm. Jamison, Dr. Drury 
Fair and B. Y. Beene died during the year. 

1857— James M. Dedman,;worshipful master ; Richard Fax- 
on, senior warden; J. B. Harrison, junior warden; W. S. 
Knox, secretary, with seventy members. 

1858— James M. Dedman, worshipful master; Richard Fax- 



134 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

on, senior warden; J. B. Harrison, junior warden; H. L. 
Smith, secretary, with seventy six members. 

1859— Wm. iS. Knox, worshipful master; George F. Plant, 
secretary. 

1860— James M. Dedman, worshipful master ; A. C. Price, 
secretary — J. B. Harrison, representative. 

The lodge was in considerable financial trouble about this 
time, in consequence of money that had been borrowed to build 
the Masonic institute. T. J. English, H. H. Sumner and A. 
Kootell died this year. 

1861— Richard Faxon, worshipful master; H. C. Reynolds, 
secretary — A. J. Goodwin, representative, with sixty-six mem- 
bers. P. J. Evans died this year, 

1862— John M. Strong, worshipful master; J. B. Coville, 
senior warden ; Lloyd Leonard, secretary— Henry Gatchell, 
representative, with fifty-six members. Died— Richard Faxon, 
March 11th ; Geo. F. Plant, July 9th ; A. C. Price, June 27th ; 
W. E. Boucher, June 30th. 

1863— John M. Strong, worshipful master; Lloyd Leonard, 
secretary — J. B. Coville, representative, with sixty-four mem- 
bers. 

1864— E. M. Gantt, worshipful master; H. F. Mullen, sen- 
ior warden ; Geo. Peacock, junior warden ; A. E. Baker, secre- 
tary — H. F. Mullen, representative, with eighty-nine mem- 
bers. R. Connelly and J. B. Coville died during the year. 

1865— No proceedings. 

1866 — John M. Strong, worshipful master; James M. Ded- 
man, senior warden ; Henry Gatchell, junior warden ; James 
L. Moore, secretary. John W. Blandin and Lloyd Leonard 
died during the year. 

1867— James M. Dedman, worshipful master; Henry Gatch- 
ell, senior warden; W. T. Daughtry, junior warden; E B. 
Martin, secretary ; A. E. Baker, treasurer; H. G. Noble, Tyler ; 
W. W. McCollum, senior deacon ; S. J. Daniel, junior deacon, 
with 105 members. Frederick Avan died October 7th. 

1868 — W. T. Daughtry, worshipful master; Henry Gatch- 
ell, senior warden; A. E. Baker, junior warden ; M. Watson, 
treasurer; W. R. Ditmars, secretary; M. Carter, Tyler; W. W. 
McCollum. senior deacon; Charles H. Lavender, junior dea- 
con ; B. Jacob and J. A. Sink, stewards— James M, Dedman, 
representative, with oeventy-nine members. Wm. Waddill, 
jr., died October 2, 1868. 

1869— W. T. Daughtry, worshipful master; James M. Ded- 
man, senior warden ; J. J. McMah'ou, junior warden ; M. Wat- 
son, treasurer; W. R. Ditmars, secretary; Spencer M. Grayson, 
tyler; W. W. McCollum, senior deacon ; Abuer McAllister, 
junior deacon ; W. R. Payne, J. B. Brown, stewards; Rev. J. 
C. Waddill, chaplain— W. T. Daughtry, representative, 
with eighty-four members. Henry Gatchell died on the 5th 
day of January, and Steven Bolden died Nov. 7th. 

1870— James M. Dedman. worshipful master; Wm. W. 
McCollum, senior warden; J. A. Sink, junior warden; M. 
"Watson, treasurer; A. Jacobson, secretary; Henrj Young, 
senior deacon; J. B. Brown, junior deacon; E. B. Feagen, 
chaplain ; F. F. vVise, B. Eppler, stewards- J. M. Dedman, 
representative, with ninety-three members. E.J. Meakin died 
September 13, 1870. 

1871— Wm. M. McCollum, worshipful master; W. R. Dit- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 135 

mars, senior warden; Jacob B. Brown, junior warden; M. 
Watson, treasurer, A. Jacobson, secretary; Spencer M. Gray- 
son, tyler, Frank F. Wise, senior deacon; Nathan Kuliue, 
junior deacon ; Charles Stagle, W. R. Payne, stewards — Henry 
F. Mullen, representative, with ninety-seven members. Chas. 
M. Eftpler died May 27th. 

1872— W. W. McCollum, worshipful master; H. F. Mullen, 
senior warden ; J, B. Brown, junior warden ; M. Watson, 
treasurer; A. Jacobson, secretary; S. M. Grayson, tyler, John 
H. Vestal, senior deacon ; John A. McKinnou, junior deacon ; 
E. B. Teague, chaplain ; G. Stern, I. Wilkins, stewards — W. 
W. McCollum, representative. 

On the 8th of June, 1872, the members of the lodge went to 
Hatcher's Bluflf, on the Alabama river, and assisted Halo 
Lodge in the burial ceremonies of Robert S. Hatcher, a mem- 
ber of Halo Lodge. 

On the night of the 5th of June, the lodge room, with all 
of its paraphernalia, furniture, etc., was destroyed by fire, and 
for the time being the meetings of the lodge were held in the 
room of Central Lodge No. 18 I. O. O. F. until their own lodge 
room could be rebuilt. The work was let out as follows: brick 
work, C. M. Shelley «fe Co. ; carpenter work, Griset & Miller; 
roofing, W. W. McCollum ; cast iron, Geo. Peacock ; painting, 
H. Lewis Smith ; and it was not long before the lodge room was 
again ready for meetings. M. J. Williams died August 29th, 
and Isaac Sterne died October 23d. 

1873.— W. W. McCollum, worshipful master; J T. West, 
senior warden ; John D. Wilkins, junior warden ; M. Watson, 
treasurer; A. Jacobson, secretary ; S. M.Grayson, tyler; Jno. 
A. McKinnon, senior deacon; H.'F. Muller, junior deacon; 
E. B. Teague, chaplain ; J. H. Hill and J. J. Bryan, stewards 
— W. W. McCollum, representative, with one hundred and 
twenty members. 

In May, 1873, the building committee, composed of M. 
Watson, W. R. Ditmars, and F. F. Wise, made their final re- 
port, which showed that the rebuilding of their hall had cost 
$5,263.50, all of which had been paid. Henry S. Whitfield died 
February 18th, and Nathaniel Munroe on the 28th of April. 

1874.— J. M. Dedman, worshipful master ; W. T. Daughtry, 
senior warden , W. W. McCollum, junior warden; J. J. Bry- 
an, treasurer; A. Jacobson, secretary ; Jacob R. Brown, tyler ; 
John A. McKinnon, senior deacon; E. H. Nash, junior dea- 
con ; F. F. Wise and J. H. Hill, stewards— W. W. McCollum, 
representative. These officers were publicly installed at White 
Hall, on the Western railroad, by Past Master Jno. M. Strong, 
on the 24th day of June, on which occasion an address was de- 
livered by S. J. SafFold, and a good time generally had by the 
Masons of Selma, Benton, and some from Montgomery. Nine- 
ty-two members. A. G. Shackelford died on the 6th of Janua- 
ry, and W. R. Ditmars on May 15th, 1874. 

1875. — W. W. McCollum, worshipful master; John A. 
McKinnon, senior warden; J. T. West, junior warden ; J. J. 
Bryan, treasurer; A. Jacobson, secretary; S. M. Grayson, ty- 
ler; H. F. Mullen, senior deacon ; F. J. Hooker, junior deacon ; 
J. D Williams, J. H. Hill, stewards— W. W. McCollum, rep- 
resentative, with eighty-two members. S. J. SafFold died on 
the 12th day of June, 1875. 

Maj. John M. Strong says when he came to Selma, in 1839 



136 HISTORY OP SELMA. 

or 1840, Selma Fraternal Lodge held its meetings at the private 
residence of Jesse Pitman, situated in the rear of the present 
Commercial Bank building. Its meetings were next held in a 
wooden building south of and next to present City National 
Bank. From there the lodge was removed to a brick building 
on the corner of Alabama and Donation streets, opposite tlie 
former residence of Col. McCraw. The Masons put the second 
story on the building for their lodge. This building they 
sold to L. B. Johnson for school purposes. The lodge after that 
removed to the second story of Samuel Feldham's storehouse, 
on Broad street, south of the First Commercial Bank building. 
The Masonic Institute was then (1847 or 1848) being built, and 
when completed the lodge held its meetings in the third story 
of the building, the present court room. The Masonic school 
became so ci'owded with pupils that the lodge concluded to va- 
cate, and erected a lodge room on the second story of Amos 
Lloyd's brick building, on Broad street, which was destroyed 
by iire. Then the present lodge room was erected. 



Central City Lodge No. 305. — Was organized December 9, 
1863, under and by authority of a dispensation granted by Grand 
Master Joon A. Loder, to the following members of the«rder: 
Wm. 8. Knox, C. E. Thames, J. E. Prestridge, W. M. Smith, 
F. W. Siddons, A. J. Goodwin. The following brethren have 
served as worshipful master since the organization of the lodge : 
W. S. Knox, James Kent, B. H. Riggs, J. A. Mitchie, N. D. 
Cross, W. T. Atkins, C. M. Shelley, Geo. R. Boyd, J. C. Adler. 



St. John Chapter No. 28 of Royal Arch Masons. — On the 
9th day of December, 1846, a charter was granted by the Grand 
Chapter of the State of Alabama, then held in Tuscaloosa, to 
the following Royal Arch Masons : John M. Strong, most emi- 
nent high priest; Wm. Waddill, jr., eminent knight; Henry 
Traun, eminent secretary, and S. Fielding, John T. Connelly, 
Abner Jones, J.W. Bogle and L. W. Chapman, filling the other 
offices in its organization. In the general conflagration that 
took place in the city on its capture by General Wilson's forces 
on the night of the second of April, 1865 all the records and 
property of the chapter were destroyed, nothing escaping the 
conflagration but the charter. Therefore we have no records 
prior to that date. 

In 1865, Henry Gatchell was elected most eminent high 
priest, who held the office until 1868. when he was succeeded 
by Col. James M. Dedman, who held the position until 1869, 
when he was succeeded by Dr. James Kent, who held the office 
until 1871, when Col. J. M. Dedman was elected and held until 
1874, when Dr. James Kent was elected and held the position 
until 1875, and was succeeded by Wm. W. McCollum, who held 
until 1878, when Dr. John R. McKinnon was elected, and who 
now liolds the office. 

A. Elkin, M. H. Smith and Adolph Jacobsou have been the 
secretaries of the chapter — A. Jacobson now holding the office, 
and is said to be a most excellent officer. There are about 
thirty-six members of the chapter. 

Selma Council No. 17 of Royal and Select Masters. .-^A. 
charter was granted for the organization of this council by the 
grand council of Alabama, held at Montgomery, on the 9th of 
December, 1848, to the following royal and select master ma- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 137 

sous: Wm. Waddill, jr., thrice illustrious master; John M. 
Strong, deputy illustrious master, and W. A. Taylor, principal 
conductor of the work. E. M. Gautt, Henry Traun, G. F. 
Plant, Wiley Milton, B. T. Maxey, Leopold Steinhart, Ed- 
ward Gantt and G. Garrett filled the other offices and consti- 
tuted the body. 

In the general conflagration of the city in 1865, when Gen- 
eral Wilson's forces entered the city, the records of the 
council were destroyed, and from its organization up to that 
date we have no account of the proceedings of the council. 

In 1865. James M. Dedman was elected thrice illustrious 
master; in 1868, Henry Gatchell was elected, but died before 
he was inauguratpd, Col. Dedman remaining in that office 
until 1877, when Wm. W. McCollum was elected and now fills 
the office. 

W. T. Daughtry, I. A. McMillan and A.dolph Jacobsoa 
have been the recorders of the council, the latter now discharg- 
ing the duties of the office to the complete satisfaction of the 
council. There are about thirty-five members of the council. 

Selma Commandery No. 5 Knights Templar. — Was organ- 
ized in this city January 11, 1859, under a dispensation from 
grand master W. B. Hubbard. The following officers presided : 
sir knight J. B. Harrison, eminent commander; sir knight J. 
T. Morgan, generalissimo; sir knight J. >1. Stone, recorder. 

From that time up to Nov, 22, 1866, owing to the sudden 
death of sir knight J. L, Leonard, the records were lost. 

The following were the officers for 1866: J. B. Harrison, 
eminent commander; W. E. Beaird, general; John 
Batton, captain general; Fred Aram, recorder. 

1867 — A. G. Thompson, eminent commander; C. B.An- 
drews, generalissimo; Joseph Hardee, captain general; P. 
D. Barker, recorder. 

No further records till 1871. Officers for that year: A.J. 
Blair, eminent commander; H. F. Mullen, general; L. 
S. Redding, captain general; S. O. Trippe, recorder. 

1872 — A. J. Blair, eminent commander ; B. H. Riggs, gen- 
eralissimo; S. O. Trippe, captain general, I. A. McMillan, 
recorder. 

1873 — A, J. Blair, eminent commander; B. H. Riggs, gen- 
eralissimo; S. O. Trippe, captain general; Jno. A. McKiu- 
uon, recorder. 

1874— B. H. Riggs, eminent commander; Jas. Kent, gen 
eralis-jimo; J. M. Dedman, captain general; J. A. McKin- 
non, recorder. 

1875— B. H. Riggs, eminent commander ; S. J. SafFold, gen- 
eralissimo; J. M. Dedman, captain general; John D. Wil- 
kins, recorder. 

1876. — J. M. Dedman, eminent commander; H. F. Mullen, 
generallissimo ; S. O. Trippe, captain general ; John D. 
Wilkins, recorder. 

1877.— H. F. Mullen, eminent commander ; W. H. Mims, 
generalissimo ; S, O. Trippe, captain general ; Jno. D. Wil- 
kins, recorder. 

1878.— S. O. Tr.ppe, eminent commander; J. A. McKin- 
non, generalissimo; M. D. Cushing, captain general; John 
D. Wilkins, recorder. 

The following is a list of members of Selma Comman- 



138 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

dery No. 5 Knights Templar: John A. McKinnon, 
eminent commander; Bernard Jacob, generalissimo ; Daniel 
W. Snyder, captain general ; Richard R. Morey, prelate ; 
Isaac A. McMillan, senior warden ; David Lawson, junior war- 
den ; Garner M. McConnico, treasurer; John D. Wilkius, re- 
corder; AnsoM W. Hawley, sword bearer; Heury F. Mullen, 
warden ; Jacob B. Roth, standard bearer ; James Tracy, capt. of 
guard ; sir knight John Batton, sir knight P. D. Barker, 
sir knight Wm. T. Atkins, sir knight Samuel W. Johu, sir 
knight Jacob Krout, sir knight William H. Mims, sir knight 
Benjamin H. Riggs, sir knight Menzo Watson, sir knight Jas. 
M. Dedman, sir knight Silas O. Trippe. 

Central Lodge No. 18, 1. O. O. F. — Was organized under a dis- 
pensation from the Grand Master of the State, on December 10, 
1846, and the charter was issued by the Grand Lodge of the 
State on the 17th of. April, 1847, the following brothers being 
the charter members: John F. Couoley, Samuel Feldham, 
Enoch G. Ulmer, Leroy W. Chapman, Richard K. Chamber- 
lain. 

The following were the officers elected for the first term : 

L. W. Chapman, noble grand ; W. A. Murphey, vice 
grand ; Samuel Feldham, secretary ; W. H. Hayford, marshal ; 
Dr. Drury Fair, conductor; J. H. B. Daughtry, outer guard; 
James H. Bogle, inner guard. 

On the night of the 2d of April, 1865, the lodge building, 
with all the records, regalia, and everything belonging to the 
lodge, were destroyed by fiie in tie great and general conflagra- 
tion of the town, while the Union Army, under General \Vil- 
son, occupied the place. Therefore we have no records of the 
lodge from the date of its organization up to that date. From 
1865 to 1877, the following were the noble grands and secretaries 
of the lodge : 

1864.— S. 8. Bryan, noble grand ; J. E. McMullen, secretary ; 

1865.— S. R. Schemerhorn and Jacob McElroy, noble grand ; 
A. A. Spear and Charles Bartell, secretary. 

1866.— J. Meyer and E. J. Kirkiand, noble grand, S. K. 
Schemerhorn and A. J. Kirkiand, secretary. 

1867.— C. A. Patterson and M. J. Williams, noble grand ; J. 
H. B. Daughtry secretary. 

1868.— M. Burns and A. F. Wise, noble grand ; J. P. Arm- 
strong and J. H. B. Daughtry, secretary. 

1869. — J. P. Armstrong and C. A. Patterson, noble grand; 
Geo. L. Watson and J. H. B. Daughtry, secretary. 

1870.— Geo. Peacock and D. A. Pierson, noble grand ; J. G. 
McAuley, secretary. 

1871.— Geo. Peacock and D. A. Piersou, noble grand ; J. G. 
McAuley, secretary. 

172.— B. Jacol).and G. L. Waller, noble grand ; J. G. McAu- 
ley secretary. 

1873.— L. R. McKee and G. M. McConico, noble grand ; J. 
G. McAuley, secretary. 

1874.— D. Lawson and J. C. Bender, noble grand ; J. G. 
McAuley, secretary. 

1875. — W. A. Jackson and Johu P. Tillman, noble grand ; J. 
G. McAuley, secretary. 

1876.— L. R. McKee and H. Fox, noble grand ; J. G. McAu- 
ley, secretary, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 139 

1877.— Alleu Rice and Allen Rice, uoble grand ; J. G. McAu- 
ley, secretary. 

1878.— Geo. Peacock and G. L. Waller, noble grand ; J. G. 
McAuley, secretary. 

1879.— G. L. Waller, noble grand ; J. G. McAuley, secretary. 



Selma Encampment, No. 16—7 O. O. jP.— Was organized July 
9, 1866, the following charter members : 

Solomon K. Schemerhorn, M. C. Mayo, George Peacock, A. 

F. Wise, J. E. McMullan, Bernard Jacob, Moses Curtis. 
The following were the officers elected for the first term : 

B. Jacob, chief patriarch; Geo. Peacock, vice patriarch; J. H. 

B. Daughtry, senior warden; W. C. Mayo, scribe; A. F. 
Wise, treasurer; S. K. Schemerhorn, junior warden. 

The following are the officers elected for each term thereaf- 
ter to 1879 : 

1866. — B. Jacob, chief patriarch ; M, C. Mayo, scribe. 

1867. — Geo. Peacock and Geo. Peacock, chief patriarch;W. P. 
Law and C. A. Patterson, scribe. 

1868. — J. H. B. Daughtry and J. G. McAuley, chief patriarch; 

C. A. Patterson and J. H. B. Daughtry, scribe. 

1869.— C. A Patterson and C. A. Patterson, chief patriarch; J. 
H. B. Daughtry and J. H. B. Daughtry, scribe. 

1870. — H. S. Whitefield and H. S. Whitefleld, chief patriarch; 
J. H. B. Daughtry and J. H. B. Daughtry, scribe. 

1871.— H. S. Whitefield and H. 8. Whitefield,chief patriarch; 
J. H. B. Daughtry and J. H. B. Daughtry, scribe. 

1872.— J. G. McAuley and L. R. McKee, chief patriarch; G. 
L. Waller and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1873.— L. R. McKee and G. L. Waller, chief patriarch; J. G. 
McAuley and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1874.— G. M. McConico and G. L. Waller, chief patriarch; J. 

G. McAuley and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1875.— J. C. Bender and J. C. Bender, chief patriarch; J. G. 
McAuley and J G. McAuley, scribe. 

1876.— J. P. Tillman and Allen Rice, chief patriarch; J. G. 
McAuley and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1877.— Allen Riee and Allen Rice, chief patriarch; J. G. Mc- 
Auley and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1878.— C. A. Patterson and (J. A. Patterson,chief patriarch; J. 
G. McAuley and J. G. McAuley, scribe. 

1879.— G. M. McConico,chief patriarch; J. G. McAuley, scribe. 



Advance Lodge, No. 3, K. of P. — In 1872, on the 12th of June, 
Selma Advance Lodge, No. 3, was duly organized with the fol- 
lowing charter members: Archie Picken, Jas. C. Mitchie, John 
D. Wilkin«, Alvah L. Creelman,Wm. M. Scott, M. S. Mayuard, 
P: F. Griset, Authur M. White, Jas. Mcintosh, Michael Fitz- 
gerald, C. Lovelady, W. Vasnar, and J. L. Schweizer. It grew 
rapidly, and prospered for about 4 years, when it began to de- 
cline, and in M-^y, 1877, it surrendered its charter and asked 
for dispensation to re-organize. 

This dispensation was granted to the following 15 members: 
John D. Wilkins, J. M. White, D. W. Fitzpatrick, Henry 
Kline, Jos. Gothard, Wm. M. Scott, Jas. S. Jacob, Geo. W. 
Swits, C. C. Owen, J. L. Schweizer, A. Van Olinda, W. E. 
Darby, W. F. Brislin, E. F. Griset and A. L. Creelman. 

The lodge was re-organized under the same name and num- 



140 HISTOKY OF SELMA. 

ber as of old, and continued to grow and prosper up to this day. 
From 15 members it has increased to nearly 50. 

The following are the officers for the term ending June 30th, 
1879 : P. C. D. W. Fitzpatrick; C. C, Jas. 8. Jacob; V. C, W. 
E. Darby; P., J. L. Ruppenthal; M. F. J., L. Schweizer; M. 
E., M. Gusdorf ; M. A., J. D. Riggs; I. G., A. Isaacson ; O. G., 
P. Ryser; K. R. & S., H. L. Stoutz. 

The aim of the order is to alleviate suffering, succor the un- 
fortunate, watch at the bedside of the sick, perform the last 
sad rights at the grave of a brother, and care for the widow and 
orphan. 

Improved Order of Red Men. — The motto of this order is 
friendship and charity. 

The object, to relieve the wants of suffering brothers, to wait 
on the sick, to bury the dead, and to provide for the widows 
and orphans of deceased brothers. 

In 1878 a beneficiary fund was added to the order, of which 
any brother in good standing is entitled to participate, and 
which ensures the payment of two thousand dollars to his 
widow after his death, 

Powhatan Tribe, No. 2, of Selma, Ala., was organized Jan. 
1, 1873, with the following charter members ; 

David Lawson, A. J. Blair, Bernard Jacob, J. C. Compton, 
J. L. VVilkins, R. R. Morey, James Kent, M. D., J. B. Cowan, 
W. P. Becker. C. M. Shelley, I. A. McMillan, J. B. Roth. 

Officers Elect. — A. J. Blair, sachem ; D. Lawson, senior 
sachem ; I. A. McMillan, junior sachem ; J. B. Cowan, prelate; 
James Kent, chief of record; R. R. Morey, keeper of wam- 
pum. 

July 1, 1873.— A. J. Blair, sachem ; D. Lawson, senior sach- 
em ; I. A. McMillan, junior sachem ; J. B. Cowan, prelate; T. 
K. Graham, chief of record ; R. R. Morey, keeper of wampum. 

Jany. 1, 1874. — A. J. Blair, sachem, D. Lawson, senior sach- 
em ; L. R, McKee, junior sachem; I. A. McMillan, prelate; 
J. D. Wilkins, chief of record ; B. Jacob, keeper of wam- 
pum. 

July 1. 1874.~D. Lawson, .sachem, J, W. Smith, senior sa- 
chem ; i. B. Roth, junior sachem ; H. T. Stone, prelate ; J. D. 
Wilkins, chief of record ; B. Jacob, keeper of wampum ; rep- 
resentative to G. L. of U. S., D;ivid Lawson. 

Jany. 1, 1875.— David Lawson, sachem ; I. A. McMillan, sen- 
ior sachem, J. B. Roth junior sachem ; H. T. Stone, prelate; 
J. D. Wilkins, chief of record ; B. Jacob, keeper of wampum. 
Election July 1, 1875, same officers. 

Jany. 1, 1876.— David Lawson, sachem ; I. A. McMillan, 
senior sachem ; J. B. Roth, junior sachem ; T. J. Driskell, pre- 
late ; J. D. Wilkins, chief of record ; B. Jacob, keeper of wam- 
pum ; David Lawson, representative toG.L.of U. S. Election 
July 1, 1876, same officers. 

Jany. 1, 1877. -J. B. Roth, sachem; I. A. McMillan, senior 
sachem; T. J. Driskell, junior sachem; D. Lawson, prelate; 
J. D. Wilkins, chief of record; B. Jacob, keeper of wampum. 
July 1, 1877.— D. Lawson, sachetu ; D. W. Fitzpatrick, sen- 
for sachem ; W. P. Becker, junior sachem ; J, B. Roth, prelate; 
J. D. Wilkins, chief of record ; B. Jacob, keeper of wampum. 

Jany. 1. 1878.— Bernard Jacob, sachem ; D. W. Fitzpatrick, 
senior sachem ; W. P. Becker, junior sachem ; D. Lawson, pre- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 141 

late ; J. D. Wilkius, chief of record ; J. M. Reader, keeper of 
wampum. 

July 1, 1878. — Bernard Jacob, sachem ; D. W. Fitzpatrick, 
senior sachem; J. D. Wilkins, junior sachem; D. Law- 
son, prelate; W. P. Becker, chief of record; J. M. Reeder, 
keeper of wampum. 

Jany. 1, 1879. — I. A. McMillan, sachem ; D, W. Fitzpatrick, 
senior sacliem ; Sumter Lea, junior sachem ; B. Jacob, prelate, 
W. P. Becker, chief of record ; J. B. Roth, keeper of wampum; 
Bernard Jacob, representatative to G. L. of U. S. 



Haymakers' Oriental Order of Humility — Was organized at 
Selnia, November 7, 1878, by the election of the following offi- 
cers I 

Edward Black, W. G. S; C. A. Patterson, W. G. P ; Louis 
Gerstman, W. G. S ; jC. Shearer, W. G. V ; Joe Meyer, G. M. of 
C ; E. Lashonshy, (J. of G. 

The objects of this order is the amusement of its membership. 
"Charity and benevolence" is its motto. 



Y. M. C. A. — The Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized April 11, 1870, with P. G. Wood as President. We 
have not been able to procure a complete list of the officers of 
this most useful and beneficial association, and which has done 
so much in advancing the moral interests and charities of the 
cqmtnunity. 

The present officers of the association are : 

J. W. Stillwell, president; S. C. Riddle, general secretary; 
F. L. Pettus, corresponding secretary; C. T. Ligon, recording 
secretary. 



Other Societies. — There have been several societies in the city 
of which we have never known, nor can we learn much. 
Years ago the G. G. H's flourished in our city, but we never 
could ascertain where the society originated, or who belonged 
to it. The same we have to say of the R. A. R.'s, and especial- 
ly during the.war was it said the L. R.'s were exceedingly num- 
erous, and nothing short of a conscript office with a file of sold- 
iers could get much out of them. There was a very popular or- 
ganization existing in the city a few years ago, called the Sons 
of Malta, of which organization it was said the late Robert 
Hall, Jack Hinton, and "Uncle Johnnie" McGrath were its 
three principal officers during its existence. Of a more recent 
date, the " A.lligators" have attracted much attention, especially 
from the young folks, on the occasions of their public parades. 



iF-Auierr tti. 



CHAPTER VL 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Selma Town Land Comx)any.—'\^. R. King, George Phillips, 
Gilbert Shearer, Caleb Tate, Jesse Beene, and George Math- 
ews, (-n the 10th day of June, 1877, organized, under articles of 



142 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

association, the "Selma Town Land Company," the objects and 
purposes of wliich were, to buy and sell lands in the then ter- 
ritory of Alabama. The company organized by the election of 
George Mathews, President; and Gilbert Shearer, Secretary 
and Treasurer; and proceeded at once to issue $500,000 of certi- 
ficates of stock in $100 shares. This stock was put upon the 
markets of Mobile, Savannah, Augusta, and a considerable 
amount of it was sold in Boston. At the public sales of lands 
at Cahaba, in that land district, large quantities of the Govern- 
ment lands were bid in by this company, among which v/ere 
almost all those embraced in ranges iO and 11, embracing the 
present location of Selma. The sagacity of those men conceiv- 
ed the idea at once of the construction of a town on the beau- 
tiful level lands on the high blutf of the Alabama river, sur- 
rounded, too, as it was, with such rich and productive soil — a 
nice creek on the East, to which George Mathews gave the 
name of "Beech Creek," in consequence of the immense num- 
ber of Beecli trees found along its banks, and on the West by 
another pretty little stream, which Dr. George Phillips gave 
the name of "Valley Crtek," from the level lands through 
which it meandered; bounded on the South by the noble river, 
Alabama, and on the East and West by these creeks, the pres- 
ent site of Selma was selected. The company employed Red- 
ick Sims, who had been engaged by the Government in 
running out the wild lands i;i the Cahaba laud district, to sur- 
vey and lay off a town, and draw numerous plats or maps pf 
the same. This work was done in neat style. The company 
advertised extensively the sale of lots in tlie town of Selma tor 
sale, to take place at public auction on the first Monday in 
May, 1819. The stock of the company was proposed to betaken 
in pay tnent for the purchase of any lots bought. At this sale 
fal)ulous prices were paid. Col. King, for the lot bounded l»y 
AlabaniM, Green, Water and Lawrence streets, paid $9,000, 
Gillard Sliearer gave for the lot bounded by Alabama, Sylvan, 
Water and Lawrence streets, $11,000. The stock of the 
company could scarcely be purchased at any price, 
so rapid did its value enhfinee. The terms of this sale were 
one-fourth ''ash, one-fourth in three years, and one-fourth in 
five years, and one-fourth m seven years. Almost all the l«)ts 
laid out oij the plan of the town, were sold, excepting one re- 
served for f» public square, one for a market house, one for an 
academy, one for a Presbyterian cluirch, one for a Methodist, 
one for a Baptist, and one for a Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. The comjiany continued transactions as oiiginally 
organized, and bought and sold immense amounts of lands in 
the Cahaba land district, Jesse Beeiie acting as the attorney for 
the company. It was not very long, however, before the ex- 
citement had sui)sided, and a vast amount of notes were placed 
in suit. Thus matters stood until 1828 An additional survey 
was made, including the territory between Donation, Broa(i, 
Dallas, and the now Noi th streets, when the following adver- 
tisement made its appearance : 

Valuable Town Property For Sale.— On the fourth Monday in Sep- 
tember next, will he sold to the highest bidder, on a li!)enil credit, all the un- 
sold lands, belonging to the Selmi Town Land Company, (more than sight 
hundred acres). This sale will embrace a great number of valuable lots, and 
pleasant situations for family residences. G. SHEARER, Sec'y. 

Sehna, Aug. 21. 1828. 



HISTORY OF SEtiMA. 143 

Notice. — All persons indebted to the Selma Town Land Company, on 
original notes, given for lots sold in May, 1819, are hereby notified, that if paid 
to the subscriber, or to Horatio G. Perry on or before the ilrst day of January 
next, a deduction of 50 per cent, will be allowed them; and that Selma Land 
Company Stock will be received in payment of the above notes, at fifty dollars 
the sub-share, where only one dividend has been paid on the stock. Where 
the notes are sued on, the costs must be paid before the settlement will be 
made. G. SHEARER, Treas. 

Selma, Aug. 30, 1828. 

The company believed strongly in the virtue of Printer's 
ink, and the following notice appeared : 

Selma Town Land Company. — The survey of the lands belonging to the 
company has been completed. A plat of said lands, embracing a plan of the 
town, can be seen by calling at the store of Messrs. Shearer & Heinz, any 
time between this and the day of sale. G. SHEARER, 

Selma, Sept. 2, 1828. Sec'y to the Board of Commissioners. 

Before this sale took place the company concluded to divide 
the public square and market house lots and sell them at this 
sale. The sale took place as advertised, and for some of the lots 
quitea spirited bidding was exhibited, thesalesrunning from $1 
to $175, averaging $25 per lot. This sale closed out all the lots in 
the town belonging to the company, and in 1830 the affairs of 
the company were wound up, and the Selma Town Land Com- 
pany ceased its existence. 

Newspapers. — In 1827, through the influence of Col. P. J. 
Weaver, who was a prominent merchant of Selma, Thomas J. 
Frow, of Miffliutown, Juiiietta county, Pennsylvania, who was 
then a young man, and just served out his term of apprenticeship 
as a printer, in his native town, was induced to come to and 
locate at .''elma. Mr. Frow obtaining a few hundred pounds of 
long primer, a few brass rules, a couple of wooden composing 
sticks, a few fonts of double line and head letter, with a wood- 
en Ramage PreFS, brought these rude printing materials to 
Selma, and in the fall of that year commenced the publication 
• f a small weekly paper, 14x22, called the " Selma Courier.''^ 
Mr. Frow being a good printer, did all his work, occasionally 
assisted in the composition of the very few editorials, appear- 
ing in his paper, by several of the young and ambitious lawyers 
then in the town, among whom were Wm. T, Brooks and Co- 
lumbus W. Lea. It being something new to the few inhabi- 
tants of the town to have a paper printed among them, Mr. 
1 row, being quite economical in bis habits, charging |5 per 
year for his diminutive paper, and $1 50 per square often lines 
for advertising, rapidly accumulated a subsistence, and was 
handsomely rewarded for his arduous labors— arduous we say — 
for he, in printing one side of the Cowner, had to make four 
pulls with the lever, two pulls to each page, the platen being 
only large enough to make an impre.ssion on one half of each 
page, and consequently requiring eight pulls with the lever of 
his wooden Ramage Press to complete one paper, four pulls 
with the lever for the outside, and four pulls for the inside. 

Mr. Frow soon became popular with the people, and espe- 
cially the young ladies of the town, notwithstanding his per- 
sistent stubborn refusal to publish their poetry for them. He 
was also popular with his party, and soon elected to the major- 
ship of the Batallion, of which Gen. John Brantly was Colo- 
nel commanding. Politics ran high, and Maj. Frow took an 



144 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

active part for the Hugh L.White party, which was greatly in 
the minority. The Jackson party was wealthy, influential and 
numerous, and at once set their power to work to break down 
the Courier. Maj. Frow withstood all attacks until about 1830, 
when he abandoned the publication of the Courier. 

Bonnell & Caute soon after the suspension, in 1830, com- 
menced the publication of the '■^Southern Argus,'' in support 
of General Jackson, who had by this time "kicked up the 
eternal" by his turbulent and dictatorial course, turned almost 
the entire population of the town and country against him. 
The germs of the Whig party were rapidly maturing, the 
" Southern Argus" became unpopular, and was abandoned. 

In 1831 Maj. Frow finding himself in the midst of a strong 
party, established the "Selma Free Press," and espoused the 
cause of the opposition party to Jackson, which at that time 
had control of the county, and continued to hold control until 
the war of I860 whichbroke up all party lines in the South. 

The material of the Free Press was of "a more modern 
kind, though an improved Ramage press was yet used. There 
were no "Hoe's Press" or "Washington" even in those days. 
The Free Press was somewhat larger than the Courier, being 
printed on a sheet 22x32, once a week, and neatly, with long 
primer type. Maj. Frow continued the publication of the Free 
Press until 1848, nearly twenty years; having become rich for 
a young bachelor, he sold his* establishment to an Irishman 
by the name of Saml. M, Chapman, and retired from the art 
of all arts, and has since been living upon the proceeds of his 
honest labors while a young man. 

Samuel M. Chapman abandoned the name of Free Press and 
commenced the publication of a weekly paper called the Selma 
Reporter, which was quite a neat sheet in appearance, and con- 
ducted with ability, and very decided in support of the Whig 
party. In 1854 N. W. Shelly, Esq., a gentleman of learning, 
and a brilliant writer, became connected with the Reporter, 
and continued its publication until 1858. when M. J. Williams 
purchased the material and commenced the publication of the 
Selma Daily Times. 

In 1866 the publication of a weekly paper called the Messen- 
ger was commenced by Baldin & Grace, and was continued for 
about one year, when it was merged into the Times, and be- 
coming the Times and Messenger. Saffold became the editor 
of the Times and Messenger, and was succeeded, after his death, 
by Capt. R. H. English, the present editor of the Times and 
Messenger. 

In 1850 Edward M. Gantt and Samuel R. Siielton started the 
Southern Enterpri'<e, a weekly newspaper, which was conduct- 
ed' with fine editorial ability, and mechanically the best exe- 
cuted newspaper that ever had been, before, or since, printed 
in Selma. 

In 1853 John Hardy purchased the Southern Enterprise, and 
with a large addition of presses and materials, on the 5th of Feb. 
issued the first number of the Daily Alabama State Sentinel, 
the first daily paper ever issued in S-'lma. A daily, a tri-week- 
ly, semi weekly and weekly issue of this paper was at once 
commenced, it gained in popularity from the first number is- 
sued, and in January, 1861, there was a circulation to the daily 
of 1,000; tri-weekly, 600; semi-weekly, 1,000; and to the weekly 
about 9,000. In 1861 Mr. Hardy left the paper and turned it over 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 145 

to R. R. HarJy, a younger brother, and when the Federal for- 
ces came to Selma in 1865, the material were burned and other- 
wise destroyed by the Federal forces under General Wilson. 
This was one of the most extensive printing establishments 
that had been in Selma, supplied with power and all other 
kind of presses. Scarcely a single style of type had ever been 
manufactured, but what could be found in this office. A splen- 
did binding establishment was attached to render it of immense 
value. 

In 1867 the Southern Argus, a weekly newspaper, was com- 
menced by Robt. McKee, and its publication has been contin- 
ued up to this date. 

There have been other newspapers published in Selma at dif- 
ferent times, and for different objects, but after accomplishing 
the temporary purposes for which they were commenced, ceas- 
ed to exist; all having only short duration, it is scarcely proper 
to consider them among the newspapers of the city. 

In 1873 James P. Armstrong commenced the publication of 
a most excellent and sprightly daily, called the Echo, which 
met with great favor, but after its publication forabout eighteen 
months, it was suspended, much to the regret of many of the 
business people of the city. 

In 1870 James Shaw commenced the publication of a weekly 
paper called the Gazette, which was continued for about two 
years and abandoned. 



Public Schools. — The Dallas Academy has for years, as at 
present, stood at the head of the schools of Selma. Fifteen 
years previous to the war this school was inaugurated by those 
eminent teachers, Prof. L. B. Johnson and his wife, Mrs. Har- 
riett Johnson. They commenced the institution and controlled 
it until about the end of the war. Professor Johnson having 
died in 1854, and the health of Mrs. Johnson becoming feeble, 
in 1864 abandoned the school. The end of the war found this 
once flourishing institution, like almost everything else in the 
country, greatly injured, and we may say, abandoned. But a 
few of the old friends of the institution retained their friend- 
ship, and in 1866 the remaining trustees held a meetingaud va- 
cancies filled in the Board, but it was most difficult to obtain 
the consent of a sufficient number to serve as trustees to keep 
the Board complete; as fast as an election was held a resignation 
would take place. After constant efforts a sufficient 
number of citizens to fill the Board were elected who would 
serve, which was as follows : 

Joseph R. John, A. G; Mabry, J. M. Dedman, J. W. Lapsley, 
Geo. Peacock, Geo. P. Rex, Dr. C. J. Clark, C. M. Shelley, Jno. 
White, Joseph Hardie, Geo. O. Baker. 

This board organized by electing J. R. John its President. 
An arrangement was made with Prof. Seals to take charge of 
the school free of rent of the building, and to do the best he 
could with it. Under the charge of Mr. Seals the school did 
not prosper, and in 1868 the board placed the institution in 
charge of Capt N. D. Cross, through whose energy and untir- 
ing labor, the institution was revived very much, giving great 
hope to its friends. He organized a good corps of teachers for 
the different departments in whicb he divided the institutioD, 
as follows : 



14G HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Miss Ella Thompson, Miss Lucy A. Cobb, Mrs. H. H. 
Nance, Miss V, Fanny Tabb, Miss Zena Shearer, Miss Kate 
Woodburn, Miss Eliza Haskell, 

Under this arrangement the institution prospered, receiving 
about $2,000 from the Peabody Fund, some $2,500 from the city, 
and a small amount from the school fund of the State. During 
1869 the State Board of Education created Selma a separate 
school district,and provided for the city council, electing a board 
of nine to manage and direct a system of public schools for the 
city, the State Superintendent appointing a separate Superin- 
tendent for the district of Selma. 

During 1869 an arrangement was made between the trustees 
of the Dallas Academy and the City Board of Education, by 
Vk^hich the Dallas Academy, though controlled by her own 
Board of Trustees, was placed under the superintendence of the 
State City Superintendent and the City Board, and in October, 
1870, opened under the most flattering prospects, with the fol- 
lowing corps of teachers : 

G. M. Callen, Principal; D. M. Calloway, Mrs. H H. Nance, 
Miss E. F. Ferguson, Miss Zena Shearer, Miss V. F. Tabb, 
Mrs. Bell Blandin, Miss Kate Woodburn, Miss Lucy Fitch, 
Miss Lucy A. Cobb. 

The academy was continued under this organization until 
1873, when, in October of that year the session opened under 
the supervision of Prof. G. A. Woodward, a most excellent and 
worthy man, and a good manager. In October 1873 the session 
opened under the supervision of Prof. G. A. Woodward as 
principal, with the following teachers: 

G. M. Callen, W. W. Wilson, Miss Zena Shearer, Miss Kate 
Evans, Miss Luc^' B. Fitch, Miss Julia V. Roach, Mrs. H. H. 
Nance, Miss E. F. Ferguson, Miss V. F. Tabb, Miss Lucy B. 
Fitch. 

Under the superintendence of W. C. Ward, Esq., as City 
State Superintendent, and the City Board of Education, the 
Dallas Academy assumed the appearance of its palmiest days 
while under the control of Prof. L. B. Johnson and his excel- 
lent lady. 

In October 1874 the session opened under the most favorable 
circumstances. Some changes had taken place in the Board of 
Trustees, which was now composed of Dr. C. J. Clark, J. R. 
John, E W. Pettus, Geo. Peacock, John White, C. M. Shelley, 
P. G. Wood, J. M. Dedman, Geo. O. Baker, H. A. Haralson, 
and Jo. Hardie. The debts of the academy having all been paid 
and the institution placed upon a firm basis, with about 250 
scholars, and with the following corps of teachers : 

G. A. Woodward, Principal ; G. M. Callen, Miss J. A. Nix- 
on, Miss Nellie C. Gibbs, Mrs. H. H. Nance, Miss L. A. Fair, 
Miss Kate Peacock, Mrs. E. R. Shelley, Miss E. F. Ferguson, 
Miss V. F. Tabb, Mrs. E. J. Cleveland. 

At tlie close of this session in 1875 Prof. Woodward, the prin- 
cipal, made the following report to the Board of Trustees, which 
gives a clear insight into the condition and management of the 
academy. 

Selma, Ala., June i, 1875. 

Gentlemen of the Board of Trtistees : 

The somewhat extended report of last year upon the various depaitmentsof 
the school, will, I trust, preclude the necessity of more than a brief synopsis of 
the operations for the present year. ^ 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 147 

The session just closed has been in all respects a prosperous and successful 
one, differing from the last only in the gradual development and perfection of 
our system. 

A test of eight months has proved that the changes made at your last re-or- 
ganization were wisely conceived. The subdivision of the seventh grade into 
two distinct classes, with a separate teacher for each, was a want that had long 
been felt, and has made complete our primary department. The redistribution 
of the grades has tended to secure a greater economy of labor, and a more 
equitable division of that labor, perhaps, than had hitherto been attained. 

Your attention is invited to the following statistics : 
THE ENTIRE ENROLLMENT 

For-tjie scholastic year was four hundred and eight pupils ; the average at- 
tendance was about three hundred and fifty, and was distributed in the several 
grades as follows : 

In the High School Grade 26 

In the First and Second Grades (girls) 30 

In the First and Second Grades (boys) 20 

In the Third Grade 38 

In the Fourth Grade 5° 

In the Fifth Grade 54 

In the Sixth Grade 46 

In the Seventh Grade 41 

In the Eighth Grade 42 

Of this entire number, two hundred and forty-four children have been taught 
at the rate of one dollar per session, while fifty have received tuition free of 
charge. This statement alone will convey to your minds some idea of the bene- 
ficence of the work in which we are engaged 

Notwithstanding the prevalence of whooping cough during the winter months 
greatly reduced our lower grades, 

THE PERCENTAGE OF ATTENDANCE 
of the school at large for the year reached the gratifying average of more than 
90 per cent. In two of the grades it stood above 95 per cent. — No more sat- 
isfactory testimony could be furnished of the interest felt by the pupils in the 
work, or of the zeal displayed by the teachers to render that work attractive. 

THE CONTINGENT FUND 

The contingent fund, although the charge was reduced, has defrayed all the 
incidental expenses and left a reserve of $133.30, which sum was duly turned 
over to the treasurer. 

The rule adopted in reference to the prepayment of tuition was successfully 
enforced, only two small accounts remaining unpaid, and these, there is hardly 
a reasonable doubt, will be settled. In this connection, it affords me pleasure 
to state that the High School class paid ^^258 above the salary of the teacher, 
thus confirming the opinion advanced in the outset, that this grade might be 
made seli-sustaining. 

The average attendance of this year was as great as that of any previous year. 
The success of our system gradually commends itself to the public; old prejudi- 
ces are giving way; and to-day our rolls embrace names from almost every 
household in the city. 

A BOYS' HIGH SCHOOL. 

But it remains to complete our organization, that you should extend the High 
School department so as to embrace the youth of both sexes. The school will 
never fulfil the demands of the community until this be done. While provision 
has been made to furnish the girls a liberal education, the boys' course stops 
with the grammar department. Quite a number of boys were denied admis- 
sion into the school, the last year and the one previous, for the reason that we 
could advance them no farther. The success of the girls' class warrants the 
belief that a similar class on the other side would be self-supporting. But you 
must be the judges as to whether you are prepared to undertake the estabhsh- 
ment of .his class now. I allude to the subject to keep before your attention a 
standing want of the community, but leave to your wisdom to adopt such 
course with reference to it, as shall seem prudent and best. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. WOODWARD, Principal. 



148 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

FINANCIAL EXHIBIT. 
To the Board of Trustees of Dallas Academy : 

I have the honor to report the lol lowing receipts and disbursements for the 
scholastic year which closed on the 31st ult. : — 

RECEIPTS. 

From P. G. Wood, late treasurer $ 60 00 

From tuition fees • 1276 80 

From W. C, Ward, superintendent 5817 00 

From interest on State scrip 10 00 

From contingent fees 149 30 

Total $7809 8s 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Teachers' salaries $745° 00 

Discount on State scrip 253 00 

Stationary, etc., 6 85 

Salary of treasurer • loo 00 — ^7809 85 

Balance on hand $ 403 25 

C. J. CLARK, 
Treasurer Dallas Academy. 
Selma, Ala., June 9, 1875. 

These reports show the condition of the Dallas Academy at 
the end of the scholastic year of 1875. 

There has been but few changes, either in the Board of Trus- 
tees, or of the faculty of teachers up to October, 1878, when the 
session opened with the following teachers: 

G. A. Woodward, Principal ; G. M. Callen, Miss Kate Ed- 
mond, Miss Kate M. Peacock, Miss Grace L. Jones, Mrs. E. R. 
Shelley, J. R. McAlpine, Miss N. C. Gibbs, Miss. E. F. Fergu- 
son, Miss L. A. Fair, and are at this time the teachers. 

We can safely say that under the control and direction of 
Prof. Woodward, the Dallas Academy has been prosperous, and 
is one of the most important institutions of tlie city. As long 
is the present Board of Trustees continue to conduct the finan- 
cial aflairs, and Prof. Woodward the educational department, 
vre predict a prosperous future for the Dallas Academy. 

Other Schools. — There are other schools of a private character 
in the city, wliich are doing well, and at which the youth of 
our city can receive a thorough education. Among them is that 
of Prof. D. M. Calloway, located in the Western part of the 
city; and one conducted by Prof. Jordan J. Williams, on Broad 
street, where young men can secure a thorough preparation for 
eel lege. 

Belma does not want for schools. All classes of children can 
receive an e«lucation, whether or not their parents are able to 
pay for it. 

Wells and Water Conveniences. — Perhaps there is no location 
on this continent where the God of nature has afforded more 
abundant coriveniences for the supply of water than at Selma. 
There are sixty-five Artesian wells in the city and its imme- 
diate vicinity, furnishing millions of gallons of fresh, pure and 
sparkling water. These Artesiati wells average in depth from 
I2r)() to (i2() feet deep, and almost all of them three inches in di- 
ameter; there are three or four, however, four and G inches in 
diameter. The larger the diameter and deeper the well, the 
larger flow of water. A well with three inches diameter, 400 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 149 

leet deep, will furnish a flow of 75 to 100 gallons per luiuute. 
Some years ago, when they were first commenced in the city, 
the cost was much more than now, costing then as mueh as $3 
to $5 per foot. More recently the cost has not exceeded over 
$1 to $2 dollars per foot. The deepest Artesian well is 620 feet, 
and the most shallow 212 feet. Thus our inhabitants are furn- 
ished the greatest abundance of cool and healthy water. It is 
as pleasant to drink as if from a spring flowing from a moun- 
tain rock — warm in the winter, the temperature averaging 5 5° 
degrees, and in summer a temperature of 60° degrees, thus the 
temperature seemingly to be regulated by nature to tastes and 
wants of animal existence. The flow of one or two of these 
wells combined would be amply sufficient to force any amount 
of machinery. But as yet none of this tremendous power has 
been utilized in that way, but the immense streams of water 
flowing from them make their way to the river through brick 
culverts, constructed for that purpose by the city. 

There are about 800 of what are called drove wells in the city, 
and its immediate vicinity. The depth of these wells run from 
20 to 30 feet; they are constructed at a cost of about one dollar 
per foot by driving a common iron pipe from 1|^ to 2 inches in 
diameter into the ground, the bottom end of the pipe being 
sharp pointed, punctured around, and above the slope with 
numerous holes, seive like, and drove sufficiently deepinto.the 
ground, a common pump is placed on the top of the iron pipe, 
and thus is the drove well ready for use, affording delightful 
and healthy water, and can be placed in any part of the yard, 
house, or in the dining room, should a family desire such a 
convenience. We have been informed by. Mr. E. A. Jackson, 
who is the inventer and patentee of this mode of furnishing 
water, that an ordin*y hand, with an ordinary motion, 
through a two inch pipe, with a good pump, can draw a stream 
of from 20 to 25 gallons of water per minute. The quality of 
the water thus furnished is of the purist freestone, and the 
deeper the pipe is sunk, the cooler and more pleasant the water. 
This mode of supplying pure water to a population excells any 
we know of on the Western continent, and renders Selma cer- 
tainly a most desirable location. 

There are some few surface or dug wells in the city, running 
from 8 to 20 feet in depth, and generally aflfording an abun- 
dance of water of a fine quality, especially for washing and 
household purposes, but in the heated season is not of a pleas- 
ant temperature, being rather warm. 

Thus it will be seen that no place in the United States equals 
Selma in the way of water facilities, which is one of the essen- 
tial elements of animal life. 

In the early settlements of Selma, the population suffered 
severely, almost every summer and fall, from fevers, espe- 
cially chills and fever and bilious fevers. Then the population 
relied upon surface wells for a water supply, but after about 1850, 
when the first Artesian well was su'uk, and the populace com- 
menced relying upon them for water, these diseases, just as the 
wells were increased in number, diminished; and of later days 
a case of chills and fever, unless brought on by exposure and 
imprudence, is of rare occurrence. 

The following was the geological formation of the earth found 
in boring the well at the foot of Broad street, as given us on 
the 3d day of August, 1853, by Messrs. Read & Crow, who 



160 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

bored the well for the city, which discription applies, with a 
few slight variatious, to the formations found in boring all the 
other Artesian wells of the city : 

ist. — Clay, sand and gravel • • 37 ft. 

2d. — Blue rotten limestone • . . 53 

3d. — Sandstone 6 

4th. — Gray sand, with water 6 

5th. — Blue clay 18 

6th, — Blue sticky sand 34 

7th. — Blue clay 17 

8th. — Green sand 4 

9th. — Gray sand, with water * ' 42 ft. 5 in. 

loth. — Green and sandstone 11 in. 

nth.— Blue clay • 3 ft- 

i2th. — Gray sand, with water 54 ft. 3 in. 

13th. — Sandstone 7 in. 

14th. — Blue grayish sand, with water frequent ; beds of blue clay 

from 5 to 10 ft. thick 213 ft, 10 in 

Making the depth of the well 470 feet. Size of the bore, 6 inches ; and tubed 
400 feet deep. 

Selma, as we have elsewhere stated, is about the centre of the 
great Southern cretaceous belt, that commences about Macon, 
Ga., sweeps around, including Columbus, Ga., Montgomery, 
Selma, Uniontowu and Demopolis, passing through Western 
Tennessee, and terminating near the mouth of the Ohio river, 
and is the great cotton belt, including the celebrated cane brake 
and prairie lands. At no point, however, in this belt, has Ar- 
tesian wells been so successfully bored as in Selma. These 
wells, some of them, contain salts of iron, in solution, sufficient 
to give a slight chalybeate taste, and on this account doubtless 
possess great tonic qualities. 

Within the past four weeks Mr. E. A. Jackson was engaged 
in boring an Artesian well on the lot of Andrew J. Mullen, on 
the corner of Selma and Lawrence streets, determined to carry 
the boring to a greater depth than had ever been done in the 
city. When he had sunk to the depth of 620 feet, the depth of 
the deepest in the city, the water rose to the surface, and a very 
good flow of water was the result. He continued the bore to 
the depth of 630 feet, when, on fixing on his tubes and pipe, to 
his great delight and astonishment, the flow of water rose to 
the height of 40 feet above the surface of the earth. This dis- 
covery, no doubt, will prove of great service in the future, by 
running water into dwellings, hotels, etc., and possibly into an 
elevated reservoir to supply the fire department of the city, as 
well as for manufacturing purposes. 

We subjoin tiie following statement of the geological'forma- 
tion of the earth found in sinking an Artesian well at the cross- 
ing of Donation and Parkman streets, in the Western part of 
the city limits in 1875. 

22 feet of Gray sand and gravel. 

40 " Rotten limestone. 

2i " Shellbed. 

28 " Blue sand. 

1^ " Stream of water rose to within twelve feet of the sur- 
face hard pan, or a conglomeration of pebbles, sand and 
shells, cemented by sulphuret of iron. 

20 " Blue sand and clay. 
8 " Rotten limestone. 



HISTORY OF SKIiMA. l-'il 

20 feet Gray sand with water. 
40 " Blue saod, 
2^ " Conglomerate — very hard. 
51 " Gray sand. 
2 *' Sandstone — conglomerate. 
88 •• Alternate beds of blue and gray sand. 

337 

The deeper these wells are sunk the warmer temperature the 
water is found. For instance the well ou Sylvan street in April 
stood at 64 degrees, while the one at Mr. Mullen's, 680 feet 
deep on the same day stood at 70 degrees. The surface well 
water on the same day, 26 feet deep, was 60 degrees. 



Selma Cemeteries. — The first interment made at this place 
was in 1816, of the body of a white man taken out of the river 
found drowned and lodged against a willow tree, supposed to 
have been a trader on the river. This body was pulled up on 
the bank with ropes, by the few inhabitants then living here. 
A plain common hole was made in the ground about where the 
corner of the present store of C. W. Hooper & Co. stands, and 
the body put in it. 

From 1818 up to about 1828, a place on the bank of the river 
just East of the ferry, now known as Montgomery Hill, was 
used as a burying ground. 

About 1830 the "Selma Town Land Company," having loca- 
ted the lots destined for the several churches, several persons 
were buried on the Presbyterian and Methodist church lots. 

About 1833 a place was selected where now is situated the 
West Selma cemetery, and has been used since as the burying 
ground of the place, and in which some of the most eminent 
men of this or any other State, have been intered. We need 
only mention such namesas Hon. Wm. M. Murphy, Geul. W. 
J. Hardee, and P. J. Weaver, and we could mention others 
as eminent, whose remains now rest in this sacred place. 

It is deeply to be regretted that a more systematic regulation 
was not adhered to in the early days of this- cemetery. It would 
seem, from its appearan(;e, that each grave was dug without re- 
gard to order or regularity, the result is we have no beautiful 
walks and avenues through the grounds. Of late years, however, 
the good ladies of the city have greatly remedied this woful 
neglect in the early era of the cemetery. In 1877 the city pur- 
chased additional lauds joining on the Southwest from the es- 
tate of E. 8. Jones, which has been beautifully laid out into 
nice wide walks, and in lots of various sizes to suit the wishes 
and wants of the inhabitants, and we predict in years to come 
it will be equal, if not superior in appearance to any cemetery 
in the State. 

In this cemetery a large number of the Confederate dead were 
laid, especially those killed at Selma on the 2d day of April, 
1865, by Gen. Wilson's forces. Over these dead the Ladies' 
Memorial Association of Selma have erected a splendid artistic 
structure-in the shape of a monument, and on the 26th day of 
every April is the scenes of devotion by the almost entire popu- 
lation to the "Lost Cause" to be witnessed. 

In 1854 the city purchased a large lot in East Selma for the 
purpose of a cemetery, and enclosed it, but was used but little 
until about 1860, when the small pox prevailed so fatally among 



152 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

the black population of the city, when it was used almost 
altogether for the interment of the blacks. 

During the war the largest number of Confederate soldiers 
who died in the city were buried in the East Selma cemetery. 

In 1865 the few Jews then of the city made the selection of a 
nice lot of about 4 acres in East Selma, for the purpose of a 
cemetery for their dead. The lot was neatly enclosed, but as 
yet few interments have been made in it. 

Banks of Selma. — The first bank that issued bills for general 
circulation established in Selma was "The Real Estate Bank of 
South Alabama," in 1837, with a capital of $500,000, based upon 
real estate, of which Gilbert Shearer was President, and R. R. 
Nance cashier. A complete description of this bank, with a 
list of its stockholders, will be found under our general history 
of Selma. 

The next bank that issued bills for general circulation was 
the "Commercial Bank of Alabama," in 1856, under the pro- 
visions of a special act of the State Legislature, with a capital 
of $500,000, and the issues based upon gold and silver, of which 
Wm. J. Norris was President, from its organization until the 
bank ceased to exist after the war. W. T. Hatchett, Thomas 
W. Street, and Thomas C. Daniels were its different cashiers. 
This was one of the most solvent banks that could have been 
established. Such men as Col. Wm. P. Molett, P. J. Weaver, 
Clem Lanier, F. S. Bectou, Henry H. Ware, and Col, N. H. R. 
Dawson, being among its stockholders. But like almost every 
other institution in the State, its assets became merged in 
Confederate securities; the Confederate Government having 
borrowed its specie capital, at the fall of the Confederacy in 
1865, the capital of the bank was worthless. But in justice to 
the stockholders we can say, that every dollar of the bills of 
this bank were redeemed, and not a dollar was ever lost by the 
bill-holders. 

The next bank that issued bills for general circulation was 
the "Bank of Selma," established in 1857, under a special act 
of the State Legislature, with a capital of $300,000, based upon 
gold and silver, with Washington M. Smith its first President, 
and Charles Lewis, cashier. At the commencement of the war 
Charles Lewis was its President, and Ro Lapsley its cashier. 
This, also, was a solvent and sound bank, but like the Com- 
mercial Bank, during the war its capital became merged into 
Confederate securities, and with the fall of the Confederacy in 
1865, the bank ceased to exist,and its bills were finally comprom- 
ised and redeemed. 

In 1866 the First National Bank of Selma was organized un- 
der the present National Bank law, with a capital of $100,000, 
based upon the hypothecation of United States bonds, with tlie 
Secretary of the National Treasury, John M. Park man. Presi- 
dent, and C. B. Wood, cashier. Tliis bank engaged at once in 
cotton speculation; buying cotton at 30 and 35 cents, and forced 
to sell the same at 18 and 20 cents, soon brought trouble upon 
it and its President. There was a large amount of money bo- 
longing to the United States in its vaults at the time, which 
had been deposited there by the collector of Internal Revenue, 
the United States Marshal, the Clerk of the United States 
Courts, and had it not been for the unwarranted intermeddling 
by Gen. Wager Swayne, who was in command of this district. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 153 

there never would have been a dollar lost, or any trouble given 
to anyone. But Gen. Swayne ordered an officer and a squad 
of soldiers to take possession of the bank, and arrest its Presi- 
dent, which was done. The President, Parkman, was sent to 
Cahaba jail, but escaping from custody, run and jumped into 
the river at that place and was drowned. Finally the Secretary 
of the Treasury appointed Col. C. ("adle receiver, and the bank 
wound up, the Government getting every dollar it owned in 
the bank, and the bill-holders settled with. The only losers by 
the transaction were the private depot^itors. 

The next bank organized in Selma that issued bills was the 
present National Bank in 1870, under the provisions of the 
present National Banking law based upon the hypothecation of 
United States bonds with the Secretary of the I^ational Treas- 
ury, with W. P. Armstrong as President, and Walter Love as 
its cashier, with a capital of $100,000, and increased from time 
to time until its present capital is $300,000. This bank, it seems, 
has been prudently managed, and in consequence, has proven 
profitable to its owners. 

The first regular Exchange Brokerage office ever opened in 
Selma, was by Butler & Keith, in 1852, who did a most pro- 
fitable business for several years, but finally engaged in outside 
speculations, and the consequence was a failure in their busi- 
ness. 

In 1853 Sayre, Cook & Co. opened an Exchange and Broker- 
age business in the city, and did a large business until 1855, 
when Col. Cook died, and the business was wound up. 

The Selma Savings Bank was organized in 1870, with a capi- 
tal of $200,000 under an act of the Legislature of the State, but 
had no authority to issue bills. A. G. Stollenwerck, President, 
and N. D. Cross, cashier. The business of this bank was deal- 
ing in exchange and receiving deposits, and its stockholders 
are among the most substantial and responsible men of the 
city. So well has this bank been managed that its private de- 
posits have run up to over $400,000 on several occasions. The 
name has recently been changed from that of the Savings Bank 
of Selma to "The Commercial Bank of Selma," with 
11. M. Nelson, President, and A. E. Baker, cashier. 



Health Statistics. — We have been furnished by Dr. Benj. H. 
Riggs, Health Officer of the city, with the following extract 
from a report he made to the Board of Health, showing the 
Health Statif^tics of the city for a period of 29 months, from 
August 1, 1871, to January 1, 1874, which will compare favora- 
Vily with any place in the Union, either North or South. Dr. 
Riggs says : 

The river in the summer gets very low and exposes much of its bed to the 
drying effect of the sun's rays; and, in my opinion, this low stage of the river 
corresponds with the greatest death rate. 

The region of country in which Selma is situated, according to Gray's Atlas, 
is subject to an annual rain-fall of 55 inches ; the mean temperature through 
the year is 66 degrees ; for the summer alone it is 82 degrees ; for the winter 50 
degrees; thus presenting a difference between summer and winter of thirty-two 
degrees ; this is a wider range than in some other sections of our country and 
less than others. One would infer from the above description that we had here 
a fine agricultural country, but also a sickly one ; and such is, in the main, the 
truth. We have here an abundance of the factors of malaria; and our mor- 
tality is caused by malarial diseases to a greater extent than any other. I main- 



154 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

tain that &elma, for several years, can show fewer deaths per thousand of popu- 
lation than the surrounding country. Selma can be made a very healthy place; 
for the laSt two years it has been more healthy than heretofore ; there have 
been no epidemic tendencies at all , no prevailing types of disease ; cholera and 
yellow fever h^ve both been near us, but there have been no cases in the city. 
I attribute our improved condition to the greater care and attention to general 
and local hygeine bestowed both by the municipal authorities and the citizens 
under the instructions of the Board of Health. We have not yet done as 
much as the laws of health require, although probably as much as our present 
financial condition authorizes. 

I believe we could maintain a perfect freedom from epidemics and secure a 
very low death rate by a strict adherence to the internal hygiene of cities now 
known. I am satisfied that malaria, be it what it may, is of a heavy nature and 
does not operate far from its source ; its area of influence is circumscribed by 
a few feet. From this belief I draw the rule that any city, town, or country 
settlement, even in the malarial regions, can maintain healthfulness by atten- 
tion to the laws of health, notwithstanding the disadvantages of their location. 
One of the inseparable conditions to this is a perfect system of sewer or sur- 
face drainage; water must run off rapidly ; there mus". be no sodden earth al- 
lowed to dry under the sun's heat 

The population of Selma in this report is put down at 8000, which is about 
1511 more than reported in the census of 1870. It was believed, as this census 
was taken in summer, it was not correct, and it is known that the population 
increased since then ; the census of 1870 gives a population of 6429. By a late 
census of the children of the city taken for school purposes, there were found 
2095 children ; thus, by the usual rule of one child to every four adults, which 
is a safe calculation, we get a population of over 8000. I divide this 8000 into 
3600 whites and 4400 blacks, giving 800 surplus to the blacks. The whites 
are generally professional men, farmers, merchants and their families ; the 
blacks are servants and small traders of various sorts. 

MORTUARY STATISTICS. 

This report is taken from the Mortuary Records of Selma, which were kept 
for the last five months of 1871, by the late Dr. C. F. Fahs, and for the years 
1872 and 1873, by myself. There is a large number put down as "unknown ;" 
these were names gotten by me from the undertakers, and there having been 
no death certificate furnished, there diseases were not known, though I could 
by inquiry ascertain their race or color. I have also inc'uded in this report, 
and which, if left out, would have lowered materially our ratio per thousand of 
deaths, sixteen cases of still-born children; thirteen abortions, and eleven 
deaths from old age, making fifty ; besides five deaths from gun-shot wounds, 
three from fracture of skull, and one from injuries by fall. 

Diphtheria, 13; .Occident (falls from horse and tree,) 2 ; Opium (mistake,) i ; 
Febris Hoemorrhagica Malafia, 8 ; Trismus Nascentium, 10; Pertussis. 13; 
Debilitas, 5 ; Apoplexia, I ; Catarrhus, i ; Strictura, i ; Convulsio Puerpera- 
rum,2; Eyrsipelas, i; Vulnus Scopeticum, 5; Ambustio, 4; Diarrhoea Acuta, 12; 
Meningitis Simplex, i ; Asphyxia (by drowning), 3 ; Peritonitis, i ; Melaena, 
1, Hydrocephalus,!; Feljris Remittens, 8 ; Cerebritis, 5; Scald, i ; Conges- 
tio Abdominalis, 4 ; Syphilis Hereditarius, 4; Marasmus, 20 ; Dysenteria, 8; 
Cholera infantum, 7; Spasmus, 11; Enteritis, 5 ; Congestio Medul. Spinal, i; 
Phthisis Pulmonalis, 45 ; Dentitio, 3 ; Febris Typhoides, 13 ; Colica Pictonum, 
2; Congestio Cerebri, 12; Natus Mortuus, 16; Abortus, 13; Senectus, 11; 
Febris Cerebro-Spinalis, 35; Hydrops, 11; Febris Congestivus, 9; Fractura 
Cranii, 3 ; Tabes Mesenterica, 2; Congestive Chill, 17; Bronchitis, 7 ; Metri- 
tis, 3 ; Pheumonia, 21 ; Pneumonia Tyjjhoides, 4 ; Laryngismus Stridulus, 1; 
Febris Typho, Malatial, 2; Pericarditis, i ; Atelectasis Pulmonum, i; Ramol- 
lismenj Cerebri, I ; Delirium Tremens, i ; Htematamesis, i ; Carditis Rheuma- 
tica, I ; Meningitis Tuberculosa, 2; Febris Gastricus, 2 ; Hepatitis, i ; Hydro- 
thorax, I ; Abscessus Hepatis, i ; Epilepsia, 1 ; Hrtmorrhagia Post Partum, 
2; Morbus Brightii, I ; Scarletina Auginosa 3; Dyspepsia Atonica, i ; Dysen- 
teria Typhoides, i; Congestio Pulmonum, i; Abscessus Cerebri, i; Morbus 
Hepatis, i ; unknown, 83. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 155 

RECAPITULATION. 

Total number as above 5^6 

Whi'es 198 

Blacks 306 

Color not stated 2 

The mean mortality tor twenty-nine months was 17 13-29 per month. 
Of the 506 above given, 243 were under ten years of age, or nearly one-half. 
The number of deaths for each month is shown by the following tabular 
statement : 



January , , 
February . 
March . , 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July. . . 
August . . 
September 
October . , 
November , 
December . 



871. 


1872. 


1873. 


Total. 


— 


m 


II 


26 


— 


16 


10 


26 


— 


12 


10 


22 


— 


20 


15 


35 


— 


24 


13 


37 


— 


29 


22 


51 


— 


26 


20 


46 


II 


27 


18 


56 


21 


31 


25 


77 


15 


21 


19 


55 


15 


10 


II 


36 


8 


18 


13 


39 



70 249 187 506 

Deaths from phthisis pulmonalis (consumption). 

Total number 4S 

Whites 15 

Males, white 10 

Females, white 5 

Blacks 30 

Males, black 18 

Females, black 12 

Ages range from four months to 78 years. 

Mean of ages of both races 30 16-45 years. 

" of ages of blacks 34 15-29 " 

" of ages of whites " 35 11-14 " 

The greatest number of deaths from this disease was in September, and next 
in October March, April, and ]\i\y. 

Ratio of deaths per 1000 of population 5f 

" " " " " " whites 4 1-6 

" " " ' blacks 6 9-11 

There were nearly twice as many deaths among the neg.oes as among the 
whites ; it also preponderated among the males of that race. In the white race 
the largest mortality is in the females. 

This may be due to the life of labor, exposure, intemperance and neglect of 
sanitary precautions being greater in the males than the females of the black 
race ; the latter leading a more indoor life as house servants, wash-women, etc., 
while in the white race, the greater mortality among the females maybe due to 
the debility resulting from maternity and lactation. 

Our climate is too humid and malarious to be a good place of residence for 
consumptives. 

DEATHS FROM DIPTHERIA. 

Total number 13 

White II 

Black 2 

White, females .• 6 

White, males 5 

Black, females 2 

Black, males o 

This would indicate that this disease is more common to the whites in tlie 
proportion of over 5 to i ; and more prevalent among females than males of 
both races. 



156 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

DEATHS FROM CEREBRO-SPINAL FEVER (iMENINGETIS.) 

Total number 35 

White 13 

Blacks 22 

White, females 7 

White, males 6 

Black, females 10 

Black, males , 12 

This disease, the reverse of diptheria, is more fatal to the black race in the 
proportion of nearly two to one ; and about equally divided between the sexes; 
an excess of one in favor of the males. 

Ages range in the whites from two months to 30 years. 

Ages range in the blacks from six months to forty years. 

DEATHS FROM MARASMUS (WASTING-AWAY.) 

Total number 20 

White 7 

Black • 13 

White, male 5 

White, female ^ 3 

Black, male , 9 

Black, female 4 

Over twice as many males as females ; 2^ times as many. 

DEATHS FROM OLD AGE. 

Total number IX 

White 7 

Black , 4 

White, females • • • 5 

White, males • 2 

Black females 3 

Black, males i 

Eight females and only 3 males ; nearly three times as many females as males. 

Ages range from 74 years to 91 years. 

STATEMENT OF AGES, ETC. 

Female, white, 74 years. North Carolina; female, white, 74 years. North 
Carolina; female, whites 84 years, North. Carolina ; female, wliite, 79 years, 
South Carolina ; female, white, 80 years, Virginia ; male, white, 82 years. 
North CaroHna ; male, white, 84 years, Ireland ; female, black, 80 years, Vir- 
ginia ; female black, 90 years, Virginia; female, biack, 91 years. North Caro- 
lina ; male, black, 78 years. North Carolina. 

It may be that the fact that inen are compelled to be out earlier in the morn- 
ing, and oftener in the night, thus exposing them to the influence of the ma- 
larious poison wlien most operative, accounts for tl.e lewer of them reaciiing 
an old age than of the females ; though, as seen above, more male infants die o 
marasmus (inanition) than females. — The mean of ages, as above, is 81 6-1 1 
years. 

Take the monthly average of mortality as shown by the above tables as 
17 13-29, and for the year we have an average annual mortality of 209 in round 
numbers : this gives us a mortality of 26^ per 1000 of our population. Of the 
299 annual mortality the whites stand to the blacks as 198 to 306 in the whole 
mortality of 506 ; leaving out two not stated. This gives an annual average 
mortality of whites of 81 ; and oTblacks 126. The mortality per 1000 of the 
white population, 3600 is thus stated at 22*; per 1000 of blacks 4400 it is 287-11. 
Thus we have 

Annual mortality, 209 

Ratio of deaths per 1000 of population, 28i 

Ratio of deaths per rooo whites ■ 22J 

colored 28 7-11 

This, I submit, is a verv good showing for Selma, and I believe the items on 
which it is based are as accurate as u.sual. 

.^ccording to the report of the Registrar General of England, for 1873, "the 
mortality in London averaged 21 per 1000 during the year;" in different dis- 
tricts of the city it ranged from 15 to 29 per 1000. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 157 

Notwithstanding our malarious surroundings, with a judicious expenditure of 
money, and an enlightened compliance with hygienic laws, we could have a 
very healthy city. One of the prime factors now wanting, m this consummation, 
is an abundance of home-made and home-raised food, with a cheap priced and 
abundant supply of fresh fish and oysters. 

We mainly suffer from the various manifestations of malarious poisoning ; 
congestive, bilious and intermittent fevers prevail ; and occasionally some ma- 
larial hasmatura (hsemorrhagic malarial fever). There were twenty-six deaths 
from congestive chills and congestive fever (17 and 9) and only 8 deaths from 
hematuria. The deaths from malarial diseases is small, as they are amenable 
to treatment ; and though our citizens are more or less under the influence of 
the malarial poison all the time, yet they but seldom, proportionately, die from 
its effects. Selma has never been visited by more than two epidemics ; in 1853 
the Yellow Fever prevailed, and in 1865 the Small-Pox ; both of the diseases, 
Yellow Fever and Cholera, have prevailed near us, but have not been here. 
The Epizootic prevailed here in the winter ol I872, and was accompanied by 
an Influenza among the people, which was very prevalent and characterized by 
great nervousness, prostration, neuralgias and dyspeoea, but was not at all fa- 
tal. BENJ. H. RIGGS, M. D. 



Death and Birth Statistics. — The following report was made 
by Dr. Walter P. Ree^e, aauitary superintendent and registrar 
of vital statistics to the Board of Health for the year 1876 : 

DEATHS AND BIRTHS FOR THE YEAR 1876. 

Deaths, whites — January, 4; February, 6; March, 2; April, 4 ; 
May, 4 ; June, 6 ; July, 7 ; August, 8 ; September, 7 ; October, 3; 
November, 5 ; December, 6; total, 62. Mulattoes— January, 4; 
February, 3 ; March, 4; A.pril, 4; May, 3; June, 3; July, 7; 
August, 10; September, 5 ; October, 4; November, 2; Decem- 
ber, 3; total, 52. Blacks— January, 4; February, 2; March, 7; 
April, 2 ; May, 3; June, 4; July, 6; August, 5 ; September, 7; 
October, 5 ; November, 8 ; December 9 ; total, 53. 
'Ten outside corporation, 63-10—53. 

Births, Males, white — January, 3; February, 3; March, 3; 
April, 2; May, 0; June, 0; July, 5; August, 5; September, 8; 
October, 6 ; November, 6; December, 7; total, 48. Females, 
white— January, 6; February, 6; March, 2; April, 3; May, 6 ; 
June, 4; July, 3; August, 6; September, 0; October, 2; No- 
vember, 3 ; December, 6 ; total, 47. Males, mulattoes— Jan- 
uary, 2; February, 2; March, 1; April, 2; May, 2; June, 4; 
July, 3; August, 3; September, 2; October, 3; November, 2; 
December, 0; total, 26. Females, mulattoes — January, 2; Feb ■ 
ruary, 2; March, 4; April, 3; May, 2; June, 3; July, 2; Au- 
gust, 3; September, 3; October. 4; November, 4; December, 1 ; 
total, 33. Males, black-January, 3; February, 1; March, 
3; April, 4; May, 4; June, 6 ; July, 1; August, 2; September, 
6; October, 2 ; November, 4 ; December, 6 ; total, 42. Females, 
black — January, 4; February, 2; March, 2; April, 2; May, 1 ; 
June, 2; July, 5; August, 5; September, 7; October, 8; No- 
vember, 2; December, 2; total, 42. 

Population— whites, 3,500 ; colored, 4500— Total, 8000. 

Ratio per 1000, deducting still-born, 16-87 ; ratio per 1000 from 
all causes, including still-born, 20-85; one child born to each 
34-78 of entire population. One death to each 64-15 of entire 
population. 

COMPAPATIVE mortality. 

1871-72, ratio per 1000, 25-57 ; 1873, ratio per 1000, 24-37 ; 1874, 
ratio per 1000, 21-50 ; 1875, ratio per 1000 18-40 ; 1876, ratio per 
1000, 10-87. W. P. REESE, M. D., 

S. S. and R. V. S. 



158 



HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 



This report is worthy of close inspection. It will be seen that 
during that year there were more deaths among the whites in 
the months of July and September, and more births during the 
months of January, February, November and December. The 
month of August was the most fatal to the mulattoes, and most 
births in June and October. With the blacks the month of De- 
cember was the most fatal, and most births during September 
and October. Certainly these statistics, both as to deaths and 
births, will compare favorably with those of any other place on 
the continent. Selma has fewer deaths and more births, ac- 
cording to population, than any other place in either South 
or North. 



The Cotton Trade of Selma. — We can safely say that Selma is 
surrounded by the best cotton producing country in the world; 
the climate, seasons and soil being peculiarly adapted to its pro- 
duction, which advantages have not been overlooked nor neg- 
lected by the enterprising planters who have and are now in- 
habiting this fertile region. The United States census of 1870 
shows that Dallas county produces more bales of cotton than 
any county in Alabama. 

We have, at much labor, endeavored to ascertain the number 
of bales of cotton received at Selma each season, and its average 
price from 1820 to 1877, including a period of 57 years, and our 
labors give us the following result. It may not be accurate to 
a figure, but it assimulates very near correctness, and therefore 
may be relied upon : 



No. Av. 

Year Bales Price. 

1820 4 000 20c 

1829 4 000 9e 

1830 5 000 lOe 

1831 6 000 10c 

1832 7 000 9c 

1833 8 000 lie 

1834 10 000 lie 

1836 12 000 13o 

1836 12 000 17c 

1837 13 000 19c 

1838 14 000 lie 

1839 10 000 lie 

1840 15 000 14c 

1841 17 000 12c 

1842 19 000 8c 

1843 19 000 7c 

1844 1:2 000 10c 

1845 27 000 lOo 

1846 23 000 lie 

1847 29 000 lie 

1848.... 31 000 lie 

1849 27 000 13c 

1850 32 000 14c 

1851 30 000 15c 

1852 32 000 16c 



No. Av. 

Year. Bales. Price. 

1853 32 000 13e 

1854 43 000 9e 

1855 45 000 10c 

1856 48 000 12c 

1857 49 000 lie 

1858 52 000 9c 

1859 58 000 12c 

1860 62 000 13c 

1861 64 000 18c 

1862 58 000 18c 

1863 41 000 20c 

1864 37 000 19c 

1865 38 000 30c 

1866 59 000 ' 15c 

1867 63 000 18c 

1868 62 000 13c 

1869 66 000 12c 

1870 69 000 15c 

1871 70 000 12c 



1872 70 000. 

1873 71 000. 

1874 79 090. 

1875 99 000. 

1876 87 000. 

1877.. 91000. 



lOc 
10c 
lie 
10c 
10c 
10c 



Qenl. Lafayette in Selma.— In 1825 the whole country re- 
ceived the joyful news that this distinguished Frenchman and 
friend of the country, and who had rendered the United States 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 159 

such noble services in her Revolutionary struggle, was to visit 
the country, and especially so was this news received by the 
people of Selma, when it was ascertained that he would call at 
Selma on his visit down the river. 

A steamboat was chartered to carry him from Montgomery 
to Mobile, and the understanding was that a cannon was to be 
fired when he landed in Selma, and another when he left. John 
Adams and a few others wishing to have a little sport, antici- 
pated the arrival of Lafayette by firing a cannon off in the 
canebrake near the lauding, which caused all Selma to rush to 
the spot, to see the bosom friend of George Washington. The 
country people were also hurrying to town to get a peep at the 
great Frenchman, when the booming report of another cannon 
indicated the departure of the boat. Several persons then turn- 
ed their course and hastened down to Cahaba, carrying the joy- 
ful news that Lafayette had passed Selma and would soon be 
there. A large multitude stood on the bank of the river at Ca- 
haba until late at night, waiting for the boat to heave in sight, 
but was finally doomed to go home without "seeing the ele- 
phant." 

However, in about two days after the steamer "Charles Carroll, 
of Carroltoti," hove in sight of the landing at Selma, and the 
booming of cannon from the decks, ' indicated that Lafayette 
was on board. An immense concourse of people were assembled 
at the landing, who rent the air with shouts as the hero walked 
out on the plank to the land. A great lunch had been arranged 
at "Woodall's Hotel," at the Southeast corner of Green and 
Water streets, now occupied by Piminski, as a variety store, 
where the committee. Col. W. R. King being its chairman, 
conducted the great Frenchman. The lunch was enjoyed with 
great gusto for about one hour, when the distinguished visitor 
returned to the boat, and another gun was discharged as the 
craft floated off into the river with the distinguished passenger. 



Selma Guards. — Selma Guards were organized in Fireman's 
Hall, in 1S73, by the election of J. M. Dedmau, captain ; S. O. 
Trippe, first lieutenant ; T. C. Ferguson, second lieutenant; 
J. J.Clements, chaplain; Dr. J. P. Furniss, surgeon; H. Cassin, 
quartermaster, E. H. Hobbs, orderly sergeant; J. S. Bos- 
worth, second sergeant; M. Woolsey, third sergeant; 
H. Andrews, fourth sergeant; L. B. Frank- 
lin, fifth sergeant; George Pierce, first corporal; E, A. 
Scott, second corporal ; T. Reese, third corporal ; I. G. Norris, 
fourth corporal; L. B. Brazier, secretary; J. C. Bender, treasurer; 
L. D. Mullen, armorer; L. W. Vogel, drummer. Members. — 
E. W. Allen, W. W. Batten, E. M. Boggs, D. A. Boyd, C. H. 
Crane, C. H. Davidson, C F. Douthit, H. P. Edgar, J. D. En- 
glish, B. H. Franklin, C. Gaines, F. S. Hooker, G, Howard, W. 
L. Jackson, H. ,S. Long, C. Lovelady, L. R. McKee, E. Mack, 
P. Morrissey, B. Morrow, H. Pierce. E. Bobbins, J. Shadrick, 
J. W. Stillwell, W. E. Stoddard, W. P. Swift, W. J. Tipton, 
J. J. Walker, J. M. White, H. C. Williams, G. L. Waller, T. 
C. Allen, E. B. Barker, B. N. Boggs, E. D. Bowles, J. B. Brown, 
R. Coe, C. E. Dennis, D. Drake, M. Elias, D. W. Fitzpatrick, 
R. J. Fowler, B. Gay, W. L. Howell, S. Isadore, R. H. Laug- 
ford, C. H. Love, R. H. Mabry, T. M. McConnico, L. H. Mont- 
gomery, John Morrissey, T. D. Parke, H. A. Reynolds, W. L. 



160 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Sink, G. Shearer, H. T. Stone, J. B. Stone, G. Swift, R. Tate, 
J. F. White, D. Whittaker, G. L. Woolsey, W. H. Bill. 

Independent Blues — This military company organized in 
July, 1859, as follows : Captain, N. H. R. Dawson; Lieuten- 
ants— 1st, Robert Haygood ; 2d, A. M. Ferguson ; 3d, F. L. 
Johnson; 4th, W. A. Fitts. Sergeants— 1st, H. C. Billings; 
2d, J. F. Haralson ; 3d, W. R. Knox ; 4th, Emmet Edmonds ; 
5th, T. A. Blake, Corporals— 1st, J. C. Waite ; 2d, J. G.. Mc- 
Auley ; 3d, Bruce P. Thomas; 4th, J. H. Robeson ; 5th, Wm. 
Jones; 6th, M. S. Williams. Privates. — Wins Becker, Jasper 
F. Goodwin, A. H. McNair, J. H. Aumspaugh, J. W. Pool, 
Geo. R. Savage, Louis Shorn, G. D. Shortridge, Jr., B. R. 
Thomas, F. A. Borden, R. V. Weedou, J. C. Meins, D. M. 
Riggs, Jr., Columbus Bayne. J, L. Cotlin, L. T. Elliott, J. W. 
Chadwick, Jr., L. A. Conolly, Theo. A. Hall, H, G. Noble, J. 
C. Philpot, W. S. Reese, Jas. Kent, W. S. Knox, G. F. Steph- 
ens, Andrew Bogle, J. M. Daughtry, E, M. Gantt, Boykin 
Goldsby, H. S. Paisley, A. E. Mott, J. R. Watson, J, W. Chad- 
wick, Sr. 

The Telegraph. — In 1853 the line of the Washington City and 
New Orleans Tel^^graph Company, run from Mobile to Cahaba, 
and thence to Montgomery. Selma was off" the line, and it was 
a source of great inconvenience and trouble to our business men 
to go or send to Cahaba to send or receive a dispatch. The 
commerce of the place had assumed great importance, and a 
connection by telegraph with other places became absolutely 
necessary. A proposition or rather a request was made to the 
company to run the line by Selraa. The company declined to 
do so, unless $2000 was paid by Selma, as a bonus to pay for the 
change of the line. This amount of money was raised by pri- 
vate subscription, the city subscribing $200 in September, 1853, 
and about the last of October, 1853, an office was opened in a 
building up stairs, about where the wholesale liquor house of 
H. Cassin now stands, on Water street, and for years was a place 
of curiosity. Those were rather primitive days of telegraph- 
ing, and was a very small affair, compared with what the Ameri- 
can Telegraph Company was, and what the Western Union is 
now. 

City Clock. — In 1857 the city purchased in New York the 
present city clock for the sum of $500. On its arrival the City 
Council passed a resolution (with the consent of the members 
of that church, to erect it in the steeple of the Presbyterian 
church. A contract for its erection was made with John G. 
Snediker, who soon had it in place, and an arrangement made 
with Mr. John Morrow to take charge of and keep it in good 
running order for $75 per year, which contract Mr. Morrow has 
most faithfully complied with. There has not been more than 
ten hours, altogether, for near twenty years, but this timepiece 
has given notice of the hour by the clear ringing of its bell. 



Fire Department. — In 1866 the Phoenix Fire Company, No. 
1, and the Franklin Fire Company, No. 2, organized a Fire De- 
partment, each possessing a common hand engine, of which 
Tliomas C. Pierce was elected chief. Tliis organization 
lield up for several years, but the Franklin No. 2 dissolved, 



HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 161 

its organization, leaving the Phoenix, No. 1, the only Fire 
Company in the city. In 1870 a splendid steam engine was 
purchased partly by the city and partly by private subscription 
for this company. The Hook and Ladder Company was form- 
ed, at the head of which Capt. R. J. Fowler was placed as its 
Foreman. Soon after the Central City (colored) was organized, 
and both the Hook and Ladder and the Central City was or- 
ganized into a Fire Department, of which Judge E. W. Pettus 
was elected chief. Soon after the Mechanic Fire Company No. 
2,. was organized, and admitted into the department, thus form- 
ing an organization of four well organized companies, of which 
Col. James M. Dedman was elected chief. A splendid steam 
engine was purchased, and an engine house was built in East 
Selma for the Mechanics. Col. Dedman was succeeded by Capt. 
Robert J. Fowler as chief, and Col. B. M. Woolsey President 
of the organization, who has done much to effect the present 
efficiency of that organization. 

Now, we have one of the most complete and thorough fire 
departments of any city in the South, composed of the Phoenix 
No. 1, with a splendid steam engine, of which Geo. L. Stuck 
is engineer, and has been for years ; the Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany, with a most complete equipment of hooks, ladders, jams, 
buckets, etc.; the Mechanic No. 2 with a neat and powerful 
steam engine, of which James Fitzgerald is engineer, and the 
Central City Fire Company, a most useful company, composed 
of the very best colored young men of the city. At ihe head 
of this department, our fellow-citizen and experienced fire- 
man, Menzo Watson, is chief. 

This organization is sustained partly by the city, partly by a 
tax from insurance companies, and partly by their own private 
means. And to look at this organization while at work, or in 
procession, one could have no doubt as to its ability to stop the 
ravages almost of any fire. Our property holders feel safe in 
the possession of their property, as long as this organization ex- 
ists, and its existence has a most wonderful influence upon the 
rates of insurance upon property in the city. 

There is an efficient fireman elected in each of the five wards 
of the city every year, or a fire warden of his ward, who keeps 
up a thorough inspection of all premises in his ward. 

City School Board of Education.— In 1869 the Board of Edu- 
cation of the State constituted the incorporated limits of the 
city of Selma, a separate school district, providing for the 
election by the City Council, of a Board of Education, the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction appointing the City Su- 
perintendent. This board was organized in 1869 by theelection 
of Joseph Hardie, George Peacock, and R. M. Moore, as mem- 
bers of the City Board of Education, and R. M. Moore appoint- 
ed Superintendent, and contiuutd to act for two years. 

In 1871 John Silsby, W. R. Bill and J. L. Perkins were elec- 
ted, and W. C. Ward appointed Superintendent. 

In 1873 C. Cadle, Jr. , James W. Lapsley and W. C. Ward 
were elected, and W. C. Ward appointed Superintendent. 

In 1874 there was some change made in the election of mem- 
ners of tlie City Board of Education, and in 1875 C. J. Clark, 
Joseph Hardie, John Silsby and W. C. Ward were elected, W. 
C, Ward continuing as Superintendent. 

In 1877 C. J. Clark, Get.rge O. Baker, Wm. Ullman and J. 



162 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

H. Kobbius were elected, and H. S. D. Mallory appointed Su- 
perintendent, and who now constitutes the City Board of Edu- 
cation and Superintendent. 

aty Wharf.— In 1863 the City Council directed Daniel Sulli- 
van, the then City ^Surveyor, to survey and locate a suitable 
place for the construction of a city wharf. Mr. Sullivan very 
soon after this instruction, made a report to the council, that 
after making various surveys on the bank of the river, he had 
selected the foot of Franklin street as the most suitable place 
for tbe purposes of a city wharf, and reported an estimate of the 
cost of construction at about $21,000. The report was adopted 
by the council, and a committee of the council appointed to 
confer with Capt. John C. Graham, Confederate Quartermaster 
for this district, who took charge of the construction of the 
wharf, upon the condition that the city was to pay for all nec- 
essary labor and expenses in construction, the Confederate Gov- 
ernment to ship over it free of charge all freights during the 
war, and at half established rates after the war. The work was 
commenced, and early in 1864 the wharf was completed and 
taken charge of by the city. Upon casting up accounts it was 
ascertained that the construction of the wharf had cost about 
$30,000, Twenty thousand of this amount was paid to Capt. 
Graham, the Quartermaster in old issue of Confederate bills, and 
we suppose the other ten thousand remains unpaid until to- 
day. 

Sheriffs of Dallas County.— The following is a list of the per- 
sons who have filled the office of SherifFof Dallas county, and 
the year in which elected since the creation of the county. 
Though not strictly a Selma matter, we feel it not improper to 
give this list, however, as 17 of the 23 sheriffs Dallas countj 
has had, were citizens of Selma, 

Thomas Grimes, elected in 1819; J. B. Norris, 1822; Carter 
B. Harrison, 1825; Adam Taylor, 1828; Newton Burke, 1831; 
Wm. T. Miuter, 1834 ; Isaac Newton Campbell, 1837 ; Thomas 
O. Holloway, 1840; John F. Couoley, 1843; Abner Jones, 1846; 
John G. Lovett, 1849; Calvin A. Harris, 1852; Warren B. An- 
drews, 1855 ; Michael J. Kenan, 1858; James B. Harrison, 1861; 
Samuel Howard, 1864; James M. Dedman, 1865 ; Geo. P. Rex, 
1868; George H. Craig, 1869; M. DeCamp, 1870; Warren A. 
Brantly, 1873; Charles M. Shelley, 1875; G. R. Mason, 1877. 

There are but seven of the twenty-three names above who are 
living at the present time. John F. Conoley, Abner Jones, 
Calvin A. Harris, Sam Howard, Col. J. M. Dedman, Geo. H. 
Craig, Warren A. Brantly, Charles M. Shelley, and the present 
incumbent, Capt. Mason, are living. Fourteen of the twenty- 
three have died, forcibly reminding us of the rapid passing 
away of all human nature. 

Central City Fire Company, No. 1.— This fire company was 
organized by the colored men of the city on the 4th day of No- 
vember, 1871, and was admitted into the fire department of the 
city during the same month, as follows : 

Robert Smith, Foreman ; W. H. Black, First Assistant ; Hen- 
ry Lodor, Second Assistant ; A. E. King, Secretary. Members- 
Henry Jefferson, Berry Ford, Henry Moore, Simon Vasser, M. 
Kennedy, A. Boyd, James Mock, Whit King, Robert Loder, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 163 

John Deere, Edward Harris, Jack Weaver, Sr., Andrew Caw- 
thorn, Richard Garrett, Wert Tipton, W. H. Blevins, Samuel 
Edwards, Henry Hall, R. W. Parker, Arnistead Cook, Allen 
Jones, Syd. Fowlkes, Emanuel Davis, Wm, Lemley, Wade 
Harris, James Been, Jack Weaver, Jr., Jack Beatty, Jordan 
Lee, Geo. White, Joshua Covington, West Moore, Ed. Jackson, 
Sam. Minnett, Thomas Todd, Joe Jackson, John Bell, Matt 
Hannon, Paul Stollenwerck, Alex. Harris, Joe Bird, John 
Booker, Taylor Fomeu, Dolley Smith, John B. Hunter, Allen 
D. Evans, Willis Groves, Woolsey P. Hall, Hiram Moore, Robt. 
H. Gwinn. 



Burrell Academy.— 1\i\h building, erected for a colored school, 
is situated at the southeast corner of North and Coosa streets. 
It is two stories high, with dimensions of 50x64 feet, contains 
five school-rooms, one recitation room, and a chapel capable of 
seating 350. 

It was erected in 1868-9, under the auspices of the American 
Missionary Association, who hold the title to the building. The 
funds used were derived from various sources, Mr. Jabez Bur- 
rell, of Oberlin, Ohio, contributing the largest sum ; the build- 
ing was named in honor of him. The Association purchased 
the lot; the Freedmeu's Bureau gave a liberal sum, and a few 
hundred dollars was raised by private subscription from citi- 
zens. 

It was dedicated in May, 1869, and school was commenced 
therein immediately afterward under the superintendence of 
Mr. J. H. Sears, assisted by Miss E. C. Stowe, Miss Jessie Lit- 
tle, Miss Stevens, and Mr G.L.Jackson. TheFreedmen's 

Bureau paid the salaries of these teachers. 

By act of the General Assembly, approved December 31, 1868, 
it was enacted that "the Mayor and Council shall have full 
power to establish free schools and to regulate them, and for 
this purpose may appropriate not exceeding ten percent, of the 
gross revenue of the city." 

On the 6th day of August, 1869, the City Board of Education, 
created under the above act, adopted a resolution to arrange 
with the American Missionary Association for the free use of 
their building. The Association was to nominate a Principal 
and teachers, and the city to pay their salaries, and have the 
jurisdiction of the school. The proposition was accepted, and the 
school was opened on Wednesday, November 10, 1869. This ar- 
rangement was rescinded by the City Board, January 1, 1877, 
from which time the city has assumed the exclusive control of 
the school, leasing the building from the Association at a nomi- 
nal sum, the Association assuming the necessary repairs and 
insurance. 

No tuition is charged. An incidental fee of twenty-five cents 
per month is collected from each pupil. 

The following is a list of Principals and teachers from the 10th 
of November, 1869 : 

1869-70.— E. {). Stickel, Principal ; S. O. Ostrander, E. Wheel- 
er, Francis Littlefield, Josephine Pierce, Mary Atwater, L. 
Gardner, E. L. Benton, Helen Eaton. 

1870-1.— E. C. Stickel, Principal; Mrs. E. C. Stickel, Mr. H. 
W. ("arles, 8. O. Ostrander, A. M. Nourse, M. S. Pond, L. Gard- 
ner, L. 8. Alvord. 

1871-2.— H. W. Carter, Principal; L. A. Darling, Anna Hay- 



164 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

lor. L. 8. Alvord, L. M. Fay, M. A. Carter, S. L. Emerson, M. 
P. Stewart. 

1872-3.— H. W. Carter, Principal ; L. A. Darling, A. Haylor, 
S. L. Emerson, D. A. Safford, Orra Reeder, H. E. Carter. 

1873-4.— John M. Cummings, Principal, from October to De- 
cember ; G. S. Pope, from December to May ; A. Haylor, S. L. 
Emerson, S. C. Williams, M. E. Wilcox, A. B. Fay, L. M. 
Fay. 

1874-5.— N. Messer, Principal ; S. C. Williams, S. L. Emer- 
son, M. E Miller, M. E. Wilcox, E. E. Hersey, C. A. Benton, 
M. E. H. Pope. 

1875-6,— E. C. Silsby, Principal ; 8. C. Williams, 8. L. Emer- 
son, Anna Coffin, M. E. Wilcox, Nettie Brewster, M. B. 
Flack. 

1876-7.— E. C. Silsby, Principal ; S. C. Williams, Anna Cof- 
fin, M. E. Wilcox. Nettie Brewster, Mrs. M. G. Hardwick, M. 
B. Flack. 

1877-8.— E. C. Silsby, Principal ; S. C. Williams, M. E. Wil- 
cox, H. S. Smith, Mrs. M. G. Hardwick, Mrs. N. B. Silsby, P. 
F. Child, M. B. Flack. 

1878-9.— E. C. Silsby, Principal ; S. C. Williams, M. E. Wil- 
cox, H. S. Smith, Mrs. M. G. Hardwick, Mrs. A. E. Walker, 
P. F. Child, M. B. Flack. 

The session of the school commences regularly October 1st, 
and continues eight months. The yearly enrollment of pupils 
is as follows : 

Session commencing May 1869, ; Session of 1869-70 (April) 

397; session of 1870-71, (October), 315; session of 1871-2, 500; 
session of 1872-3, 478 ; session of 1873-4, 460 ; session of 1874-5, 
402 ; session of 1875-6, 430 ; session of 1876-7. 421 ; session of 1877-8, 
478; session of 1878-9, (first three months), 332. 

There are four departments— Primary, Intermediate, Gram- 
mar and High School, distributed among seven rooms, and the 
course of study is that usually pursued in such departments. 

The school is well supplied with outline maps, reading-charts, 
music charts and books, together with some philosophical and 
chemical apparatus. 

Temperance, debating and industrial societies are carried on 
among the students. An orchestra composed of some of the 
young men is also one of the features of the institution. 

From the time of the opening of Burrell Academy, so far as 
heard from, thirty-seven of its pupils have been engaged in 
teaching day-schools in this and adjoining counties and States. 

Mechanic Fire Company No. 2— Was organized May 6, 1871, 
with about fifty members, by the election of M. L. Dedman as 
Foreman; Charles Heinz, First Assistant; George W. Coats, 
Second Assistant; J. T. Miles, Third Assistant; M. Jacobson, 
Secretary ; J. B, Hardy, Treasurer, A good set of by-laws was 
adopted. 

In 1872, M. L. Dedman was re-elected Foreman ; C. Heinz, 
First Assistant; Geo. A. Stuck, Second Assistant; Henry 
Pierce, Third Assistant; J. B. Hardy, Treasurer; W. A. But- 
ler, Secretary ; Bernard Gay, Engineer. 

In 1873, M. L. Dedman was re-elected Foreman ; Charles 
Heinz, First Assistant; Geo, A. Stuck, Second Assistant; the 
office of Third Assistant was abolished , J. B. Hardy, Treas- 
urer; W, A. Butler, Secretary ; Bernard Gay, Engineer. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 165 

In 1874 the city completed a good, substantial two-etory brick 
building on Alabama street, and the present splendid steam en- 
gine was purchased and placed in charge of the company. M. 
L. Dedman was re-eleeted Foreman ; C. Heinz, First Assistant ; 
\V. O. H. Jaekel, Second Assistant; Wm. Butler, Secretary ; J. 
T. Knowlen, Treasurer; Mike Fitzgerald. Engineer. 

In 1875, M. L. Dedman was again elected Foreman ; C. Heinz, 
First Assistant ; L. F. Butler, Second Assistant ; S. J. Shields, 
Secretary ; J. T. Knowlen, Treasurer; Mike Fitzgerald, Engi- 
neer, 

In 1876, M. L. Dedman was elected Foreman ; J. G. Norris, 
First Assistant ; C. Heinz, Second Assistant; William Hart, 
Secretary; J. T. Knowlen, Treasurer; Mike Fitzgerald, Engi- 
neer. 

In 1877, M. L. Dedman, Foreman ; C. Heinz, First Assistant ; 
J. G, Norris, Second Assistant; Wm. Hart, Secretary; J. T. 
Knowlen, Treasurer; J. D. Fitzgerald, Engineer. 

In 1878, C. Heinz, Foreman ; (M. L. Dedman declining to 
serve), Geo. A. Stuck, First Assistant; James Quinn, Second 
Assistant; E, D. Peterson, Secretary ; J. T. Knowlen, Treas- 
urer; J. D. Fitzgerald, Engineer. The office of Third Assistant 
was revived, and David Wilson elected. Geo. A. Stuck served 
as First Assistant Foreman for two months, and resigned, and 
A. W. Acker was elected to fill the vacancy. 

In 1879, C. Heinz, Foreman ; A- W. Acker, First Assistant; 
R. R. Barker, Second Assistant; David Wilson, Third Assis- 
tant ; E. D. Peterson, Secretary ; J. T. Knowlen, Treasurer; J, 

D. Fitzgerald, Engineer. The office of Fireman was created, 
and J. M. Roberts elected, and relieved of the payment of dues 
to the company for his services. 

The first fire the company attended with their splendid steam- 
er, was in 1874, a few months after its reception, when the Ikel- 
heimer corner was burned, and at this time the company saved 
more than five times the amount of property of the cost of their 
steamer. The Phoenix becoming disabled, the Little Mechanic 
was lert alone to fight the fiery clement, and nobly did she dis- 
charge the task in hand. 

The company is composed almost altogether of our best me- 
chanics, and on all occasions have proved themselves most en- 
ergetic and prompt to duty. 

The following is a list of the first members of this splendid 
company: C. Heinz, A. W. Acker, R. R, Barker, D. Wilson, 

E. D. Peten-ou, J. T. Knowlen, J. D. Fitzgerald, R. J. Sitton, 
G. W. Suther, C C. Owen, J. W. Foster, C. Zuchting, N. C. 
Cannon, W. Shannahan. J. A. Butler, "W. G. Butler, A. Broad- 
way, W. E. Darby, J. W. Stillwell, J. T. Plant. Geo. A. Hal- 
sey, J. M. Roberts, James Quinn, W. Barker, C. W. Plant, G. 
A. Stuck, C. S. Knowlen, C. C. Heinz, J, S. Mackey, Thos. 
O'Rourke, C. T. Maxey, J. T. Halsey, G. L. Whitfield, J. D. 
Riggs, W F. Spear, Ben Allen, P. H. Norris, J. M. Davidson, 

F. W. Donner, Geo. Krotel, J. P. Tucker, M. Kenoigsthall, R. 
A. Kinkle. 

Postmasters at Selma. — In 1818 the postoffice department at 
Washington established the first postoffice at Selma, Dallas 
county, Alabama, and was supplied once a week by horse, on 
the route from Mobile to Huntsville. The following persons 
have acted as postmasters at Selma : James Reynolds, James 



166 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Owen, John S. M. Parkin, John Simpson, Joslah Hinds, Geo. 
W. Parsons, James Cante, Patrick McMullen, Samuel M. Hur- 
ley, John M. Strong, Wm. H. Eager,C. McCabe, George F. Mar- 
low, Henry Cochran. 

Of the fourteen persons above named, there are but three liv- 
ing— that of Maj. John M. Strong, Geo. P. Marlow and Capt. 
Cochran, the present incumbent. Maj. Strong is residing near 
Montevallo, in Shelby county, and George F. Marlow in the 
city of New York. 

City Hospital. — About 1854 the necessity for a hospital became 
apparent, and the City Council made provisions for the erection 
of a suitable place to take care of the indigent sick. The city 
had purchased thirty acres of land just outside of the Eastern 
margin of the city limits, and upon this land a location for a 
hospital was selected, near a beautiful cool spring of water. 
A good building was erected with four apartments with a good 
fire place in each. A comfortable building was alao erected for 
a Steward's house, and a good garden place selected and fenced, 
and the hospital was put in operation, and with the exception 
of one or two short periods, has been kept up at tlie expense of 
the city, and much good to the indigent sick has been the re- 
sult. A physician and steward are provided, and is now under 
the charge of Dr. John H. Henry, as physician, and Mrs. Pow- 
ers as stewardess. 

Pest Ifonse — In 1865, with the advent of the Federal Army in 
the city, came that pest of all diseases, the small-pox. The Fed- 
eral officers in command refused to have any supervision of the 
disease. It prevailed for a time among all classes of the people, 
from the highest to the lowest alike— none were exempt from its 
ravages. The City Council found it necessary to provide some 
place in which the poor could be taken care of, and a good, sub- 
stantial pest house was erected near the Eastern margin of the 
city, on the Burnsville road. Since that time this institution 
has not been used, yet it stands ready for any emergency that 
may arise. 

Court House. — In 1866, when the people of the county voted 
by a decided majority, to remove the Court House from Cahaba 
to Selma, the city purchased from the Ma«onic Fr 'ternity, what 
was then known as the Masonic Female Academy, a large sub- 
stantial three story brick building, located at the foot of Ala- 
bama street, in the Western part of the city. The city paid 
$15,000 for the building, and made it a present to the county. 
The archives of the county were removed from Cababa and 
placed in this building. About one-half of the third floor is 
used for a court room; the other portion of the upper floor is 
used for jury rooms, and one room is devoted to a law library 
for the members of the Dallas bar. The second floor is used for 
a register in Chancery's office, an office for Circuit ClerK, and 
an office for the Clerk of the city court. The lower floor is used 
for the Probate Judge's office, an office for the Tax Collector, 
and one for the Sheriffs office, all being complete and well 
adapti d to the wants of the county 



7'//e C'oMn'2/ J^azY.— The county jail is a mussive brick build- 
ng, located in the Western portion of the city, some quarter of 



HISTORY OP BEIiMA. lG7 

a mile from the Court-House. It was built in 1867, at a cost to 
the county of about $60,000. Its capacity is sufficient for the 
care of at least one hundred prisoners. A portion of the lower 
floor is used by the Sheriff as a residence, and the upper en- 
tirely for the confinement of prisoners. It was built by Messrs. 
Shelley & "Wright, experienced contractors. 

Market House. — The present Market House of the city was 
built in 1869, by Messrs. Shelley & Wright, and all the other 
public buildings connected with it, were completed in 1871. 
The Market House is a painted and latticed one story building, 
about 200 feet long, located in the center of Washington street, 
between Alabama and Selma streets, running North and South, 
with two divisions. The front on Alabama street is used for 
meats alone, with four stalls on each side of the isle, the other 
end is used for vegetables, coflfee stands, fish and miscellaneous 
products, all of which are usually occupied, and bring a revenue 
to the city of about five hundred dollars monthly. There is a 
splendid stand of scales in front on Alabama street. 

Joining on to the north the City Guard House is located on 
the first floor, and the second floor is the Fireman's Hall. 
From this building running North and South are two brick 
walls, some 80 feet long, and about 12 feet high, enclosing the 
prison yard, and connecting the prison and yard with the 
Council Room, and engine room of the steamer Gillman. 

Taken altogether, the Market House, the City Prison, and 
the Council Chamber, are well arranged, and are a credit to 
the city. 



The Ferry on the River. — In 1820 the Selma Town Land 
Company induced the Legislature of the State to open a public 
road from the South bank of the Alabama river, seven miles, 
to intersect what was then called the Cahaba and Montgomery 
Trail, near the "Pelham place," and to establish at the expense 
of the State a public and a free ferry across the river at Selma. 
George Mathews, Col. W. R. King,aud Gilbert Shearer were the 
commissioners to have this work done. This work was done in 
good style. The road was opened, for four miles through a thick 
canebrake,and a good ferry-boat built. The ferry was kept up for 
a crossing until about 1824, when the Governor of the State, 
under the provisions of an act of the Legislature sold the ferry 
and all its privileges at public auction, James Reynolds becoming 
the purchaser, who took charge and managed the ferry for sev- 
eral years. He sold the property to James G. Cowan, who 
managed it most successfully for years. Maj. John Tipton pur- 
chased the property from Mr. Cowan, paying $10,000 for it. Af- 
ter the death of Maj. Tipton, Benjamin Tarver became the owner, 
and whose legatees own the property to-day. 

In 1871 Messrs. Calloway & Johnson leased the property from 
the estate of Tarver and placed a neat steam ferryboat to do the 
work with. At the expiration of the term Capt. Pat Callahan 
became the lessee, under whose management the business of 
the ferry has been carried on to the entire satisfaction of the 
public. He has had since he became the lessee a commodious 
and splendid steam ferryboat built, securing the most perfect 
safety to life and property while crossing the river. This prop- 
erty, it is said, has always yielded a handsome profit to every 
person who has owned it. Capt. Callahan deserves great credit 



168 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

for the manner in which he conducts the business of this 
portant property. 



Powder Magazine. — About 1856 the commerce of the city had 
increased to such an extent, and especially in powder, that the 
importance, for the safety of the property of the city, it became 
apparent that some place of deposit for powder outside tlie city 
was urged by both insurance men and merchants; an appropria- 
tion was made by the city council, and a good substantial brick 
building was erected outside the Eastern margin of the city 
limits, and a keeper of the magazine appointed. About two 
kegs are allowed to be kept on hand at any one time by any 
one merchant, the balance being stored at the magazine. This 
rule has been kept up since the establishment of the magazine, 
and has worked well for all concerned. The magazine has been 
under the immediate charge of Kay, Force & Lapsley for many 
years, whose managagement of the institution has given entire 
satisfaction to all who have occasion to deal in powder. 

SteaTnhoate.—Th^ history of steamboating on the Alabama 
river is as interesting as any other branch of industrj' connec- 
ted with Selma, and presents to the mind the wonderful strides 
art and civilization have made : 

The first steamboat that ever came up the Alabama river was 
the "Tensas," and the Captain's name was Sousby. It landed 
at the Selma ferry, in the spring of 1822, and was considered a 
wonderful sight. Many persons stood upon the bluff and looked 
down at it with a strange commingling of fear and astonish- 
ment, and but few could be persuaded to go aboard and exam- 
ine the works of the "belching craft." It had been twenty- 
three days from Mobile to Selma, and when it landed Captain 
Sonsby jumped up and cracked his heels together and offered 
to bet one hundred dollars that he would make the next trip up 
the river in less than fourteen days. The Tensas was a stern- 
wheel boat, and her pilot stood on deck and guided the boat 
with a long lever, instead of a wheel. It was covered like an 
open shed and could carry about two hundred bales of cotton. 

The Tensas was su< oeeded in a f-^w months by the Osage, the 
Fox, the Ozark, the New Era, and the number gredually in- 
creased as well as improved in construction, speed and capacity, 
as the business and public demand required, until in late years 
a finer class of steamers were not to be found on any river 
in the world. The following is a list of steamers which have 
plied on the Alabama river, and lauded at Selma : 

Fox, Jackson, Nymph, Mazeppa, Little Iloek, Messenger, 
Bogahoma, Courier, Clipper, 8th January, Patomac, Nile, 
Maggar, Mosby, Charles Carroll, of Carroltoii, Champion, Sun, 
Tom, Don Juan, Grey Cloud, Blue Wing, Carondolet, E. A. 
Ogden, W. W. Day, Jim, Agatha, Cotton Planter, Planter, 
Huntsman, P. F. Kimball, Jenny Bealle, Lucy Belle, Pitts- 
burgh, Prairie State, Bulah, Aberdeen, Niagara, Falls City, 
Leo, Leona, Palmetto, Chalmette, Antonette Douglass, Napo- 
leon, Lala Rookh, Express, Sarah, Belle Gates, Arkansas, No. 
6, Sallie Spann, J. L. Webb, Daniel Pratt, India, Pelican, 
Florida, Protector, Eliza Battle, Alice Vivian, Admiral, Sump- 
ter, Bourbon, Eureka, Pride of the West, Louisa Hopkins, 
Viola, Beacon, Alabama, Augusta, Georgia, Native of Ala., 
Caspian, Ben Franklin, Richmond, Red Chief, Vigo, Fairfield, 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 169 

Jecuie Kirk, Waverly, Col. Fremont, Norman, Amaranth, Ava- 
lanche, Meteor, Dormeo, R. E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Nyanza, 
Victoria, Fanny, Hudson, Emma, Telegraph, Invincible, Bon- 
nets O'Blue, Clarion, Harriet, New World, Lamplighter, W. 
W, Fry, Moselle, Bt. Charles, St. Nicholas, Medora, Clara, 
Aziele, Marengo, Dallas, Southern Belle, Neptunes,Dixie,A. G. 
Ross, John Briggs, Empire, Charles L. Bass, Helen, Hercules, 
Tiger, Reindeer, Newton, Fusiier, Plow Boy, Ware, Post Boy, 
Atlanta, Bunna, Roanoke, Ohio, Ohioian, Penneyhama, Cas- 
pian, Champion, Heroine, Mollie Gratz, Peerless, Jacob Law- 
rence, R. C. Wallace, Sallie List, Gertrude, Mary Dunning, 
Gov. Pickens, Anna Calhoun, Robt. Watson, Coosa, Talla- 
poosa, Wetumpka, Wagley, Rescue, Dubloon, Duke, Mary Bess, 
Love, Bicknell, Columbus, Orleans, St. John, Sam Dale, 
Lowndes, Jr. Wm. Bradstreet, Wm. Jones, Louisa, Frank 
Lyon, Emperor. Battle, Empress, Montgomery, Southern Re- 
public, Selma, Magnolia, Cremona, Henry J. King, Wilcox, 
Cahaba, Era, Aerial, Fox, Lexington, Ivanhoe, Mary Clifton, 
Iberia, Farmer, Herald. Avalanche, Penelope, Jefferson, Lady 
Washington, Cuba, James Dellet, Helen McGregor, Jewess, 
Asia, Osage, Genl. Brown, Elizabeth, Tensas, Rifleman, Flori- 
da 2, Magnolia, Henderson, Mobile, Commerce, LeGrand, P. 
Daleno, Coosa, Belle, Duke, Crescent City, Sallie Carson, Olive, 
Octavia, Sunny South, Dispatch, C. W, Dorrance, John Dun- 
can, Queen of the South, Illinois Belle, Eclipse, Virginia, 
Breakwater, Senator, Shoalwater, Cigar, R. B. laney, Osage, 
Ozark,Fashion,Mediterranian,W. T. Barry, Caroline, Choctaw, 
Lewis Cass, Cherokee, Advance, Onward, Emblem, Benefit, 
Arkansas, Exchange, Red River, Mary. 

Protection Hook and Ladder Co., No, 1. — This company, a 
most important part of our present efficient fire department, was 
organized on the 15th day of March, 1869, as follows : 

R. J. Fowler, Foreman ; E. H. Hobbs, Assistant Foreman ; 
J. M. Ben nice. Secretary ; L. W. John, Treasurer; John D. 
Lapsley, J. M. Lamar, C. Lovelady, E. W. Pettus. F. J. Hook- 
er, G. B. Burns, E. M. Keith, C. W. Harrell, J. M. Keith, Alex 
McAllister, Col. Norris. 

The above is a list of the members at the organization. Many 
members have been added to this list. 

The first fire this company attended after its organization 
was one in Wilson's warehouse, on December 25th, 1869, now 
occupied by Jos. Hardie & Co., at which thei,r usefulness and 
efficiency was displayed with admiration to those who witness- 
ed their work. 



Courts.— The Chancery Court holds its sessions twice a year 
in the city, first Monday in January and June. Hon. Charles 
Turner, Chancellor ; B. H. Craig, Register. 

The Circuit Court holds its session twice a year, first Monday 
in May and November. Hon. George H. Craig, Judge; 
H. C. Graham, Clerk ; Capt. A. D. Brazeale, Deputy Clerk. 

The City Court of Selma holds its session twice a year, first 
Mondays of June and January. Hon. Jonathan Haralson, 
Judge; J. L. Evans, Clerk and Register. 

The Probate Court is always open to transact business. Hon. 
P. G. Wood, Judge; Capt. Geo. R. Mason, SherifT; Hon. J. W. 
Suttle, State Solicitor. 



170 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 



Elevations. — The following are the elevation of the diflferent 
stations on the 8., R. & D. railroad, above Selma. It will be 
seen that State Line Station is 783 feet higher than Selma, the 
highest point on the road 



Selma 000 feet. 

Veto 38 " 

Burnsville 60 " 

Clay's 71 " 

Peeples 91 " 

Plautersville 114 " 

Dixie 160 " 

Maplesville 234 " 

Cox's 251 " 

Randolph 464 " 

Ashbv 334 " 

Briarfleld 266 " 

Montevallo 347 " 

Calera 375 " 



Shelby Springs 407 

Columbiana 315 

Wilsonville 305 

Coosa River 298 

Childersburg 294 

Alpine 348 

Talladega 439 

Blue Mountain 669 

Jacksonville ."....628 

Patona 667 

State Line 783 

Cave Springs 550 

Rome 505 

Dalton 635 



The elevations of the stations above Selma on the Alabama 
Central are as follows • 



Selma 000 feet. 

Logan's 13 " 

Cahaba River 00 " 

Harrell's X Roads 75 " 

Marion Junction 80 " 

Vernon 55 " 



Jones 87 

Brown's 55 

Bellview 48 

Tayloe's 51 

Uniontown 163 



We have not the official survey of the Western Alabama, but 
it is stated that Montgomery is 40 feet lower than Selma. Ma- 
rion, on the Selma and Greensboro railroad, is 137 feet higher 
tlian Selma; Pine Apple, on the Selma and Gulf road is 82 feet 
lower than Selma, and Martin's station, on the N. O. & Selma 
road, is 27 feet lower than Selma. 

Names of Streets. — The following are the names of the prin- 
cipal streets of the city, runing East and West: 

Bow, Selma, First, Plattenburg, Florence, Medley, Hardee, 
Water, Dallas, Second, Burnsville Road, Jones, Dedman, Frow, 
Alabama, Parkman, McCrary, Mulberry, Perbam, and North, 
the last one hundred feet wide, runing from the extreme 
Western to the extreme Eastern line of the city, now a beau- 
tiful street for drives, and we predict, in time, will be the great 
thoroughfare of the city. 

Those running North and South aro Mitchell, Lapsley Lauder- 
dale, Franklin, Sylvan, Woodson Road, Leroy, New, Church 
Alley, Union, Tremont, Broad, Greene, St. Philip, Range 
Avenue, Virgil, Coosa, Plant, Division, Donation, Church, 
w ashington, Lawrence, St, Ann, William, Berry, Mechanic, 
Dunklin. 

The streets are generally 500 feet apart, and centrally be- 
tween the streets are seventeen and twenty feet alleys, render- 
ing the property on each and every block accessible. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE COLORED PEOPLE AND THEIR INSTITUTIONS. 

About one-half of the inhabitants of Selma are 
colored people, of whom we must say something 
before closing this work. When we look back to 1865, 
and take into consideration the condition of that 
people, and compare it with their condition in 1879, we are 
borne out in asserting that this portion of our inhabitants de- 
serve the greatest praise for their efforts to advance in the great 
race of morality and Christianity. In 1865 this great mass of 
people were turned loose upon the country by the Federal Qov- 
ernment,poor,ignorantandthriftless,unaccustomed to rely upon 
themselves even for food, and a most gloomy aspect did these 
people in this country then present to the philanthropist. Pos- 
sessing one great feature— that of physical power— the colored 
people of Selma, have used that power to great advantage. By 
their labor they to-day present an enviable position, in all the 
attributes of civilization and Christianity. With their labor 
they have built up in our midst institutions of learning and 
churches, highly creditable not only to themselves, but to the 
city of Selma. 

Among the foremost in education is the Burrell Academy, a 
full description of which we give on another page of this work. 
The next is the Normal and Theological College, located at the 
old fair grounds, and conducted by a board of teachers, and 
under the control of the colored Baptist Association oir the 
State. There are also numbers of private schools in different 
sections of the city, among them is the primary school taught 
by Walter P. King, Esq. 

The churches are certainly creditable. The Methodists have a 
splendid brick church building on Sylvan street, capable of 
seating 900 people, with services regularly conducted, with a 
membership of over 600, and a Sabbath School numbering over 
800 scholars; and they, also, have a mission chapel at the corner 
of Plant and Perham streets, in which services are conducted 
regularly, with an attendance of some two hundred Sabbath 
School children. 

Zion Chapel, located on Greene street, is in a most prosperous 
condition. Of the colored Episcopal Methodist, founded in 
1866, by such worthy colored men as Rev. James Wadsworth, 
Joseph Blake, Isaac Luudie, and Merritt Robinson, now with 



172 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

a membership of over 500, with regular services, and a Sabbath 
School numberiug over 600 children. 

The colored Baptists have a splendid church building on St. 
Philip street, organized in 1866 with a membership of over 800 
with regular services by eminent colored preachers, and a well 
managed Sabbath School of some 600 scholars. 

The colored Baptists have a well organized church in the Eas- 
tern part of the city on Hardee street, under the direction and 
control of Rev. Harry Blevins, ayoung colored minister of much 
promise, with a membership of about 450, with a good attend- 
ance of Sunday School children. 

The colored Baptists also have a prosperous church on Greene 
street, under the control ,and direction of Rev. John Blevins, 
recently organized, with a membership of about 200, and aSab- 
bath School numbering about 300 children. 

The Reformed Colored Presbyterians have a well organized 
church on North street, under the direction of Rev. G. M. El- 
liott, with a membership of about 150, and a well constructed 
building, and a Sunday School of about 250 children. 

The colored people have various organizations and societies 
of benevolence and charity. 

The United Order of True Reformers, which is a strictly tem- 
perance organization, has done much good in averting the vi- 
cious appetites of that people. Much credit is due to such col- 
ored men as A. Foman and Lewis King for inaugurating this 
movement. 

The most useful organization among the colored people is that 
of the Daughters of Conference, which was organized in 1868, 
and is managed entirely by the females. Since the organiza- 
tion of this socety, it has given $4,000 for mission purposes, 
.$1,200 for charity, $1,000 to pay on the Methodist church build- 
ing, on Sylvan street, and $1,500 for a parsonage. 

The colored people of our city have their military company, 
their fire company, their Masonic Lodge, and their Lodge of 
Odd Fellows, all tending to advance the interests of this people. 

We wish we had the space to give a more minute account of 
our colored population in their laudable efforts to improve 
themselves, and consequently improve our city. 

In concluding this brief notice we have no hesitancy in as- 
serting that no people have ever been more law-abiding and de- 
serve more praise than the colored people of Selma, and be it 
to the credit of such men among them as Phillip Smith, Ben 
Turner, A. Foman, Jo Blake, Ed Stone, Geo Rudd., Berry Ford, 
John Williams, Lewis King, Geo Stollenwerck, Wash. Clark, 
Nixon Goweu, Alfred Evans, Geo. Boynton, Syd. Fowlkes, 
John Blevins, Ben Hayes, A. Henshaw, Alex Goldsby, Jesse 
Reed, Sam Jones, Harry Blevins, Ed. Hardy, Tom Gee, Hil- 
liard Williams, John Shields, Sam Edwards, Wm. Lemley, Mil- 
ton Milhous and others we could mention, for the present pro- 
perous condition of the colored people of Selma. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PERSONAL SKETCHES. 

Bev. Samuel M, Nelson— Came to Selma in the year 1834. He 
was born in county Downj(', near Belfast, Ireland, on the 24th 
day of January, 1804. His father, Robert ]SIelson, was an offi- 
cer in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and a most prominent man 
in that movement for Irish independence; so much so that on 
the supression of the rebellion, the English Government offered 
a large reward for his head. He, however, was fortunate in 
having a personal friend, who was an officer in the King's ser- 
vice, who managed to secrete him for several years, until he 
could meet with an opportunity to leave Ireland, which he did 
in 1805, landing in New York when the subject of this sketch 
was about one year old. He remained but a few months in New 
York, when he went to Stanton, -Wes* Virginia, where he had 
some relatives, and where he remained but a few months. He 
then went to Rogersville, in East Tennessee, where his brother 
was Sheriff of the county. He lived near Rogersville four 
years, when he obtained a flat boat, and with his little family, 
descended the Holston river, then into the Tennessee, down the 
Tennessee, taking up in 1810 at Ditto's landing, near Whites- 
burg, where he settled in the wilds of that country, and lived 
for several years. His father then removed to and located near 
Huntsville, where he lived until 1828. In that year he removed 
to Lawrence county, Alabama, and in 1824 died. After the 
death of his father his mother moved near Tuscumbia, when, 
in 1828, his mother died, leaving him an orphan boy, and alone 
in the world. Having previously become a member of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and having devoted much 
time to reading the scriptures, he was licensed to preach the 
gospel by the Bigbee Presbytery of the Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian church. He was placed on the circuitcomposed of Marion 
and Fayette counties, Alabama, and Monroe and Lowndes coun- 
ties, Mississippi, where he preached for about six years, during 
which time he had served in all parts of his field, organized 
some eightor ten churches, composed of large memberships, av- 
eraging over one hundred to each church. His labors were most 
fruitful in this field. After his successful labors in this circuit 
he was sent to Selma in 1834, where he entered upon his duties, 
preaching at Selma and Cahaba alternately for about six j'ears. 
When he came to Selma there was no church building in the 
place, but by his zeal and industry he soon succeeded in 
having a neat and comfortable church house erected on the lot 
where the Cumberland church now stands, and soon succeed- 
ed in organizing and building up a large congregation, number- 



174 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

ing over one hundred members, God blessing his efforts. On 
the 13th day of August, 1839, he married Miss Martha V. Camp- 
bell, a most amiable and worthy lady, In 1840 he moved to Car- 
lowville, Dallas county, Alabama, where he preached for about 
three years, his efforts meeting with great success by the or- 
ganization of several churches in that part of the country. He 
continued to preach in Carlowville and sometimes in Cahaba.un- 
til 1844, when he moved to Cahaba, where he continued to 
preach to good congregations, and occasionally in Selma, until 
1848, when he moved to 'Coffee Springs, in Marengo county, 
and near the then Woodville, preaching at Coffee Springs, 
Providence and other places, and largely increasing the mem- 
bership of these churches; during this time his efforts met with 
the most happy results, adding at one meeting to the church at 
Coffee Springs over sixty members. In 1858 he moved to Wil- 
cox county, to a little village called Pine Hill, near Clifton, 
where he has been preaching and building up new churches in 
that part of the country, occasionally, however, not forgetting 
the field of his first labors in Alabama, preaching at Selma. In 
1878 he again commenced preaching at Selma, though but few 
of the faces of those to whom he preached in 1834, are seen now 
before him. He preaches in Selma on the first and second Sab- 
baths of each month, where we earnestly hope his efforts will 
be blessed, as they always have been wherever he labored. 

Of all the members of the Bigbee Presbytery, when Mr. Nel- 
son was a member, there is but one living beside himself, that 
of Rev. W. B. McGeba, of Nashville, Tennessee, and those of 
the Alabama Presbytery, when he became connected with it 
not a single member is now living but himself. No minister 
now living has preached the funerals of more Revolutionary 
soldiers, and perhaps the efforts of no minister living have been 
blessed to a greater degree than his, in conversions of sinners 
and building up churches. Mr. Nelson is now seventy-five 
years old, is in vigorous health, and his mind is as active now 
as when in his youth. He can, in truth, say, "God is good." 

Dr. C. J. CtorZ;— Came to Selma in 1865. He was born on 
the 27th day of October, 1816, ia Laurens district, South Caro- 
lina. In 1836 37 he attended lectures at the Georgia Medical 
College, and iu 1837 located at Jacksonville, in this State, and 
engaged in the practice of his profession. In 1841-42 he atten- 
ded a course of lectures at the Louisville Medical College, and 
received the degree of M. D. from that institution. In 1843-44 
he attended a course of lectures at the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, and received the degree of M. D. at that institution also. 
He is a member of the Medical Society of this city. The literary 
productions of Dr. Clark have been numerous, and have com- 
manded the most profound attention from the profession in the 
United States. His articles upon "Typhoid Fever in Alaba- 
ma," published in the New Orleans il/ed/ca^Jbwna^, especially 
gave much information upon that subject. In 1846 he was ap- 
pointed assistant surgeon iu the United States Volunteers, and 
attached to the First Alabama Regiment, and was promoted to 
surgeon in 1847, and assigned to the famous Palmetto Regiment 
of South Carolina, taking part in all the battles in the val- 
ley of Mexico, which posrition he held until the end of the war 
with Mexico. For bis faithful discharge of duty in this posi- 
tion he received a gold medal from the State of South Carolina. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. l'?5 

In 1861 he was commissioned a surgeon in the Confederate 
army, and at the special request of Gov. Shorter, of Alabama, 
was placed in charge of the Alabama Hospital, in Richmond. 
In 1863 he was ordered to Montgomery, where he remained on 
hospital duty until the end of the war. Dr. Clark since his 
residence in Selma has enjoyed a lucrative practice, command- 
ing the full confidence of his fellow-citizens. No man in the 
city has been more active in promoting the welfare of the pub- 
lic schools than he. He has been a member of the city council, 
in which body he was a most useful and industrious member. 
He is now chairman of the Board of Education of the Public 
School System of the city, aud chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Dallas Academy. 



Hon. E. W. Pettus— Became a citizen of Selma in 1866. He 
was born July 6, 1821, in Limestone county, Alabama. He was 
educated at Clinton College, Tennessee, read law at Tuscumbia, 
Alabama, commenced the practice of his profession in Gaines- 
ville, Sumter county, in 1842, and in the same year was elected 
solicitor of that Judicial Circuit, and re-elected to the same 
office in 1849, but resigned in 1857. He moved to Pickens coun- 
ty and practiced law at Carrolton, and in 1853 Gov. Collin ap- 
pointed him to the office of solicitor of that Judicial Circuit, 
which position he retained until 1855, when he was elected by 
the people Judge of the Circuit Court, and remained on the 
bench until 1858, when he located in Cahaba, Dallas county. 
When the war came on he entered tiie Confederate service as 
Major of the 20th Alabama Regiment, aud was in the famous 
movement of Gen. Bragg into Kentucky. The 20th regiment 
was sent to Missiesippi, and was engaged in the battle of Port 
Gibson and Baker's Creek, where it went into Vicksburg, 
when Maj. Pettus was promoted to the command of the regi- 
ment as its Colonel, went through the terrible scenes of the 
fifty days' siege of that place, and after the surrender of Vicks- 
burg, was exchanged aud promoted to a Brigadiership, and the 
20th, 23d, 30th, Slst and 46th Alabama Regiments were under 
his command, and participated in all the conflicts from Dalton 
to Jouesboso, in resistance to Gen. Sherman in his "march to 
the sea," He was with Gen. Hood in his march into Tennes- 
see, and was in tlie terrible battles at Franklin and Nashville, 
was sent into North Carolina, and participated in the conflicts 
at Kingston aud Bentonville, and was badly wounded at Ben- 
tonville. After the war Gen. Pettus located in Selma, where 
he has been enjoying a most successful practice of his profes- 
sion in connection with Col. N. H. R. Dawson. 



Dr. Benjamin H. Biggs — We may say, has lived in Selma all 
his life, though a native of Mobile, where he was born on the 
19th day of August, 1838. He was educated at the famous Bar- 
ton Academy, of Mobile, and in 1856 attended lectures in the 
medical department of the University of Louisiana, and spent 
two years in the city hospital at Mobile, from thence \o the 
University of Pennsylvania, where, in 1859, he graduated with 
much distinction. On his return to Alabama he opened an of- 
fice at Prairie Bluff", where he enjoyed a lucrative practice and 
the confidence and respect of that influential and then wealthy 
population, until the war began. He entered the Confederate 
service as assistant surgeon, aud in a few months was promoted 



176 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

to surgeon, and served under Generals Bragg, Johnson and 
Hood, until the end of the war. In 1865 he opened an office in 
Selma, since which time he has been engaged in the practice 
of his profession. He is a member of the Selma Medical So- 
ciety, being its Secretary from 1867 to 1869, and Vice President 
in 1869-70, and its President in 1871-73, and is a member of the 
Medical State Association, and was elected its Secretary in 1873 
to serve for five years. Dr. Riggs has contributed quite a num- 
ber of most important articles to the Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal, and to the Medical Monthly, which have attracted much 
attention. In 1873 and 1878 he discharged the important duties 
of health officer of the city of Selma, and to his indefatigable 
perseverance and firmness in securing the enforcement of sani- 
tary regulations, is due the preventive of yellow fever in our 
city. We predict for Dr. Riggs a most enviable future in his 
profession. 

Dr. Walter P. i^eese— Located in Selma in 1851. He was 
born in Putnam county, Georgia, on the 30th day of November 
1818. He received a classical education at Rocky Mount, Au- 
tauga county, Alabama. He attended one course of lectures at 
the Medical University of Pennsylvania in 1840, and in 1842 
he attended a second course of lectures at the Medical Univer- 
sity of Louisville, where he graduated in 1842. In 1843 he es- 
tabh'shed himself in Lowndes county, near Pleasant Hill, and 
rapidly built up a most profitable practice, which he enjoyed 
until 1851, when he removed to Selma, where he soon enjoyed 
a very extensive practice. In 1848 he was elected a member of 
the State Medical Association, and from 1852 to 1857, was Treas- 
urer of that association. In 1865 66 he was President of the 
Selma Medical Society; was President of the Board of Health 
of the city in 1875, and in 1876-77 was Sanitary Superintendent 
and Registrar of Vital Statistics of the city, and we can safe- 
ly say, no one ever lived in .Selma who did more actual labor 
to secure good health to the people of the place than Dr. Wal- 
ter P. Reese. He has contributed freely to various medical 
journals, a great variety of interesting and important articles 
upon various questions and subjects. His essay upon yellow 
fever is certainly worthy the attention of the profession, as W(. 11 
as that upon typhoid fever ; among the other subjects he has 
given attention was his article, "Marasmus peculiar to the black 
race," "Hypodermic Medication," "On the use of the Obstetric 
Forceps,"" Influence of the mind in health and disease," "Abor- 
tions," "Public Hygiene," "Sickness Tax," "Drainage," "Food 
Inspection," Sclux)l Hygiene," "Preventive Medicine," "San- 
itary Science," "Water Polution," and m."ny others we cannot 
now recc llect, all tending to attract thought and reflection not 
only from members of his j)rofesaion, but endtavoring to give 
light to the people how to enjoy health in life. His article upon 
Hypodermic Medication was published in 1861, urging the 
adoption of this new method of administering the tonics and 
ojnates, was greatly in advance of ail others, and his theory has 
been since very genendly adopted. The writings of Dr. Reese 
will for many years comujand the attention of iiis brother phy- 
sicians, tn politics he was an Old Line Whig, sup])orting Bell 
and Everett in 1860. In religion he was a most devout and 
faithful member of the Cumberland Presbyterian church for 
years before his death. He died at his residence in this city on 

4 . 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 177 

the 21st day of February, 1878, surrounded by his faraily, neigh- 
bors and friends — his death deplored by the entire community. 



Hugh Ferguson— Came to Selma in 1819, and was among tbe 
first settlers and business men of the place. He was born in 
Chester District, South Carolina, on the 9th day of December, 
1800. His parents moved from South Carolina to Tennessee 
when he was a mere youth, and in his 19th year he entered 
upon the responsibilities of life and came to Selma, and soon 
after he commenced clerking for the then extensive firm of 
WykofF & Pickens, in whicii capacity he remained for many 
years. In 1834 Mr. Pickens withdrew from the firm, devoting 
his attention to his planting interest. Mr. Ferguson succeeded 
him, and the firm became WykofF & Ferguson, which contin- 
ued about ten years, when Mr. WykofF withdrew from the firm 
and went to New York to live, Mr. Ferguson becoming the en- 
tire owner and proprietor of the business, wliich he continued 
for over five years. Having accumulated a handsome fortune 
by his strict attention and his fidelity in his business, he sold 
his goods and business to Walker & Kenan, and devoted his at- 
tention to his large planting interest, and much of his time was 
given to the various schemes calculated to develop the interest 
and growth of Selma, among them was the efforts to construct 
a railroad from Selma to the Tennessee river. He was Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the Selma and Tennessee railroad com- 
pany from the incipiency of that work until it was changed to 
the Alabama and Tennessee rivers railroad company in 1848, 
and it was to his persistent efForts that the Selma and Tennes- 
see railroad company was revived and succeeded by the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee rivers, which proved so successful in the 
construction of a first-class railroad, as is exhibited by the daily 
trains of passengers and freight witnessed on the now 
Selma, Rome & Dalton railroad. Mr. Ferguson was a prudent 
and upright man in all his business transactions, and the con- 
sequence of such a course in life resulted in his leaving at his 
deatli a handsome fortune to his family. 

On the 19th day of January, 1832, he married Miss Caroline 
Minter, daughter of Col. A. M. Minter, of Dallas county, and 
died on the 31st day of May, 1868, leaving a wife and nine chil- 
dren, five sons and four daughters to deplore his death. 

The eldest of his daughters was married on the 19th of Oc- 
tober, 1858, to Dr. Russell McCord, of Columbia, S. C. 

His second daughter. Miss Emily Florence, is a teacher, and 
has been for years a successful teacher in the Dallas Academy. 
She was educated in that institution under the tuition of Mrs. 
Johnson, and since that institution became a public school this 
lady has been one among its most popular teachers. 

The third daughter, on the 1st day of August, 1865, married 
Col. P. D. Barker, of New York. 

The fourth and youngest daughter married on the 18th day 
of January, 1870, Dr. R. M. Robertson, of Demopolis, Alabama. 

Anthony Minter, his eldest son, died on the 18th of October, 
1860, in the 25th year of his age, and was at the time of his 
death engaged as a clerk at the Commercial Bank in Selma. 
He had received a splendid education, and bid fair to make a 
useful and eminent man. 



178 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

T. C. Ferguson, bis second son, was married on the 14th day 
of December, 1870, to Lucy M. Jones, daughter of Robert Jones 
of Marion, Alabama, and is engaged in business in Selma. 

The third son, John James, has been a mail agent for several 
years on the Central Alabama railroad. 

The fourth sou, Joseph Pickens, is engaged in bookkeeping 
in Selma, and has the confidence of all who know his fidelity 
to business. 

The fifth and youngest son, Grey Chandler, is living in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, where he is engaged in a lucrative business. 

Mrs. Ferguson, his widow, is living in Selma, occupying the 
old homestead on Alabama street, enjoying good health in her 
old age, and greatly respected by all her neighbors. 

Br. Albert O. Mahry — Became a citizen of Selma in 1843, and 
engaged in the practice of his profession. He was born in 
Southampton county, Virginia, on the 7th day of September, 
1810. In 1837 he graduated in the Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania with much honors. He became very popular not only 
with the people of Selma, but also with those of the county of 
Dallas. He was elected to represent the county in the Lower 
House of the State Legislature in 1857-59-61-65. He died at his 
residence in Selma on the 22d day of February, 1874, greatly 
regretted by the community in which he had so long resided 
in a career of usefulness. 

Wm. Johnson— C&me to Selma in 1820 from the State of Vir- 
ginia, and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He purchased the 
lot at the corner of Water and Broad streets, which the store of 
Sultzbacher now occupies, built a small log house, there being 
no saw mills in the country at that period, and consequently no 
lumber, not even for flooring for houses, and opened his stock 
of goods, but soon after moved the log tenement and erected a 
good substantial plank building. He continued at this stand 
for years, and "Johnson's corner" is a familiar term to the older 
inhabitants of Selma. Mr. Johnson was very popular as a 
merchant, establishing a character for honesty and integrity 
which he carried to the grave. He died in the 81st year of his 
age, on the 20th day of May, 1873, at his residence on Alabama 
street, leaving a wife and a large family of children who were 
most fondly attached to him. 

Maj. W. E. Wailes— One of the leading dry goods merchants 
in the city, and the only American dealer in that line, com- 
menced business here in January, 1860, as bookkeeper for tbe 
house of Norris & Ware. Soon after, in 1861, he gave up his po- 
sition and entered the Confederate service in the late war as a 
private, and soon attained the rank of Major of calvary in the 
army of the West, and after serving his country gallantlj for 
nearly four years he returned to Selma, and in October, 1865, en- 
fiagedin business with N. Waller (who was nearly thirty years 
with Col. P. J. Weaver and A. M. Treadwell) under the firm 
name of Waller, Wailes & Co. The house under that name did a 
thriving business, svrviving all the difficulties under which so 
many Xouses tottered and fell, thiough a long stretch of 
years, taking a leading stand among our business houses and 
becoming known as one of our "solid" houses. In 1873 he 
formed a partnership with Maj. T. D. Cory, of Autauga county. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 179 

Messrs. Waller & Treadwell having in the mean time retired 
from the firm, and succeeded the old firm under the new name 
of Wailes & Cory. 

For four years the house thrived under the new name, doing 
as large a business in their line as any house in this section of 
the country, and in November, 1877, Maj. Wailes purchased the 
interest of Maj. Cory and succeeded in the management under 
the firm name of W. E. Wailes, and has attained a position in 
the ranks of our business houses, which is an enviable one — at 
the same time sustaining the reputation of this house as a solid 
one. 

By his untiring zeal and energy Maj. Wailes has gained a po- 
sition worthy of all his trials and difficulties, and again dem- 
onstrates what a man with the right sort of energy can make 
of himself. 



Dr. Edward Caw^i— Located in Selma in 1821 and engaged in 
the practice of his profession. He was born in Anne Arundal 
county, Maryland, on the 20th day of March, 1791. Dr. Gautt 
coming to the town in its infancy, had much to do in securing 
to the place its present importance. In 1823, through his influ- 
ence, Fraternal Lodge No. 28, of Masons, was organized, and 
in 1826 he was elected Intendentof the town, and by his firmness 
in enforcing the ordinances of the council, peace and order was 
maintained and respected in the town. Through his influence 
the first Medical Association of the State was organized in 
Selma ; his talent and energies for over thirty years were direc- 
ted to the elevation of his profession and the moral standing of 
the people among whom he lived, as well as the alleviation of 
the condition of the poor and suffering. He was educated at 
the University of Maryland, and graduated in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania in 1811, and for 
years was a private pupil of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush. 
He was the youngest man who had ever graduated at the 
Pennsylvania University at that date. Dr. Gantt having ac- 
cumulated a handsome fortune, having but one child — a daugh- 
ter, moved from Selma in 1850 and located near Syllocogga, 
Talladega county, Alabama, where he died on the 24th day of 
November, 1867. Before his death he made a will, donating 
two handsome lots to the city of Selma, situated at the South- 
east corner of Alabama and Franklin streets, for the purposes 
of a Lyceum, but as yet the city authorities have not taken 
charge of these lots of land. 

Hon. John T J/br^fan— Became a citizen of Selma in 1855. 
He is a native of Athens, Tennessee, and was born on the 20th 
of June, 1824. He came to Calhoun county, in this State, with 
his parents, in 1833, where he grew to manhood. Receiving a good 
education, he read law in the office of Wm. P. Chilton, in Talla- 
dega, and was admitted to the bar in 1845, and his eloquence and 
studious application to his profession, soon won for him a repu- 
tation and standing but few young men ever enjoyed. In 1860 
he was appointed on the Breckinridge ticket as Elector for the 
State, and most faithfully did he do his duty to his party; he 
canvassed the State thoroughly, and it was his eloquence and 
power of speech before the masses of A labama that did much 
to induce the people of the State to go with the Confederate 
movement. As soon as the call for men was made to sustain 



180 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

the Confederacy, Gen. Morgan carried out his declarations by 
his acts. A company was organized in Cahaba, where he was 
then residing, called the Cahaba Rifles, he enlisted as a private 
in that company, refusing all positions in the company offered 
him, except that of a fifer, upon which instrument it is said he 
is unsurpassed as a performer. His company went into the 5th 
Alabama Regiment, of which he was pursuaded to accept the 
position of Major in 1861, and in a short time Lieutenant Colo- 
nel of the same regiment. In 1862 he was tendered a commis- 
sion to raise a mounted regiment, which he did early in 1863, 
and operated principally in Tennessee and North Carolina, un- 
der the direction of Gens. Johnson and Hood. He was commis- 
sioned a Brigadier General in 1864, and commanded the 1st, 3d, 
4th, 7th and 41st Alabama Regiments. He represented Dallas 
county in the convention of 1861. Since the war Gen. Morgan 
has been closely engaged in the practice of the law in Selma, 
but seldom meddling in politics, and asking for no office. In 
1877 his party properly appreciating his ability and fitness for 
the position, called upon and elected him to represent Alabama 
in the United States Senate for six years, which position he oc- 
cupies, and we predict for him a high position in that great 
body. 

Hon, Willis S. Burr — Located in Selma in 1844. He was 
born in Vermont on the 15th day of June, 1802. He read law 
in Montpelier, Vermont, and came to Conecuh county, Alabama, 
in 1830, and engaged in the practice of his profession. In 1835 
he was elected Judge of the County Court of Conecuh county, 
which position he filled for six years. On his location at Sehna 
he entered into copartnership with H. A. Holcombe. This 
firm was appointed attorneys for Dallas county for the Breuch 
Bank of the State of Alabama at Mobile, which held a large 
amount of claims against the citizens of Dallas. This duty they 
discharged to the satisfaction of the Governor of the State. 
Judge Burr became at once on his location in Selma one of the 
most devoted and faithful friends to her system of railroads, so 
much that almost his entire time and talents were devoted to 
the railroad enterprises in which Selma proposed to engage ; 
and beyond all doubts, was the most accurate and best posted 
railroad man in the South. While he was much devoted to the 
Alabama and Tennessee, and the Alabama and Mississippi, the 
Selma and Gulf road was his favorite scheme, and he regarded its 
construction of the most vital importance to the interests of 
Selma, and predicted for it a great success when completed. He 
was the prime mover in the Selma and Gulf road, and was its 
Secretary and Treasurer from its organization to the day of his 
death. His memory deserves to be cherished by the people of 
Selma. His character was unspotted. He died at the residence 
of Col. John W. Lapsley, near Calera, Shelby county, in 1869. 

Hon. Wm. M. 5rooA;s— Became a citizen of Selma, in 1855 
and engaged in the practice of the law. He is a native of Sum- 
ter District, S. C, and was born November 18th, 1815. He was 
educated at Columbia College, and came to Marengo county with 
parents in 1833. He was admitted to the bar in 1837, in Maren- 
go county, where he made his first effort at the bar, and which 
we believe the Judge himself admits was not of a very flatter- 
ing character, yet, if such was the case, he made ample amends 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 181 

for it in his future brilliant and successful practice. He pi-ac- 
ticed in Linden until 1850; in 1840 he was elected solicitor of 
that Judicial Circuit, and again in 1844, and in 1846 resigned 
the office of solicitor, and moved to Mobile, where he practiced 
law for two years, when he moved to Marion, Perry county. In 
1857 Gov. Winston appointed him to the Circuit Bench to fill 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon A. B. Moore, to 
accept the nomination for Governor. The coming year he was 
elected to the same position by the people of the circuit. In 
1860 he was elected from Perry to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of the State, which adopted the ordinance of secession, and 
of which body he was chosen President. During the war he 
was very active in giving aid and sustainance to soldier's fami- 
lies, and to a very great extent from his own means; many 
were the families of soldiers whose distresses were relieved by 
the kindness and charity of Judge Brooks, and from his own 
pocket. In 1865 he went to the Gulf coast with a company. 
Since the war Judge Brooks has been devoting his entire time 
to his profession in this city, and enjoys the confidence and 
friendship of the courts, the bar and the people, 

J. D. Croig. — James D. Craig was born in Chester District, 
South Carolina, December 2d, 1800. His parents removed with 
him to Tennessee when he was about six years old, and from 
there they came with him to Dallas county, Ala., when he was 
a youth. They settled near Craig's ferry, on the Cahaba river, 
eight miles from Selma shortly after Alabama became a State. 
His educational advantages were limited to a year or two at a 
country school, but while at work on his father's farm and in 
his blacksmith shop, besought every opportunity to improve 
his mind by reading and study; and after a few years of his 
early manhood thus spent, he tootc charge of a country school, 
which he taught one year and then removed to Selma and em- 
ployed at twelve dolhirs per month as a clerk in a dry goods 
store in a small framed building that stood where the Savings 
Bank now stands. He spent several years thus employed in 
Selma, and was then employed as a clerk in the land office at 
Cahaba, Alabama, then tne capital of the State. Some years 
after he was elected Clerk of the County Court of Dallas coun- 
ty, and served several terms in said office, during which tinae 
he studied law, and was admitted to the practice. At the expi- 
ration of his last term of office as clerk he commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession at Cahaba. He was married to Elvira S. 
Berry, at Cahaba. Oct. 25, 1832. and lived in Cahaba until 1866,. 
when he removed to Selma. He amassed by his industry at his 
profession a comfortable fortune, which was swept away by the 
late war. He raised a family of 9 children, and although his 
fortune is gone, the name and character established by him as 
a man, a citizen and a christian, is a heritage that is to them 
more than gold. In 1874, when 74 years of age, he, with his 
aged wife, removed to San Francisco, California, where he now 
resides, in robust health, actively engaged in the practice of his 
profession. He was for near forty years an elder in the Presby- 
terian church at Cahaba, and is now a deacon in Dr. Scott's 
Presbyterian church of San Francisco. He is a self-made man 
in the true sense of the word, a man of the old school, always 
firm and determined in what he believes to be right and con- 
sistent in all things. He belonged to the old Wliig party, was 



182 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

opposed to secession and to the war ; but after it began he gave 
freely his sons and his money to the service of the South. Just 
before Gen. Grant invested Vicksburg he visited his son, who 
was then as a soldier in an Alabama regiment, and remained 
throughout the seige with the army. 

One of his sons, William Craig, was a Captain in the 28th 
Alabama regiment during the war, promoted from the ranks 
for gallantry, was captured at Missionary ridge fight, in the fore 
front of battle, placed in a box car with anumber of otner pris- 
oners, with guards in the car, and when in four miles of Nash- 
ville, on his way to prison, escaped by jumping from a window 
of the car when the train was at full speed, made his way to 
where there was a camp of nine other Confederate soldiers, 
with them captured horses from the Federal troops, and after 
fighting liis way to the Tennessee river, swam across and ar- 
rived at his home in Cahaba a month after the fight at Mis- 
sionary ridge. He soon rejoined his regiment and was wound- 
ed at Atlanta in a charge on the Federal works, recovered, re- 
joined his regiment and surrendered with Gen. Joe Johnson's 
army. He was elected to the Legislature during Gov. Patton's 
administration, and served one term and then removed to San 
Francisco, where he now resides in the practice of the iaw. 
Another son, B. H. Craig, Esq., is the Register of the Chan- 
cery Court, and has been for ten years, and another, Geo. H. 
Craig, is now the Judge of the First Judicial Circuit of Ala- 
bama. 



Oen. John F. Conoley— Came to Selma in 1833. He was born 
in Robinson county, North Carolina, on the 6th day of May, 
1811. On his locating, he, in copartnership vfith Wm. Wad- 
dell, Jr., engaged in merchandising under the firm name of 
John F. Conoley & Co., which firm enjoyed a large share of the 
trade of the town, and was continued for many years. In 1836, 
when the Creek Indians commenced depredations upon the 
whites in the Creek Nation, and troops were called for, he or- 
ganized a volunteer company in a very few days, the Selma 
Rangers, and reported to the corhmanding officers at Tuskegee, 
ready for service. In 1843 he was elected SheritT of Dallas 
county, and on retiring from the Sherifl"'s office, he was admit- 
ted to the bar of Dallas county, and opened an office in Selma, 
where he enjoyed a lucrative practice for years. When the war 
between the North and South began he organized a volunteer 
.company made up of young men, partly of Selma, Shelby 
and Bibb counties, and went into the 29th Alabama Regiment, 
of which he was elected Lieutenant Colonel, and in a short 
time to that of Colonel of that regiment, and was engaged in 
all the battles from Chattanooga to Jonesboro. At Resaca he 
was severely wounded by a cannon ball. At the election in 
1867, under the reconstruction acts of Congress, Gen. Conoley 
was elected Judge of tiie Probate Court of Dallas county, which 
position he retained for six years. After retiring from the Pro- 
bate Judgeship he again opened his law office in Selma and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. Gen. Conoley has al- 
ways given aid to all the schemes of enterprise intended to ad- 
vance the interest of Selma and her people. He is and has been 
a devout member of the Presbyterian church, and is universal- 
ly respected for his strict integrity and honor. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 183 

Hon. O, H. Craig.— Qeorge H, Craig was born at Cahaba, 
Alabama, December 25tb, 1845, attended a school in that place 
until he was sixteen years old, when he entered the Confederate 
service. His health from early childhood was feeble, and after 
remaining a few months in service he returned to his home and 
entered the University of Alabama as a student and military 
cadet. He was promoted whilst there to a first lieutenancy of 
infantry, and the Alabama cadets being a part of the Htate 
army, was twice ordered into service with the cadets, serving 
with the Confederate troops at Mobile, Pollard and Blakely. Af- 
ter the war he removed to Selma in 1865, at theage of nineteen, 
and commenced the study of law in the office of Messrs. White 
& Portis. In December, 1866, at the age of twenty-one, he was 
admitted to practice, and soon after became a member of the 
firm of White, Portis & Craig, and afterwards of White & Craig. 
He was elected Solicitor of Dallas county in 1867, but ©n ac- 
count of a military order by the Federal General commanding 
the department, forbidding elections at that time, he was not 
permitted to enter upon the duties of said oflflce. In 1869, on 
the recommendation of the bar of Dallas county, he was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Smith to the office of SherifT, which ofiice he 
held until the22d day of March, 1870, when he was elected on 
the Republican ticket to the office of Judge of the Criminal 
Court of Dallas county. He continued in this position until 
October, 1874. when he was appointed by Governor Lewis to 
the office of Judge of th 1st Judicial Circuit of Alabama, to fill 
an unexpired term caused by the resignation of Judge Milton 
J. SafFold. He was nominated by the Republican party for the 
office of Judge of the 1st Judicial Circuit in July prior to this 
last appointment, and elected for a term of six years by a large 
majority over Judge Moore, the Democratic candidate, on No- 
vember 4th. 1874. He now resides in Selma, and his term of 
office expires November, 1880. He is the youngest Judge in the 
State, being now only tliirty-three years old, was twenty-eight 
years old when elected Circuit Judge, and only twenty-four 
years of age when elected Judge of the Criminal Court, and we 
can safely say no Judge in the State gives more general satis- 
faction to the bar, to jurors, to parties at intent, and to the pub- 
lie generally, and the records of the Supreme Court of the 
State show that fewer of his decisions are reversed than that of 
any Circuit Judge in Alabama. 

Professor L. B. Johnson and Mrs. Harriet B. Johnson. — Our 
history would not be complete without some mention of these 
two worthy and eminent people, who did so much to inaugu- 
rate a system of education which proved so successful and use- 
ful in the city. In 1842 they opened a male and female school 
in the old wooden Cumberland Presbyterian church building on 
the corner of Church and Dallas streets, where they taught a 
few months and opened the second session in the old wooden 
building used as a Presbyterian church on the corner of Wash- 
ington and Dallas streets, where they taught one session. In 
the meantime the Ladies' Academy Association, in connection 
with the Masons of the town, had received as a donation to the 
town from Mr. Johnson the lot on which Wm. Weaver now re- 
sides, and erected a good wooden two-story brick building. In 
1844 Prof. Johnson and his wife opened a male and female 
school, assuming the name of the Dallas Male and Female 



184 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Academy, in this building, Prof. Johnson as Superintendent of 
the male, and Mrs. Johnson that of the female department. 
This school soon became so large that the building was not suf- 
ficient to accommodate the children. A subscription was raised, 
and again the Ladies' Academy Association came to the rescue. 
Wm. Johnson again made a donation of the lot upon 
which the Dallas Female Academy building now stands, and 
soon a good substantial wooden building was erected, and in 
1845, the session was opened — the brick building on Alabama 
street being used for the male and the wooden building at the 
corner of Church and Selma streets, used as the female depart- 
ment. Prof, Johnson controlling the male, and Mrs. Johnson 
the female department. Thus the school continued until 1850, 
all the time prospering, and giving the most complete satisfac- 
tion to the public. There are hundreds of the best men and 
women in Alabama and other States, who were educated, and 
who graduated during this period of the Dallas Male and Fe- 
male Academy who remember until this day Prof. L. B. John- 
sou and his venerable lady with the most delightful pleasure. 
In 1851 Mr. and Mrs. Johnson were called to take charge of the 
Camden Male and Female Academy at Camden, Wilcox coun- 
ty, leaving Selma, which was generally regretted. After these 
popular teachers left the Dallas Academy, the institution grad- 
ually declined, and continued to do so until the fall of 1853, 
when Mr. and Mrs. Johnson returned to Selma and again took 
charge of the institution. During their absence the building 
had become involved in debt, and the brick building for the 
male department had gone into the hands of Col. P. J. Weav- 
er. In October, however, a female school was opened in the 
wooden building, the death of Prof. L. B. Johnson taking place 
on the 6th day of October, 1853, just six days after the opening 
of the school. Mrs. Johnson, notwithstanding her troubles, 
continued to conduct the school until the eud of the session. 

Mrs. Johnson having given such general satisfaction, she 
was induced to again commence a session on tlie first day of 
October, 1854, and continued without interruption to manage 
and direct the Dallas Female Academy with unparrelled suc- 
cess until 1864, when, becoming in feeble health, she abandoned 
the school and no further efforts were made by the trustees to 
kee,j up a school until 1866. 

VVe can safely say that no institution in the State had more 
substantial friends than did the Dallas Academy while under 
the control of Mr. and .Vtrw. Johnson, nor did the Dallas Female 
Academy while under the control of Mrs. Harriet B. Johnson. 
It could number among its special friends and patrons Col. P, I. 
Weaver, Col. T. B. Goldsby, Hugh Ferguson, Gen. John Brant- 
ly, Wm. Johnson, Judge J. 8. Hunter, and many other such 
men. 

Numbers of men during the late war found the military 
training given them when l>oys, by Prof. Johnson, of inestima- 
ble service, and from the possession of such training was there 
many an important ottice bestowed upon the possessor. 

Prof. L. B. Johnson was born in Putney, Vermont, in 1805, 
and was educated at Middlebury College, in that State. After 
receiving his education he went to Raleigh. N. C, in 1835, 
where he became principal of the Raleigh High School for the 
education of boys, and where he remained one year. Through 
the intluence of friends he moved to Summerfield in 1836 be-- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 185 

coming the principal of the Pleasant Valley Male Academy, 
Miss Harriet Beuham, (afterwards Mrs, Johnson) having charge 
of the female department of that school. In the fall of 1836 
Mr. Johnson and Miss Benham were married, and in 1837 he 
moved to and located at Bastrop, Texas, where he engaged in 
tlie practice of law in partnership with Hon. W. P. Hill, 
brother of Senator Hill, of Georgia. But in consequence of the 
disturbed condition of afRiirs in Texas, in 1841 he returned to 
Alabama and to S'ehna the following year, 1843, commenced 
teaching the school which afterwards proved so successful and 
so benefiL'ial to the interests of i^elma. He died at the residence 
of Hugh Ferguson, in this city, on the sixth day of October, 
1853, much beloved by all who knew him. 

Prof. Lucius Bradford Johnson was a man of great benevolence, 
and at the sacrifice of every selfish consideration gave his ef- 
forts to advance knowledge and promote the indigent scholar, 
and few in their vocation have done more real charity, for dur- 
ing his whole course as a teacher, lie made it a special duty to 
educate the poor and worthy youth. 

Mrs. Harriet B. Johnson, or Miss Harriet B. Benham, was 
born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 30th day of April, 1850, 
and was educated at the diflferent schools of that State. She 
came South, to Milledgeville, Georgia, in 1829, and opened a 
select school for the education of young ladies, where she taught 
for two years, thence to LaGrauge, in the same State, where 
she established a female school, which she taught for four years. 
She was called in 1835 to Summerfield, Dallas county, Ala- 
bama, to take charge of the female department of the Pleas- 
ant Valley Academy at that place, which position she retain- 
ed until married in 1836. It is not inappropriate for us to say 
that Mrs. Johnson came from a family noted as teachers and 
pioneers in the cause of education, as were Mrs. Emma Wil- 
lard, founder of the famous Troy Female Seminary, of New 
York, Mrs. Almira Lincoln Phelps, of Baltimore, and Elijah 
Hinsdal Burnitt, the famous astronomer and mathametician. 
Mrs. Johnson is at this time on a visit among her old friends, 
pupils and patrons in Selma, who are always glad to receive 
her, and though seventy-four years of age, is in good health, 
and we are glad to say, promises many years of life. 

Hon. Win. M Byrd—Q&me to Selma in 1853, from Marengo 
county. He was born in Perry county, Mississippi, December 
1st, 1819. He read law and was admitted to the bar at Holly 
Springs, Mississippi, and at Linden, Marengo county, Alabama, 
in 1841, and in 1851 represented Marengo county in the State 
Legislature ; in f853 he located at Selma, and became the part- 
ner in the law firm of J. W. Lapsley and D. S. Troy. In 1865 
he became a member of the Supreme Court, which position he 
held until 1868, after which he practiced his profession in con- 
nection with his son, Wm. M. Byrd, Jr., until the day of his 
unfortunate death. In the fall of 1874 Judge Byrd was return- 
ing home on the Selma, Rome & Dalton railroad train from Co- 
lumbiana, where he had been attending to some important le- 
gal matters between Horace Ware as one party and the Shelby 
Iron Works Company on the other. The train had gone but a 
few miles after Judge Byrd got on the cars before a most mel- 
ancholy accident happened. As the train ran upon the bridge 
over Wdxahatchie creek, the bridge gave way, precipitating 



186 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

the entire tiain of cars into the creek, some thirty feet distance, 
with all the passengers on the train. Judge Byrd was instant- 
ly killed, and next day, the 25th of September, 1874, his re- 
mains were brought to the city, and so sacred were the attach- 
ment and affection of his family, they had his remains interred 
on the lot of the family residence, where they now rest. Judge 
Byrd was a man of high moral standing, and possessed a most hu- 
mane and pious heart. He was a most active member of the 
Methodist church, and was universally beloved for his kindness 
and charity. 

Edward Ikelheimer — Came to Selma in the fall of 1844. He 
was born in Bavaria, Germany, on the 15th day of September, 
1819. After receiving a clas-ical and commercial education in 
several of the higher class of schools in his native country, in 
the spring of 1844, and in his 24th year, he came to the city of 
New York, but being of an adventurous disposition, he came 
South, seeking a new field for the exercise of his talents as a 
trader, and finally settled in Selma in the fall of 1844, and with 
only a few hundred dollars, opened a store, and by his fidelity 
to his business, and his natural disposition to please those who 
patronized him, he soon built up a thriving trade, notwith- 
standing the public prejudice then existing in this section of 
country against foreigners In 1849 he entered into copartner- 
ship with A. Collenburger, a wealthy merchant of New York, 
which firm did a large business for years on Broad street, in a 
building one door above where Dr. Gradick is now doing busi- 
ness. There never has been in Selma a more successful mer- 
chant and business man, and perhaps no man has ever lived in 
Selma who has done more to aid the production of the country. 
He has been elected several times on the Board of Equalization 
of taxes for the city, and as a merchant, as an officer, and as a 
citizen, he has ever fulfilled his obligations, and we can safely 
say now that he enjoys the confidence of the community in 
which he lives. 



Hon. Noadiah Woodruff— C&me to Selma in 1865. He is a 
native of the beautiful village of Farmiugton, Connecticut, 
where be was born on the 8th day of December, 1829. After 
receiving a common school education in his native village, and 
arriving at manhood, he determined to come f:^outh to seek busi- 
ness and a fortune, and after traveling over several of the South- 
ern States he located in the town of Talladega, Alabama, 
where, with a limited capital, he engaged in business, where he 
continued until after the war. Mr. Woodruff gave his entire 
attention to his business, but when the war cafi.e on he volun- 
teered and served in the 31st Alabama Regiment, doubting, 
however, as thousands of other Southern men did, the expe- 
diency of secession. At the end of the war he found pretty 
much all he had accumulated for the past ten years gone, and 
he was left poor again. Selma offered a good field for his busi- 
ness ability, where he opened an office in connection with A. 
W. Duncan in the fall of 1865, as a cotton factor and commis- 
sion merchant. Soon after Mr. Duncan withdrew from the 
firm, succeeded by B. M. Woolley. Mr. Woolley withdrew af- 
ter a short time, and was succeeded by Mr. North, the firm be- 
ing now Woodruff & North, a firm enjoying the fullest confi- 
dence of tbe public. Mr. Woodruff having established for him- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 187 

self a reputation as a safe business man, and popular with all 
classes, the people being tired of the continued political struggles 
in city elections, a very large number of the citizens called 
upon him in 1875 to become a candidate for Mayor irrespective 
of party. He was elected to tbat office by a very handsome 
majority over Col. B, M. Woolsey, one among the most popular 
citizens of the city, but who bad been nominated by the Demo- 
cratic party. He was again elected to the same oflflce in 1877, 
as an independent candidate by an increased majority over W. 
C. Ward, Esq., another personally popular citizen, but who was 
run as the nominee of the Democratic party. Mr. Woodruff 
is now serving his second term as Mayor of the city, in which 
capacity he has given public approbation, and his administra- 
tion characterized for its prudence and economy. 

Dr. H. F. Mullen — Came to Selma in 1860. He is a native of the 
city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and was born in 1838. Leaving his 
parents when only four years old, he was raised by a bachelor 
friend and bis two widowed sisters, intimate friends of his pa- 
rents. After receiving a good classical education, and on ar- 
riving at the age of twenty-one years, in 1852 he commenced 
reading medicine, and in March, 1858, he graduated in the 
medical department of the University of Louisiana. After 
practicing two years in Tuscaloosa, he moved to Selma and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession, in which he was quite 
successful; so much so that a short time after his location in 
Selma he was elected to the office of city physician, the first 
city physician of Selma, which position he filled with entire 
satisfaction until 1862, when he was assigned as surgeon of the 
iJOth Alabama Regiment, of which I, W. Garrett was its Colo- 
nel. In this position he participated in all the trials and hard- 
ships of that regiment in Vicksburg, and afterwards in North 
Alabama and Tennessee. After the war, in 1865, he was again 
elected city physician, the duties of which position he dis- 
charged until 1866, when he retired from the practice, and has 
been adhering to his first teachings— that of living a bachelor 
at his neat cottage in the city. 



Col. Young L. Royston — Located in Selma to reside in 1870, 
and engaged in the warehouse and general commission busi- 
ness. He was born in 1827, in Perry county. He was educated 
at the State University at Tuscaloosa, and graduated at that 
institution with the highest honors. He read law in Ma- 
rion, was admitted to the bar of that county, and at once took 
rank among the lawyers who then composed the Perry bar. In 
1855, he was elected to the office of solicitor of that judicial 
circuit, and held that position for ten years, and proved to be a 
most faithful and popular officer; courteous to the court and 
bar, and affable to "the people, he was not long in becoming a 
most popular officer and man. When secession took place 
and fighting men were called upon to defend the action of the 
State of Alabama, Col. Royston abandoned the office of so- 
licitor—then a most profitable one— raised a company in a very 
few days in Perry, of which he became Captain, and entered 
the Eighth Alabama Regiment. He was most conspicuous in 
all the battles around Richmond, in which the Eighth Alaba- 
ma was engaged, was wounded at Gaines' Mill, and at the bat- 
tle of Salem church was dangerously wounded. In 1865 he 



188 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

was assigned to the position of commander of the Post of Sel- 
ma, which position he held when Gen. Wilson captured Selma 
in April of the same- year. The large and bold features, his 
large and tall form (being six feet and eight inches high) 
makes the impression at once upon the observer, that he is a 
man of mark. Col. Roystou, since his residence in Selma, has 
devoted his entire time and attention to his business, in which 
he is universally popular among the people, and consequently 
enjoys the profits of a most lucrative business. 

Col. John W. Lapslep— Came to Dallas county, where he 
had relatives, in the year 1826, when a youth ; coming from 
Kentucky where he was brought up, though as understood a 
native of Tennessee, his parents having been Virginians. He 
came to Selma in 1826, and was employed for several years as 
clerk or salesman in a mercantile house. He then embarked in 
the mercantile business in Selma with Mr. R. H. Croswell, in 
which he remained some eighteen months or two years, when 
he sold out to his partner, and returned to Kentucky, where he 
attended the Transylvania law school at Lexington until he 
graduated in 1835. He then returned to Selma and commenced 
the practice of law, and soon got into a lucrative practice, 
which became very large and profitable, and continued so until 
he retired from the practice in the year 1859 or 1860. Large as 
was his practice, he found time to devote much attention to the 
railroads of Selma, especially the Alabama and Tennessee river 
road, with all of which roads he was officially connected, and 
took a leading part in them from their inception, and aided 
them very liberally by his means. It is understood that he 
gave up eventually his large and lucrative law practice mainly 
on account of his connection with the railroads, thereby ma- 
king large pecuniary sacrifices. The leading part he took in 
the formation of the Selma, Rome & Daltou railroad, and in 
bringing about the measures that resulted in its comf.Jetion, 
are of too recent date and too generally known to require any- 
thing more than a reference to them. 

Chancellor Joseph JR. John— Became a citizen of Selma in 
1856, and engaged in the practice of law. He was born in Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, in 1814, and came to this State in 1838, 
and taught school for several years in Perry county, and while 
thus engaged, read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1841 ; 
he located at Woodville, in Perry county, and by his upright 
course, his strict attention to business soon gained for him a 
most lucrative practice. In 1847 he represented Perry county 
in the State Legislature, where he occupied a prominent posi- 
tion, and to him is due much of the wise legislation that char- 
acterized that body of that session. In 1855 he was one of the 
leading men of the State in the great temperence movement of 
that <lay. In 1862 he was elected Mayor of Selma, and in j8G3 
was elected Chancellor, which position he held with much sat- 
isfaction to the bar and litigants until the reconstruction acts 
of Congress changed the State government, since which time 
he has followed his profession in Selma, with the same close 
attention and good faith to his clients that has always charac- 
terized this most worthy and excellent man. He has associa- 
ted with him in the practice of his profession, Wm. H. Fel- 
lows, Es(i., and Will S. John, his eldest son. 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 189 

Hon. Benjamin M. Woolsey—Vf as, born uear Athens, Geor- 
gia, and commenced bis residence in Selma in 1847, He was 
educated at Emory Collej^e, Georgia, where be prepared him- 
self for the bar, and in 1844 he opened an office in the city of 
Mobile, where be soon gained the confidence of the business 
community, and enjoyed a large and lucrative practice, until 
his declining health forced him to give up his practice in 1846, 
when he moved in a few miles of Selma, in Dallas county, 
where be invested largely in a plantation and slaves, and the 
next year located within the city of Selma, and until the end 
of the war be engaged extensively in planting in the country, 
and a commission business in the city. Perhaps no man ever 
resided in Selma who was, and is now, more popular with all 
classes of people than Col. Woolsey. In 1856 he was nominated 
by the Whig party of Dallas to represent the county in the 
State Legislature, and was elected by an increased majority of 
his party. On the assembling of the Legislature his talents and 
legislative ability gave him great influence in that body. In 
1857 be was again elected to the Legislature. The next year he 
was placed on the Fillmore Electoral Ticket, and did his party 
great service by carrying the District, which had always been 
Democratic, for the Fillmore ticket. In 1857 he declined the 
nomination of his party for Congress. In 1862 Gov. Watts ap- 
pointed him the "Salt commissioner of the State," the duties of 
which position he discharged until the end of the war. Col. 
Woolsey has done much to aid Selma in her strides to greatness 
and wealth. Since he first became a citizen of Selma, he has 
taken an active part in all public enterprises. He has been a 
member of almost every railroad convention held in any part 
of the country, in which Selma was in the least interested. He 
has filled the position of President of the fire department of the 
city for the last ten years, and but the other day he induced the 
department to excuse him from further service, which wish 
was granted upon the conditii.n that his son, Mr. M. Woolsey, 
would consent to occupy the place his father had so faithfully 
filled for so many years. His attention has not been diverted 
fronj his duties to his God. For the last twenty-five years he 
has been a most active and devoted member of the Methodist 
church. Col. Woolsey is now engaged in the commission busi- 
ness in the firm of Woolsey & Sons, which firm is one among 
the largest, if not the largest, commission houses in Alabama. 

Qoi. N. H. B. Dawson— Became a citizen of Selma in 1858, and 
engaged in the practice of law, and soon after formed a partner- 
ship with Hon. E. W. Pettus, which firm has existed up to the 
present, having enjoyed a most extensive practice. The firm in 
1875 became Pettus, Dawson & Tillman. Col Dawson was born 
in Charleston, S. C, in 1829, but came to Dallas county in 1842 ; 
was educated at St. Joseph College at Mobile, read law with his 
father. Col. L E. Dawson and the Hon. George R. Evans, of 
Cabawba, and admitted to the bar at Cahawba in 1851. He 
was one of the delegates to the Democratic National Conven- 
tion at Charleston, and among that portion of the delegation 
who withdrew from that convention and agreed to go to 
Richmond. In 1860 he was elected Captain of the "Magnolia 
Cadets," a voluntetr military company, composed of the best 
young men of the city of Selma, and in 1861, when the tocsin 
of war was sounded, and fighting men were called for to sus- 



190 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

tain the new government that had been formed at Montgomery, 
Col. Dawson and his gallant cadets responded without a dissen- 
ting voice, and at once rallied under the standard of Beauregard 
in Virginia, and were in the hottest of the battle of the first Ma- 
nassa. In 1863 Col. Dawson was elected to represent Dallas 
couuty in the State Legislature, and at the close of the war in 
1865 was in command of a batallion of cavalry operating on 
the State coast. Since the war closed Col. Dawson has been en- 
gaged in his profebsion, and with those who know him well, is 
very popular, because it is impossible to properly appreciate his 
good and benevolent nature, unless he is intimately known. 

Wesley Plattenburg, Esq , — Located in Selma, in 1829. He 
was born in Anne Aruudal county, Maryland, on ttie 13th day 
of April, 1803. His parents moved from Maryland, when he 
was only two years old, to Brooke county, Virginia. On his 
arrival in S-'ltua he engaged in business as a merchant tailor, 
which he continued for years. By his kindness and many acts 
of friendship to a young man by the name of Wood, he be- 
came in possession of a very fine estate at the death of Mr. 
Wood, since which time he has devoted his entire attention to 
planting near the city, until within a few years ago, he moved 
to Giles county, Tennessee, where he has continued to devote 
his time and attention to planting and raising stock. Mr. 
Plattenburg has done much to aid Selma in her strides of 
greatness. He was always ready to contribute to advance all 
the great schemes which has resulted so successfully in making 
Selma the city it is. He was for years an active member of the 
city council, and took the lead in that body of systamatizing 
the aflairs of city the for many years. 

Edward N. Medley— Ca,me to Selma in 1865. He was born 
in Lawrence District, South Carolina, on the 10th day of June, 
1821. He was left an orphan, both of his parents dying while 
he was quite young, and consequently his opportunities for an 
education were quite limited. The treaty having been made 
with the Creek Indians In East Alabama in 1836, he emigrated 
from South Carolina to Russell county, Alabama, where he re- 
sided until about 1841, when he moved to Greene county, Ala- 
bama, there pursuing the laudable occupation of farming, un- 
til the end of the war, when he located in Selma. Having a 
few dollars left from the general wreck of all things by the re- 
sult of the war, he invested a few hundred dollars judi- 
ciously in real estate in the Eastern portion of the city, where 
he has resided since 1865. Mr. Medley has been quite a useful 
citizen, always ready to take his part as a good citizen in all the 
affairs of the city, and highly respected by all bis neighbors. 

John C. Waite—CsLvne to Selma in 1853. He was born in the 
State of Rhode Island, on the 29th day of April, 1826. On his 
location in Selma he was placed in the responsible position of 
road master of the Alabama and Tennessee rivers railroad, the 
duties of which position he discharged for eight years to the 
fullest satisfaction of the company. Afterwards he was elected 
to the same position on the Alabama and Mississippi rivers 
railroad, and after filling this position for five years he resign- 
ed, to fill the position of Marshal of the city, and in the dis- 
charge of the duties of thisoftice he performed them to the entire 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 191 

satisfaction of the people of the city. He has been elected sev- 
eral times a member of the city council, and has been connec- 
ted with the city government in various positions for a number 
of years, and we can safely say that there is scarcely a street in 
the city but to-day bear evidences of the skill and labor of Mr. 
Waite. He is now in charge of the construction department of 
the Selma & Gulf railroad. 



Simeon C. P^erce— Came to rielma in 1852. He was born in 
Somerset county, Maine, on the 22d day of February, 1822, 
He served an apprenticeship of six years at the business of 
machinist and engineer in Lowell, Massachusetts. Soon after 
the expiration of his apprenticeship he was employed in Low- 
ell by Governor Drew, of Florida, to come to Columbus, Geor- 
gia, and put up some machinery for a variety works, then be- 
ing established there by Gov. Drew and Col. John G. Winter, 
in 1848. In putting up the machinery for the works in ("olum- 
bus. Col. Winter soon discovered the skill and ability of Mr. 
Pierce as a machinist and engineer, and as soon as he finished 
the work in Columbus, Col. Winter employed him to go to 
Montgomery and take charge of Ihe Montgomery Ii'ou Works, 
in which capacity he remained until became to Selma, through 
the advice of Col. S. W. Terrell, the general Superintendent of 
the Alabama Manufacturing Company, in 1852, where he was 
employed about one year, when he was engaged by the Ala- 
bama and Tennessee rivers railroad company, as a locomotive 
engineer, and continued in the employ of that company until 
1855, when he went into the employment of the Alabama and 
Mississippi rivers railroad company as its master mechanic, and 
under his direction, and with his labor, the locomotive "Cane- 
brake," the first engine on that road, and the "Uniontown," 
the second engine ever put on that road, were put up. To 
such a degree of satisfaction did Mr. Pierce discharge his res- 
ponsible duties of master mechanic, that the board of directors of 
the road, on the receipt of the third engine for the road, voted 
to name it the "S. C. Pierce." He held this position until the 
war between the North and South commenced, the results of 
which caused such general confusion of States, property 
and people. Mr. Pierce is now, and has been for years, engaged 
in business at his shop in East Selma. 

John MeOrathy—Whoxa everybody in and around Selma 
knew for years as "Uncle Johnnie," deserves at our hand a 
more extensive notice than we can give him. He was born on 
the 29th day of March, 1799, in Waterford county, Ireland. At 
twelve years of age he entered the English Navy, where he 
served about six years, and which service he left without either 
the permission or knowledge of his oflBcers, and entered the 
American Navy, where he served out an honorable enlistment 
of seven years. He then engaged in the American FlHlieries 
on the coasts of New Foundland, which he followed until 1835, 
when he came to Selma, and followed for years the occupation 
of dilching, and many are the acres of land in Dallas county 
made productive by the labor of "Uncle Johnnie," all the time 
making Selma his home. For years he was a faithful city sex- 
ton, always ready to extend help to the needy, never had an 
enemy — every one his friend who knew him, and died on the 
4th day of June, 1878, surrounded by friends, and universally 
regretted by all. 



192 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Wm. J. iVorm— Came to Selma in 1826, when quite a youth. 
He was born iu Georgia, where his parents moved from Mary- 
land, and were among the earliest settlers of the older portion 
of Georgia. His father was a Revolutionary soldier, and died 
when the subject of this notice was only eight years old. He 
commenced business in Selma as a clerk, and in 1832, notwith- 
standing' his early age, he engaged in the mercantile business 
with James Douglass and M. G. Woods, under the Arm name 
of Douglass, Woods & Norris, and in a short time after he with- 
drew from the firm of Douglass, Woods & Norris, and became 
a partner of Wm. Johnson, the business being conducted under 
the firm of Johnson & Norris. Mr. Johnson retiring in a few 
year3, the firm then became W. J. & J. A. Norris, which firm 
continued as one of the most prosperous and successful of the 
city for a long series of years, and in fact until 1856, when the 
Commercial Bank of Alabama was organized in Selma, when 
Wm. J. Norris was chosen its President, which position he 
held until the close of the war. This bank over which Mr. 
Norris presided as its chief officer, was one of the most success- 
ful and popular in the South, and no moneyed institution any- 
where had a better standing for solvency than the Commercial 
Bank of Alabama from the day it was organized until all in the 
South went down together. The bank did a large business, 
and never lost a dollar, until the end of the war, which event 
found the capital of the bank in Alabama Confederate bonds, 
and in this way was the capital stock of this popular institu- 
tion lost. Mr. Norris has always been one of our most useful 
and enterprising men. No project was ever proposed for the 
advancement of the interests of the people of Selma but he was 
always ready to extend a helping hand. Not only in public en- 
terprises did he engage, but numbers of buildings are now 
standing in various parts of the city which his private means 
were contributed to construct ; among the many of which we 
can mention the splendid and beautiful residence Mrs. Pernell 
now occupies, that where Judge Pettus resides, and that which 
the late Mr. StantoJi lived in, on Church street,did his means con- 
struct. Thatsplendid buildingof the Commercial Bank, located 
on the corner of Broad and Selma streets, did he not only aid in 
constructing, but it was built under his immediate personal su 
pervision and direction, and it is said by those who are judges 
to be one of the best buildings in the South. Many are the 
shade trees, rose bushes and shrubbery Mr. Norris has directed 
in planting in the city. He is the first man who introduced 
the white mulberry and mock orange in the city as shade 
trees. He has done much in beautifying and ornamenting the 
city. 

We wish we could give a more extended notice of this useful 
citizen, for he is certainly deserving all we can say, and more, 
too. 



Myron Stanton— CsLTXte to Selma in 1866 from Tennessee, and 
became connected with the Selma, Rome and Dalton railroad 
as its Superintendent, in connection with E. G. Barney & Co., 
who became the lessees of that road. He proved to be a most 
energetic and business man, and with the exception of a few 
months, was the Superintendent of that road until the cay of 
his death. On the morning of the 18th of February, 1879, as the 
North bound 5 o'clock passenger train was proceeding over the 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 193 

bridge, known as "Dunklin's Bridge," over Mulberry creek, 
thirteen miles from Selma, on the t^elraa, Rome and Dalton 
railroad, the bridge gave way, preciijitafing several cars into 
the creek ; among those that went through was the one in 
which Mr. Stanton was sitting. He received such injuries as 
proved fatal, and on the 3d day after, he breathed his lastatthe 
residence of Mr. James Sullivan, near the disastrous scene. 

Perhaps no man ever lived in Selma wiio was more generally 
esteemed, not only hy those connected with hiai in business, 
but by the community at large. The employees of the Selma, 
Rome & Dalton railroa<l, which he had in charge, held a meet- 
ing, at which the following preceedinga were had : 

At a meeting of the employees of the Selma, Rome & Dalton railroad, held 
at the company's office, in this city, February 23d, upon motion of C. H. Lav- 
ender, C. N. Brown was called to the chair and W. S. Crane acted as secretary. 

Upon motion of Col. Bovnton, a committee of five, consisting of Messrs. P. 
H. Clyne, L. B. Schofield.A. W. Walton, J. R. Wimberly. and Geo. A. Pat- 
tillo, was appointed to draft resolutions expressing the feelings of the employ- 
ees on the death of our supernitendent, Mr. Myron Stanton, and offering con- 
dolence to his relatives and friends. 

On motion of A. McCoUister, a committee of three, consisting of A. McCol- 
lister, J. B. G irrett, and A. J. Sitton, was appointed to write a letter of thanks 
to Mr. James Sullivan and family, and others for their kindness and attention 
to the wounded and valuable assistance at the late disaster at Dunklin's bridge. 

The committee on resolutioTis reported as follows. It was read and dopted : 

No panegyric pronounced by us can Express our estimate of the real worth of 
him over whose grave we have to-day shed sorrowing tears. 

His voice is forever hushed in death. His familiar and genial face we can 
never see again. The impulses of his generous heart can never more lift the 
cup of cold water or the bread of sustenance to our lips ; but his memory, like 
a sweet scented balm, is enshrined in our recollections. We remember him as 
a friend to the aspiring young man ; as a benefactor to the poor ; as a saga- 
cious counsellor to the wise ; as a kind associate to his peers ; as a generous 
supporter of religion ; as an exectUive officer, who had the faculty of fine dis- 
crimination and efficiency in the discharge of his duties; whose generous heart 
never allowed any peccadillo in a subordinate to bias his feeling toward him. 
He reproved kindly those at fault, and did this even with hesitancy. 

MYKON .STANTON IS DE»D. 

Let us emulate his virtues, and ever cherish in our hearts pleasant memories 
of him whom we have for so long a time honored and loved. As a token of 
our regard for him, be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Myron Stanton the Selma, Rome & Dalton 
railroad has lost one of its ablest servants, and the community one of its most 
useful citizens. 

Resolved, That we tender to his aged parents and his brother and sister in 
their great affliction and grief our sympathies, and invoke the Divine blessing 
upon them in this sad hour. 

Resolved, That all officers and employees wear a badge of mourning, and 
the offices and engines of the road be draped for the next thirty days ; and 
that these resolutions be printed in the "Southern Argus," and a copy be sent 
to the members ol his family. 

P. H. CLYNE, 1 

A. W. WALTON, I 

J. R. WIMPBERLY, }-Com. 

GEO.N. PATTILLO, I 
LANE B. SCHOFIELD.J 

By request. Col. Boynton then addressed the meeting, eulogizing our late 
superintendent, after which the meeting adjourned. 

W. S. CRANE, Secretary. C. N. BROWN, Chairman. 

The vestry of the Episcopal chnrcn, of which church he was 
a member, held a meeting February 24th, 1879, and had 
the following proceedings: 

The Vestry of St. Paul's church, Selma, desire to place on record an expres- 
sion of their profound sense of the loss — beyond that of the community at 



194 HISTORY OF SEIiMA. 

large — which this Parish and Vestry have sustained in the untimely death of 
Myron Stanton, Esq., — a man of sterling character and worth, a parishioner 
prompt with a helping hand in all good works, and for two years past an hon- 
ored and useful member of this Vestry. That the Vestry extend to the family 
of their late associate their sincere sympathies in this common sorrow. That 
a page of the official record be set apart in memorial of the deceased, on which 
shall be inscribed his name and age, the date of his death, and the period of 
his service as a member of this body. 

A writer in the Argus of tlie 21st of February, 1879, speaks 
as follows of this remarkable man : 

Mr. Stanton was a self-made man, and a remarkable man. Beginning in his 
thirteenth year, he, alone and unaided, carved his own career in the world ; 
and, dying in the prime of a splendid manhood, all who knew him can testify 
to the steady purpose and fixed determination with which he pursued an honora- 
ble and upright course to success, and bear witness to the liberal and public- 
spirited ideas which Shaped his business conduct and to the generous disposi- 
tion he made of the results of his skill and attention to his duties. 

Mr. Stanton was born in Warren county, Pennsylvania, January 2ist, 1833. 
At thirteen years of age, he entered a printing office, and in two years acquired 
a practical knowledge of the typographic art. At fifteen, he went into a tele- 
graph office at Elmira, New York, and speedily became an expert operator. At 
seventeen, he began work as a brakeman on the Erie railroad, and thencefor- 
ward was a railroad man. He was rapidly promoted, and was a conductor 
several years on roads running into St. Louis and afterwards into Memphis. 
From 1858 to 1863, he was on the Mississippi Central. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed by the federal commander, mi'itary superintendent of the Little Rock 
and other roads, in which position he remained until the close of the war. In 
1866 he came with Capt. Barney to Alabama, and for about seven years was 
assistant superintendent of the Selma, Rome & Dalton road. In 1873, he was 
appointed superintendent of the South & North road, where he served about 
eighteen months. In 1874 he became general superintendent of the Selma, 
Rome & Dalton road, the duties of which he discharged with great ability and 
success until his death. 

Mr. Stanton was quiet and unassuming. Courteous, polite, considerate of 
the feelings and prejudices of others, with proper confidence in himself, he was 
singularly gentle and firm in his dealings with his fellow men. His mind was 
well informed, his will strong, his judgment good, his temper imperturbable, 
his control over his own passions wonderful, his influence with those with whom 
became in contact great, and in any pursuit he would have been a man of 
mark. With a disposition so well balanced, it was impossible that he should 
become the slave of bad habiis or the victim of base appetites. In fact, he 
was remarkably free from all the common or fashionable vices, and in his daily 
walk set an example worthy of imitation. With large means, honorably ac- 
quired, he was unostentatiously liberal and wisely generous, as far from parsi- 
moniousness as from extravagance, never wasting, and never withholding 
where it was a duty to bestow. In business, he was enterprising and public- 
spirited, while at the same time prudent and discreet, and, therefore, success- 
ful. He was hardly fond of society, but was warmly attached to his friends ; 
and only those who knew him best appreciated him at his full worth. 

He had lived for years in Selma. Here his wife, to whom he was fondly 
devoted, died and is buried. This was his home. Here he had invested 
largely the earnings of his life. Among us he spent the prime of his years. 
The largest funeral procession ever witnessed in the city was a mournful ex- 
pression of the appreciation in which he was held by those who knew him last 
and best. 

The Meridian (Mississippi) iV/ercMT^ gives the following inci- 
dent in connection with the life of tliis extraordinary man : 

The father and the mother of Mr. Stanton, the one from Ohio and the other 
from Philadelphia, hastened to him by the quickest route and with the least 
delay. One arrived before he breathed his last and the other, after, but in 
time to see him laid away in his last resting place The parents met thus for 
the first time in thirty years. Long years ago they separated and were divor- 
ced and young Stanton took his mother's maiden surname. Both his parents 
were re-married, and to make the strange occurrence still more singular, they 
were both accompanied on the sad pilgrimage by their respective mates. And 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 195 

thus happened, probably, the strangest meeting that ever occurred at a death- 
bed scene. 



Hon. B. F. Saffold—Js a native of Dallas county, Alabama, 
aud a sou of tlie Hou. Reuheu Saffold, one among the first set- 
tlers of the Eastern part of Dallas county, and an eminent 
man in the early days of the State. The subject of this article 
was horn on the 2()th day of April, 1826, near Pleasant Hill, in 
Dallas county. After receiving a classical education, and 
graduating at the Htate University with much credit at Tusca- 
loosa, he read law under the instruction of his father, and 
was admitted to the bar at Cahaba in 1847. He engaged in the 
practice of his profession with his brother, Hon. Joseph P. 
SafFold, at Cahaba, where he at once took a reputable and hon- 
orable position among the members of that bar, among 
whom were some of the first men of the South. He continued 
in his profession until the rumbling of war was heard. Though 
having supported Breckinridge and Lane as a sense of duty to 
his party, he did not urge, as most of the leaders of that party 
did, immediate and separate State secession upon the election 
of Lincoln, but Judge SafFold believed the remedy for the 
South was within the Union. However, after the State seceded 
and men were called for he volunteered and performed 
military service on the Gulf coast. After the surrender he lo- 
cated in Selma, and ajjaiu entered upon the practice of law. 
On assuming control of the State by Hou. L. E. Parsons, in 
1805, as Governor, he a|)pointed Judge SafFold to the office of 
Judge of this Judicial Circuit, which position he held until 
1867, when he was elected a member of the State Constitutional 
Convention from Ditllas county, in which body he was a most 
useful and conservative member. In the same year Gen. Pope 
appointed him to the office of Mayor of the city of Selma, 
which position he held until 1868, when the State reassumed 
its original position as one of the States of the Federal Union, 
and he was chosen to the Supreme Court bench of the State. The 
duties of this position, the numerous important decisions in 
the Alabama reports, amply prove he discharged with ability 
and great diligence, for the six years for which he was chosen. 
Since 1873 Judge Safford has been engaged in the practice of 
law in Selma, where he is much respected by even those who 
differ with him politically, for his ability as a lawyer, and his 
sound, conservative and practical mind. He is amiable and 
courteous in his social relations, always giving the greatest res- 
pect and attention to those with whom he may come in contact. 

Daniel M. Higgs—Wiis born in Surry county. North Caro- 
lina, in ihe year 1800, of parents who came from Scotland to 
America early in the eiuhteenth century. At an early age his 
family moved to Middle Tennessee, near Columbia. When quite 
a youth lie came to Alabama to the capital of the State, Caha- 
ba ; this was about the year 1S19. He was in the land office 
for some time in Cahaba. He married Miss Ann Hogan, near 
Cahaba; she was a sister of Dr. Benjamin Rush Hogan, for- 
merly of this county, who was an eminent physician and use- 
ful citizen. 

Mr. Riggs moved with the change of the capital, to Tusca- 
loosa, and became permanently connected with the banking 
interests of the State. Upon the removal of the capital from 
Tuscaloosa to Montgomery he accepted the position of cashier 
in the Merchants and Planters Bank of Mobile, and moved to 
reside in the latter city probably about 1833. He accumulated 



196 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

some property, and having purchased a plantation and country 
seat in Dallas county, the former laying opposite Selraa, where 
Charley White now lives, about the year 1844 he came to re- 
side in the county. 

In the financial crash of 1847 he lost largely, and surrendered 
nearly all his property to his creditors 

Being on the shady side of life, and his energies impaired by 
his reverses, he moved to Selraa in 1849, and here resided until 
his life was terminated suddenly by a fall from a busgy in 
1860. 

The subject of our sketch was an honest man ; during a long 
and prominent business career in the State his name was not 
only free from tarnish, but he enjoyed the full confidence of all 
who dealt with him, and his liberality and candor made him 
hosts of warm friends. 

Out of a large family there are now but two survivors, Mrs. 
Williams, a widow in Choctaw county, and Dr. B. H. Rigga, 
now practicing medicine in Selma. 

Dr. John H. Hen7-y— Became a citizen of Selma in 1857. He 
was born in the city of Montgomery, Alabama, on the 3d day 
of January, 1829. He received a classical education in the city 
of his nativity. He afterwards attended the Clarkstou Uni- 
versity, in the State of New York, where he graduated with 
the highest honors of that ancient and influential institution. 
He read medicine with his father in the city of Montgomery. 
He attended two sessions at the university of New York, and 
graduated in the medical department of that school with much 
credit. He afterwards attended the Medic il University of Penn- 
sylvania, and graduated in that famous medif?al institution 
with the first lionors of his class. Having thus fully preoared 
himself, he returned to the city of Montgomery and entered 
upon the practice of medicine in copartnership witli his father, 
in the pursuit of which he -soon took rank among the first mem- 
bers of the profession in that city. His father retiring from the 
practice, Dr. Henry came to Selma in 1857 and engaged in his 
profession, and has done more charity practice than perhaps 
any physician ever did in Selma. His hand lias always been 
Opten to the appeals of the poor. Many have been the dollars he 
has paid out of his own means to furnish medic ne to tlie poor 
in and around the city, besides giving his own practice, and 
consequently was a man who has ever been popular among 
all classes of our people. He was elected several times as one 
of the Councilmen of the city, and in 18H4 was elected Mayor of 
the city of Selma, which position he was occupying on the 2d 
day of April, 1865, when Gen. Wilson captured Selma, with a 
cavalry corps of the Federal army. Dr. Henry, in a council 
with the Confederate commanders on the 1st day of April, the 
day before the capture, advised against a resistance to the over- 
whelming Federal forces for the v)urpose of saving the millions 
of dollars of property in the city, and proposed, on the approach 
of the Federal army, to surrender the city ; but, with tiie ex- 
ception of Gen. Forest, all the Confederate officers were for 
resistance, and the consequence, as expected, was the wanton 
destruction of not only the Confederate, but an immense 
amount of private property. However, after the capture. Dr. 
Henry, as Mayor, waited upon Gen. Wilson, and .secured pro- 
tection to persons and property by an order issued by Gen. Wil- 
son, proliibiting the outrages and devastation that prevailed 
throughout the doomed city during that eventful Sunday night 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 197 

Al- 
and Monday morning. When the acts of Congress were passed 
in 1867, providing for a reconstruction of the Southern States 
to a State of civil government, Dr. Henry favored civil gov- 
ernment, and made the first public speech in Selraa in favor of 
the measure. For the past several years Dr. Henry has dischar- 
ged the important and responsible duties of City Physician, in 
connection witli his private practice. 

Dr. Wm H. Johnston—Came to Selnia in 1871. He was 
Itorij in Lincoln county, North Carolina, .on the 28th day of 
March, 1839. He graduated at tlie University Medical College, 
of New York, in 1867 ; was resident physician of Bellevue Hos- 
pital from 1868 until October, 1871, wlien he moved to Selma. 
He is a member of the Alabama State Medical Society, counsel- 
lor since 1875, and also a member of the Selma Medical Society. 
Dr. Johnston enjoys the confidence of the commnnity in which 
he lives, anii is a useful member of his profession. 

Dr. C. D. ParZ^e— Located in Pelma in 1853. He was born 
in Wadesboro, North Carolina, on the 27th of September, 1826 
He received his medical education at Louisville, Kentucky, and 
graduated at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 
1850, and in the same year settled in the city of Montgomery, 
aflerwar(is practiced in Lowndes and Pike counties. He has 
been a member of the Selma Medical Society since 1853, and its 
President in 1874 75 ; he is also a member of the Medical As- 
sociation of the ritate. Dr. Parke is a man oif strong intellect, 
and in every way a reliable and substantial man and citizen, 
enjoying the fullest confidence of all our people. He is con- 
servative in his opinions and actions, but firm and decided in 
both. 



Chancellor Wm.. H. Fe^tow.s— We number among our oldest 
inhabitants He came to Selma in 1832, and opened business 
in connection with his brother as a jeweler, which he carried 
on for years, commanding the respect and confidence of the en- 
tire country that traded at Selma. He subsequently retired 
from mercantile pursuits, read law, and was admitted to the 
Dallas bar. a profession he has followed for near thirty years. 
He was born on the 10th day of November, 1808, in Troy, New 
York. It was he, with John'W. Lapsley and George W. Par- 
sons, who made a call for the first railroad meeting in Selma, 
in 1835, which met at the law office of John W. Lapsley, the 
three constituting the meeting, out of the proceedings of which 
has grown all our great railroads now centering at Selma. Mr. 
Fellows was always a conservative man in politics, al- 
ways an Old Line Whig, and did not favor precipitation of the 
Southern States into a war in 1860. He has been a consistent 
and a leading member of the Presbyterian church for twenty- 
five years. At the close of the war, when Gov. L. E. Parsons 
assumed control of the State as Governor, he appointed Wm. 
H. Fellows chancellor of the Middle Chancery Division, which 
position he held until 1868, and until tne reorganization of the; 
State Government under the reconstruction acts of Congress. 
He again returned to the practice of his profession in this city 
in 1868, in copartnership with Messrs. J. R. & S. W. John. 
There is no man now, nor ever has been engaged in the prac- 
tice of law in Selma, whom the people had a greater degree of 
confidence, in his fidelity to his clients than Wm. H. Fellows. 



198 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

Dr. Drury Fm>— Came to Selma in 1839 from Newbury dis- 
trict, South Carolina. He was educated at Columbia College, 
and graduated in the medical department of the University of 
South Caroliua, at Charleston. For many years he was a most 
prominent physician in Selma, and a most useful man in hia 
profession. He was personally popular, and most remarkably 
even tempered, always holding up the brighter side of nature. 
He died on the 14th day of December, 1855. 

Philip J. Weaver— Cavhq to Selma in 1818 to locate. He had 
been engaged in trading on the Alabama river for a year or 
two before he located in Selma. He remained in Selma only 
about one year, when he gave up his business here aud went to 
Cahaba Falls, now Centreville, Bibb county, to clerk for Tra- 
verse & Maroug, with whom he lived about two years, when 
he returned to Selma and again opened with, for those times, 
an immense stock of goods, about the place where his late resi- 
dence now stands, where he continued to carry on his business 
for years; afterwards at Weaver's corner accumulating property 
of all kinds rapidly until the day of his death, and at one time 
was the wealthiest man in South Alabama. He was born in 
Mifflintown, Juuiatta county, Pennsylvania, on the 22d day of 
June, 1797, and died the 10th day of November, 1865. 
"After life's fitful fever 
He rests well." 



Adler, Leva& Co. — We cannot pass over this well known li- 
quor house without making special mention of it, as it has be- 
come one of our leading business houses, and deserves every- 
thing that can be said of it. This house was founded in 1873 
by Mr. J. C. Adler, the present senior member of the firm, who 
did a thriving business under his own name uutil October, 1875, 
when the Messrs. Eichold & Son, were admitted, theflrm name 
being changed to Adler, Eichold & Leva, but in 1876 the firm 
name was again changed by the retirement of Mr. Eichold the 
firm continuing to do a large business under the name of Adler 
& Leva. 

The firm having withstood all the difficulties that had over- 
thrown so many business houses now become known as one of 
the institutions of our little city, and having taken their stand 
they were prepared to hold. For two years this firm did as 
large a business in their line as any house in this section of the 
country, and though the senior partner, Mr. Adler, was a "lit- 
tle" gentleman under his management the house became a 
"big" one. 

In 1878 the firm was again changed, Mr. B. J. Schuster, for 
ten years with M. Meyer & Co., becoming a member, and the 
sign in front of the commodious house, on Water street, now 
reads Adler, Leva & Co. 

The members of this firm are all whole-souled gentlemen, 
and any one who has dealings with them will corroborate the 
statement, and as they carry a large stock of liquors and to- 
bacco they can supply everybody without any inconvenience, 
aud at the lowest figures. 

Moses Adler— BecAine a citizen of Selma in the year 1868. He 
was born at Henchelheim, Germany, in the year 1821, and emi- 
grated to New Orleans in 1850. On his arrival in New Orleans 
he engaged in merchandising, and continued in business in 
that city for several years. He afterwards merchandised sue- 



HISTORY OF SELMA. 199 

cessfully at Boloxi, Miss., Port Hudson and New Iberia, in 
Louisiana, and for a short time at Vera Cruz, Mexico. He re- 
turned to New Orleans, where he remained engaged in 
an active business until 1868, when he concluded to settle in 
Selma, since which time he has been one of our most worthy 
and respected business men. Though not upon so extensive a 
scale as some of our business men, Mr. Adler has done a most 
lucrative business, and is among the reliable merchants of 
Selma. By his strict integrity and fair dealing with the peo- 
ple, he has not only enjoyed a remunerative business, but has 
established a character for himself that his "word is his bond." 
In proportion to his means, he has done much to aid the im- 
poverished planting interest in its efforts to develop and build 
up the agriculture of this part of Alabama, and for which he 
is properly appreciated. 

Br John P, i^arwiss— Located in Selma in 1866. He is a na- 
tive of Mississippi, born in that State, near Columbus, on the 
26th day of September, 1841. He was educated at the State 
University of Mississippi, at Oxford, where he graduated in 
June, 1866, in the 19th year of his age. He graduated in the 
New Orleans School of Medicine in 1866. t-^ince his location in 
Selma he has been engaged in a general practice, though his 
specialty is genito-urinary surgery. He is a member of the 
Selma Medical Society, and also of the Medical Association of 
the State, the former of which he was secretary from 1869 until 
1875, and its Vice-President in 1876 and 1877. Dr. Furniss has 
contributed quite a number of important articles to the differ- 
ent medical publications of the day, especially that of an essay 
on the "Anatomical and physiological peculiarities of the ne- 
gro," a large portion of which was pu^blished in the New Or- 
leans Medical and Surgical Journal, in 1874. During the war 
between the States, he was assistant surgeon in the Confederate 

service. 

Dr, John A. il/c/iTmnon— Located in Selma in 1865. He was 
born in Pike county, Alabama, on the llith day of July, 1842. 
He graduated in the medical department of the University of 
Louisiana, in 1866, and at Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 
the city of New York, in 1874 and 1875, with great credit to 
himself, especially in the branch of surgery. Since his loca- 
, tion in Selma he has been engaged in general practice, but ma- 

^ king surgery a specialty in which he has performed successful- 

" ly some wonderful operations. He is a member of the Medical 
Association of the State, and a member of the Selma Medical 

: Society, and was a delegate to the International Medical Con- 
gress at Philadelphia in 1876. During the war he had charge 
of the Medical Laboratory, at Macon, Georgia. He is a member 
of the City Board of Health, of which he is an active and use- 

I ful member. We predict for Dr. McKinnon a brilliant career, 

t especially as a surgeon. 

Oen. Wm. J. Pardee— Located in Selma in the fall of 1865, 
and engaged in the cotton and shipping business, which he con- 
tinued until the day of his death. *He was born in Camden 
county, Georgia, in 1815, and at the age of seventeen was ad- 
mitted to the Military Academy of the Federal Government at 
West Point. He graduated in that institution with the highest 
honors, and afterwards he graduated at one of the best country 
schools in France. On his return to his native land he entered 
m the army and took an active part in all the campaigns against 



200 HISTORY OF SELMA. 

the Seminole Indians in Florida; he achieved quite a reputa- 
tion as a'cool, sagacious and brave officer in Mexico, and at the 
time of the secession aucl formation of the Confederate States, 
being firmly convinced his duty was first to his State, he re- 
signed the position of Major in the Federal army, and offered 
his services to Georgia in the approaching conflict between the 
States. He was sent to Fort Morgan, where he commanded for 
several months. He commanded a division at the terrible bat- 
tle of Shiloh, and was badly wounded there. He commanded 
one of the army corps that Gen. Bragg led into Kentucky, and 
participated in all the fights of that campaign. He was the 
author of the famous military rules called "Hardee's Tactics," 
which were used by both the Federal and Confederate armies, 
and have been adopted and are used to-day in France and Rus- 
sia. Gen. Hardee was i-eally, by nature, a great man, but being 
as all true, meritorious men are, modest and unassuming, he 
never was properly appreciated, only by those wlio enjoyed an 
intimate acquaintance with him. He died on the 6th day of 
November, 1873, much beloved l)y all the people of Selma. His 
remains rest in the West Selma cemetery, which meets with 
the kindest tokens of friendship on the occasion of every "me- 
morial day." 

There are many other citizens who have>been active in build- 
ing up our city at different periods of its history, deserving spe- 
cial notice at our hands, among whom we will mention : 

Dr. George Phillips, Jesse Beene, George Mathews, Hon. W. 
R. King, Mj>). Thomas J. Frow, J. L. W.Childress, James Ad- 
ams, Mathew, McLaughlin, James Caute, •\. H. Lloyd, M. 
Woodal, B. L.' Saunders, David Hamilton, E. Bowles, B. Mc- 
Innes, P. D. Barker, John Weedon, Geo. P. Blevins, Wm. M- 
Murphy.D, A. Boyd, Wiley Melton, Frederick Vogelin, Judge 

E. Pickens, John Simpson, David Weaver, Philip Weaver, G. 

F. Plant, JohaJB. Mattison, E. Parkraan, Horatio G. Perry, 
Alfred BerryT'T. B:"Gordsby, J. P. Perham, R. Hall, T. W. 
Street, Dr. I. Morgan, J. L. Perkins, James Hall, 
Gilbert Shearer, Rev. A. G McCraw, Geo. O. Baker, W. 
B. Gill, R. J. Davidson, E. Gillman, T. P. Ferguson, W. B. 
Haralson, M. J. A. Keith, Wm. Reid, Adam Taylor, Jacob 
Krout, Fred Young, Henry Gatchell, Geo. L. Stuck, Stephen 
A. Maples, Wm. Waddill, Jr., Geo. D. Shortridge, Joseph Har- 
die, Jerry Pittman, John Mitchell, E. E. Cade, F. S. Jackson, 
Dr. J. E. Prestridge, J. B. Harrison, Redick Sims, Dr. B. R. 
Hogan, Dr. U. Grigsby, Geo. W. Gayle, John K. Goodwin, A. 
M. Goodwin, W, S, Phillips, E. T. Watts, H. Heinz, W. M. 
Smith, Charles Lewis, M. G. Woods, James M. Calhoun, John 
Kenan, J. M. Dedman, Thomas M. Cowlea, V. M. Shackelford, 
Geo. W. Par-sons, D. H. Burke, C. M. Shelley, Jack Riggs, 
John Tipton. M. J. Williams, Joel E. Mathews, A. J. Mullen, 
R. L. Dowuman, T. M. Jackson, L. Y. Tarrant, John M. Strong, 
E.C.Gregory, Geo. Peacock. J. H. Burns, J. J. Strawbridge, 
James Douglas, H. J. Brantly, John Brantly, Shubel Foot, 
Caleb Tale, N. Dykes, Wm. Rutherford, James Ormond, Rich- 
ard Williams, Dent Lamar, Ben J. Tarver, Wm. Huddleston, 
W. A. Dunklin, E. Gillman, Wm. Rothroek, Wm. Cravens, R. 
R. Nance, many of whom are yet living in our midst, eye wit- 
nesses to the great results of their labors in advancing tlie 
growth and prosperity of the city ; but to do them justice in' a 
personal sketch would increase our pages beyond our means of 
publishing this book. 



^^e s f a II r aixt ^ S a 1 o o ii ,, 

Opposite City National Bank, BROAD STREET. 

For about a quarter of a century the above place has been known to the 
population of Middle and Western Alabama, until now it is as fixed as are any 
ot the institutions of the city ; indeed, there would be no Selma without it. Of 
the thousands who have visited Selnia, and even now residing beyond the briny 
deep cannot fail to remember the familiar name, 'DOMINIC'S OLD 
STAND," so long favored for its grand and old-fashioned dispensing of good 
cheer — the best in the land. It belong to, and is a part of, the History of the 
city. Here the good old times have been enjoyed. The dignitaries of this and 
other lands have met in convivial and social conclave, and if its wa'ls could but 
speak forth jhe brilliaut witticisms and grand old toasts, of the hilarity, fun and 
frolic inspired by the juice of the grape, and the highly-flavored dishes fresh 
from the kitchen — yea, it would furnish volumes. 

The present proprietor, who has been in the same place for nine years, 
appreciates its established reputation, and continue to set before the public the 
best that he can procure in the various lines — both of foreign and domestic 
growth or production. Some of his Wines, Liquors and Cigars are of his own 
importation. The Bar is supplied with all the conveniences, and its patrons are 
treated alike. The Restaurant supplies everything, at short notice, that the 
Gulf and Selma markets affords. The waiters are polite and attentive. The 
proprietor gives his personal supervision, and therefore satisfaction is guaran- 
teed. The prices are according to the article, and not guaged by the prices of 
any other house, of like kind, in the city. ^^*The only Restaurant in Selma 
having separate, and rooms that can be converted into suits. **@::5;. Its proprie. 
will be pleased to see you. 

Selma, Ala.,jVov. 1, 1879 



onfs ^^ p'oelfer',^ 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 



'^-^^'- Riiilew/. ilaM 



l@i§g-Iifiislimg GisdSj Baskets, T@y§j So. 
^2 Broad Street, Selzna, Ala. 



Of ^^11 2S:irLd.s, 

PureCandiesand Fancy Goods, 

Ciioioe Tobacco a53.d Segars, 

Under Southern Hotel, 11 Alabama Street. 



HIGHEST CASH PRICE PAID FOR COTTGK. 



f 

AND DEALER IN 

iiiijj GktMigj l@@tej Sk@i§j late,j H©..., 

37 Broad Street, Selzna, Ala. 



ti^ 



iP 






COMMISSIOir MEECH AITTS, 

"Water Stireet, Selma, Ala. 

WAERlMfO^ & SA7AGE, 



—DEALERS IN— 



Sheet Music. Musical Instrumeuts, and 

Chickering & Mathushek Pianos. 

Also, Pianos of other reliable makers. Agents for DIXIE AND SOUTAERN 
GEM PIANOS, manufactured expresslv for the Southern trede. 

Mason & Hamlin and Peloubet & Pelton ORGANS. 

Sole Southern Agents for HENRY ERBEN PIPE ORGANS. Others 
wear out, but they go on forever. 



C^fif ©®tr#it©^ iB'aK'er 



t 



And Dealer jn Foreign 
and Domestic 



FRUITS and NUTS, 

5 Broad Street, =^^JS=^g.^^^ Selma, Ala. 



Special attention given to Ornamenting Cakes, after the most elegant designs. 

Choicest brands of Tobacco and Cigars. 

Fine assortment of Toys and I'"ancy Goods lor tlie Holiday trade, 

at living prices.